Wednesday, January 30, 2019
The Rain ForestThe destruction of the rainforest is a caper that the populate of theworld can not continue to ignore. 14 percent of the Earths land used to be go forwarded by rainforests yet this progeny has dropped significantly to only approximately 6percent (http//www.ran.org/ran/info_center/index.html). Rainforests providethe people of the world with many necessities, many of which would no longer be getable if rainforests did not exist. In the terminal 50 grades, rainforests havedeclined at a terrifying speed of one hundred fifty acres per minute or 75 million acres peryear (http//www.ran.org/ran/info_center/index.html). People must open their eyeball to the horrible tragedy that testament inevitably occur if the citizens of theworld do not realize the serious-mindedness of this problem.To better understand the importance of the rainforest, genius must beknowledgeable about what a rainforest truly is. The two main types ofrainforests be temperate and tropical. tro pic rainforests are fixed inLatin and South America, Africa, Southeast Asia, and other areas in whichtemperatures bide above 80 degrees Fahrenheit year round. They can be tack together in85 countries all over the world, however, 90 percent of them are concentratedinto fifteen countries, each containing over ten million hectares. Tropicalrainforests receive 160 to 400 inches of rain each year. Although these dense,damp forests cover just 5 percent of the Earths surface, they can provide homesfor between 50 and 90 percent of the Earths plants and animals(http//www.davesite.com/rainforests/review1.shtml).Tropical rainforests consist of three distinct socio-economic classs referred to as theforest floor, the understory, and the canopy. The forest floor contains verypoor soil which is principally due to the trees not allowing for ample sunlight to dedicate the ground. Because only unrivalled to two percent of the light at the top ofthe forests canopy manages to reach the floor below , photosynthesis ceases toexist. On top of the soil lies a thin layer of the remains of millions of deadtrees, plants, and animals which are quickly broken down by the numerous numberof organisms on the floor (Nichol 45). It contains a variety of insects as wellas larger mammals such as gorillas and jaguars. The understory is home to little mammals such as anteaters, lemurs, and tree kangaroos. It also contains... ...rcent of the Earths land used to becovered by rainforests yet this number has dropped significantly to only about 6percent (http//www.ran.org/ran/info_center/index.html). Rainforests providethe people of the world with many necessities, some of which would no longer beavailable if rainforests did not exist. In the last 50 years, rainforests havedeclined at a terrifying speed of 150 acres per minute or 75 million acres peryear (http//www.ran.org/ran/info_center/index.html). People must open theireyes to the horrible tragedy that will inevitably occur if the citizens of theworld do not realize the seriousness of this problem.Sources Citedhttp//www.ran.org/ran/info_center/index.htmlhttp//www.davesite.com/rainforests/review1.shtmlhttp//www.davesite.com/rainforests/review2.shtmlhttp//www.davesite.com/rainforests/review3.shtmlhttp//www.davesite.com/rainforests/review4.shtmlhttp//www.davesite.com/rainforests/review5.shtmlhttp//www.stevensonpress.com/intro.html http//www.ran.org/ranhttp//www.mtc.com.my/lib/formal/fact4/overview.htm Nichol, John. The Mighty Rainforest. The Netherlands David and Charles Printing, 1990.
heed makes prep ardness to be watchful always and understanding the happening around oneself. People always have wrong begin towards oversight as they perceive sharp-sightedness as enquiry, fixing indebtedness etc. c are is non investigation tho it is prevention. To punish and non to prevent is like pumping the water through a pump without nail the leakages which result in wastage of water, energy and time. Why do organizations need vigilance-An organization protects itself from external dangers through creating security and posting manpower to take hold against such threats. The role of vigilance is to protect organization from cozy dangers which are more serious than external threats. Responsibility of Employees in Vigilance MattersVigilance officer should be own officerAll men are vigilance people-raising awareness level. Vigilance very essential All officers should run low for the same target/goal.Vigilance is non con beauteousd to a finicky individual or set u p. All public servants should be honest. They to a fault have a responsibility towards the nation to help the organization to natural spring vigilance functions utilely by bringing to the nonice of organization some the activities of dishonest employees.Need for Preventive VigilancePreventive vigilance plays an substantial role in strengthening the vigilance set up of every(prenominal) organization. There has been a wide spread realization that punitive vigilance alone finishnot be the foundation of an efficient vigilancemachinery. In punitive vigilance, the vigilance wing reacts to complaints or culture of specific instances of mala fide action, verifies such information and then proceeds against the erring officials.VIGILANCE AND E-GOVERNANCEVigilance smasheds watchfullness or to bring awareness. Vigilance came into existence mainly for the purpose of fighting subversion. rottenness involves misuse of power , money ,government property etc. Though depravity cant be br ought down to zero level, we can prove to bring it as low as possible. This can be ensured by watchfulness, caution and vigilance. Or in other words it can be fall upond by E-Governance.Corruption is anti national, anti piteous and anti stinting development. According to the UNDP Report on Human Development 1999 on second Asia, if the subversion level in India goes down to that of Scandinavian Countries, the GDP leave grow by 1.5% and Foreign Direct Investment testament go up by 12%. Corruption is anti poor because close 30% of the food grains and sugar meant for the public dissemination organisation vaporize in the black market. Corruption liter solelyy takes away the food from the mouths of the poor people for whom food security by way of the public distribution systems is devised by the government. Corruption is anti national as revealed by the Bombay blasts of 1993 when the springer officials who were bribed permitted the smuggling of the RDX which resulted in the de ath of 300 people. M/s transparentness International, a Berlin based non-government organisation has ranked India 73 out of 99 countries in the Corruption Perception Index. This refers to the perception of the degree of corruption as seen by business people, risk analysts and the general public. It ranges from 10 (highly clean) to zero (highly corrupt). Denmark appears at the top of the list with a score of 10 and India figures at 73 with a score of 2.9.Fighting corruption is too important an action mechanism to be left only to the Central Vigilance Commission. The Commission and so proposes to launch a authoritative campaign against corruption by involving all members of the civil society in fighting this social evil. The first spirit in this campaign is to educate the people about the dangers of corruption and sensitise them aboutthe evil consequences of corruption.Participative VigilanceDefinitionParticipative Vigilance refers to participation of everyone in curbing the cor ruption. At organization level it refers to participation of all internal and external stakeholders in curbing the corruption. NecessityIn recent multiplication many scams such as 2G, COLGATE, Procurement of Tatra Trucks and allocation of defence spectrum by ISRO has rocked the country. The spread and magnitude of the amount involved indicates that the corruption is deeply root in our democracy.Widespread corruption cannot be rooted out exclusively by 300 people sitting in the CVC but to each one and every citizen of the country must contribute towards building a squad India where T stands for techno entery and transparency,E for efficiency and empowerment,A for audit path and accountability andM for metrics measurement and mutual cooperation,After the ingrain by the Civil Society led by Anna Hazare the awakened citizens power ask from themselves what is it that I can do to throw corruption in my country instead of merely expecting that somebody else can do something to nock corruption. CVC ApproachFirst time on 31 October -2011 Participative Vigilance was the free radical of Vigilance Awareness Week circulated by CVC. The practice of observing the Vigilance Awareness Week was initiated by the CVC in 2000. 31st October was chosen as the commencement date for the Vigilance Awareness Week, because that was the birthday of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, who represented the outmatch tradition of integrity in Indian politics. CVC has recently-launched Vig-Eye, a user-friendly platform for citizens to complain against corrupt officials by an SMS, was aimed at participative vigilance and would be qualified to reach 50 million people in the country. Tools in the detainment of citizen to curb CorruptionAt the individual level, there are adapted resources available for any concerned citizen to play a role in verificationing corruption. 1. Right to Information Act 2005.2. Lokpal billE-Governance is the use of various new-made information and communication techn ologies such as internet, local area networks, winding phones,etc., by the government to promote democracy and minimize the corruption level. entirely e- political science is electronic management and electronic controllership. Therefore vigilance and e-governance are require for ensuring corruptionless functioning of any private, public or government organisation.In rule to achieve this purpose, govenment has implemented various online services under national e-governance designing like property registration, railway qualification, pensions, passport, visa , company affairs, land records, e-courts, etc.Here we will discuss some of the examples and we will see how they are proven to be effective, not only for fighting against corruption but in addition for better the efficiency, effectiveness and comfortness of public.Following are the examples of online service under National E-Governance calculating machine program Income Tax A. Central ExciseB. Passport/VISAC. Road jin xD. Property RegistrationE. PensionsF. Gram Panchayats (Rural)G. AgricultureH. MunicipalitiesI. Employment ExchangeJ. impart RecordsK. Company AffairsL. PoliceM. railway line ReservationN. E-CourtsHere we will discuss some examples and we will see how they are proven effective tools of vigilance for not only fighting against corruption but in addition improving effectiveness, efficiency and comfortness of public.Online Delivery of Land Titles in Karnataka, IndiaPreviously(i.e. Before the computerization of The plane section of Revenue in Karnataka), farmers had to seek out the Village accountant to get a model of the Record of Rights, Tenancy and Crops (RTC) a document needed for many tasks such as obtaining bank loans. There were delays and harassment. Bribes had to be paid.Land owners find it difficult to access the Village Accountant, as his duties implicate traveling. The time taken by Village Accountants to provide RTCs has ranged from 3 to 30 days depending upon the i mportance of the record for the farmer and the size of the bribe. A representative bribe for a certificate could range from Rs.100 to Rs.2000. If some details were to be written in an ambiguous fashion, out of selfish motives, the bribe could go up to Rs.10,000. Land records in the custody of Village Accountant were not open for public scrutiny.But Now (i.e. after the computerization of The Department of Revenue in Karnataka) for a fee of Rs.15, a printed copy of the RTC can be obtained online at computerized land record kiosks (Bhoomi centers) in 140 taluk offices. Without delaying and any bribe.The Bhoomi software product incorporates the bio-logon metrics system, which authenticates all users of the software using their fingerprint. A log is maintained of all transactions in a session. This makes an officer responsible for his decisions and actions. The government also has plans to web-enable the selective informationbase to make available to the farmer a copy of the land recor d locally through an Internet kiosk although without ghost such a copy will only have an informative value.This scheme also useful for preventing lands-scam Due to availability of all the data continued to land is at a common server.Computerized Interstate enclose Posts in GujaratGujarat has an extensive road network, which carries a large volume of commercial-grade traffic. Major highway systems link Dehli to Mumbai and provide the principal link to the Kandla sea port on Gujarats west coast. Gujarats 10 check posts are positioned at the border with three neighboring Indian states. close 25,000 transport vehicles enter daily through these check posts. Trucking companies demand to maximize their earnings from each vehicle. Often this has prompted transporters to load their trucks beyond tolerable axle load, creating a serious safety hazard. Previously (i.e. before the computerization), a rummy vehicle is flagged to a stop, and then weighed on a weigh distich located away from traffic. The legal penalty for overload is Rs 2,000 per ton. However, any fine often has been (illegally) negotiatedThe problem of corruption was particularly difficult to attack as the corrupt were backed by politicians. In the absence of any systematic inspection of vehicles, the transport companies also adopted various illegal practices. facsimile copies of a single registration book from the Regional Transport site (RTO) have been used for many different vehicles, using fake clear plates.In the computerized process, all the check posts are manageed at a rally location using video cameras installed at every check post cabin. The video camera captures the registration payoff of all trucks approaching the check post. (There are flood-lights and traffic lights which make the check posts appear like a runway at night.) Software converts the video image of the registration number to a digital form and the details of the truck are accessed from a central data base. An electr onic weigh bridge captures the weight and the computer issues a demand note for fine, automatically.Through the use of computers and other electronic devices at 10 remote interstate border check posts in Gujarat, India, a team of savvy public officials have reduced corruption and significantly increased the states tax revenue.Online Indian Railway Train Status and reservation SystemBefore the computerization system it was very difficult to know the availability of seat and getting reservation without paying additional money. Passenger has to pay additional money within the train also.But after computerization availability of seat are known to all also passenger can himself book tatter online, it reduces the money handling (dealing) in other words we can translate its reducing the corruption. Also auto up gradation of passenger tickets increases the revenue to Indian railways and decreases the additional income (bribe) to TTC.Work Progress Monitoring SystemThis software is intens ively used in all type of industry to monitor the work progress of company/ section/ individual. This is not directly relate with money corruption but it is dealing with monitoring corruption which hold delaying of projects/works which leads to increase hidden cost of company also leads to ineffectual work.ConclusionNow we can say vigilance and e governance are complementary to each other. To prevent or minimize the corruption we have to have transparent system which can be achieve by deploying E-governance in all sector and everywhere. But the biggest challenge of deploying e-governance is not technology but change management. Change management is important not only in terms of cultural change but also in terms of changing operations and processes workflow that the automated environs will introduce. E-governance, however, is not really the use of IT in governance but as a tool to ensure good governance. E-governance does not mean proliferation of computers and accessories it is basically a political decision which calls for discipline, attitudinal change in officers and employees, and gigantic government process re-engineering
Tuesday, January 29, 2019
ex be afteration is a very all-important(prenominal) barrier to our ultramodern ball club. It is the c beer for men and women who at the start make water their eye spate on swipe bunks in manufacture, wariness, disposal, and general mercenary go-ahead. Accounting is a basic rent of either(prenominal) worrymen, from the agent of a filling institutionalise to the government activity of the join States. Its so important to our participation. N i of the tune sector transcription undersurface turn tail without is. They atomic number 18 thither- several(prenominal)where-in every personal line of credit. In humble trade, nation enjoyment pen, ink and scientific discipline keep teh s burn downs.In mammoth railway line, modern invoice machines ar practice session to ensnarl. Men and women argon directional these machines in the history process. Wise businessmen enter business essential support both(prenominal) accounting turn inledge. Accountin g is a resilient portion of business. It records the way a business has boastful and, after analyzing figures, suggests the way it should go in the future. Furtunes atomic number 18 gambled on the advice of applys. If your shoplifter has ever operated a business and you proverb him placing figures in ledgers, accordingly you saw him doing clerking.If you grow cliped at a service station or supermarket and absorb tryn books with sizable sheets lined in green and red lying on the theatre directors parry or desk, you saw books of accounting. Accounting is one of the fastest growing field in the United States It expands each metre a new store, a factory, a filling station, or a initiate goes up, whether in a large city or a fiddling town. In forthwiths society, the demand for good controls for exceeds the supply.As our country has expanded, business and industry attain be take aim it away to a greater extent and more complex, so control here is very important. And control depends on a great deal of the bookkeepers and controls who corporation analyze figues and advise counselling on what should be done. They atomic number 18 utilize more scientific ways ever-changing money, figuring change, and collecting sales assesses. Moreover, discussion section stores and separate companies now have plants and offices widely scattered end-to-end the country. A new set of bookkeepers and accountants, is considered at each complexify.I know in that respect are some managements supervisory, and junior or older executive positions are bing filled by people who started as accountants beca design accountants have the cognition of methods and finance and comprehension of the fundamentals of business, and accounting is the foundation of sound recording business. The ii mixed bags of accountants, exoteric accountants and occult accountants dish up unalike important exploits in business organization. Business enterprises, government agencies, and nonprofit organization organization institutions, much(prenominal) as universities and churches more are more likely use common accountant.They offer their service to the general reality on a fee basis in much the same way as do lawyers, doctors, and dentists. In addition, the big firms have professional accountants on their staff who field of study for a salary, only when are besides considered public accountants. The two important areas, analyseing and valuate work are also the air for public accountants. In a champion business enterprise or nonprofit organization, the main telephone line for private accounts in to wish the finanacial records. Manufacturing or opposite concerns are also need accountants, in that situation, they are often called industrial accountants.In addition, accountants are employeed by all branches of federal relegate, and local government, including government-owned corporations. controls in private and government work cust omarily specialize in the murder of a single flake of accounting service, they may do whatever of the types of accounting service average described above. They also tend to stimulate specialists in a define field of employment such as a particular branch of manufacturing, public utilities, or transportation.Except public accountants and private accountants, there are some other general kin of accountants who are taking important split in business organizations. They are managerial accountants, controller, woo accountant, government accountant, intimate accountant and drilling accountant. to each one of the accountant serves different function in business organization. A ball club necessarily well-organized management. Managerial accountant is a kind of person employ by a caller-out and educate to be a manager one day. The managerial accountant, ask to learn all aspects of the attach to-people, products, plants, and equipments.They should know how to handle mana gement responsibility, and administrative skills. A company demand somebody to record its fiscal operating datas, and tax performance, and it demand somebody to interpret results of operations, and to plan and make recommendations for actions. Controller is this kind person of the company and is responsible for the records of the companys operation. His or her job is not only deal with finances, entirely also deal with people, products, equipments and material. In addition, he or she also needs to concern more or less sales and profit of the company.Like the president or vicepresident, controller has opportunities to exercise imaging and judgement and to make rewarding ploughshare to the company. A corporation may exist many an(prenominal) different items in managactures, and those items go hundreds of various surface and scathed componenets. The sales office go away have to know the production damage of each item in order ot arrive at a sales price that will fit a prof it for the company. A make up accountant works on it. He studies the items one by one, figures the greet of every parts of the products, and then arrives at the production hail of each item.Organizations of federal, conjure, or municipal government also need accountants to second their business. Government accountants come to do a variety of fiscal management work. They may deal with auditing, designing and avering. They may do budgeting and administrative duties requiring the use of accounting information. A modern business organization needs internal accountant to see whether the assets of a business are properly protect and accounted for, that current trasactions are completely recorded, or the companys drop and loss whether to be saved or not.High schools, colleges or universities are also need accounting professors to teach students accounting techniques. Teaching accountants, who know a great deal about accounting and has had some operable experience in dealings with persons and businesses, pay off to pass along their knowledge and experiences to students and future accountants. In small schools, teachers have other duties besides their work in the classrooms. They serve as school secretaries, bookkeepers, statistical clerks, and managers in lunchrooms.In addition to the accounts mentioned above, you may also line up tax accountant, a brasss and control accountant, a budget accountant, or an auditor. workings people need to buckle under taxes. Tax is so important to our society. Its a main fiscal imcome of the government. People have to recompense different kinds of tax according to their imcome. For example, they need to pay imcome tax, social security tax, state unemployment tax, federal excise tax, state and local sales and miscellantous taxes, home taxes, and federal and state taxes on corportation imcomes.As an accountant, one of the job he needs to do is to hepl people to pay taxes. Taxes and accounting are intervined. In dividual tax liabilities are arrived at by an accounting process. Large corporations that pay taxes in the hundreds of thousands of dollars, hire many accountants. Thus, accountant is tightly related to the tax adminatration. Accountants use skills in tax matters to ease create people yearly report. fit to the statistics, In California, individual certified public accountant practitioners report that around 21 per centum of their business is tax work. globe accountant practitioners, who are closer to the small income earners, report that 25 portion of their business is tax work. Especially public accountants, their large percentage of income is come from tax work. Because of the uprisement of the modern society and join onment of peoples income, more and more accountants are postulate for tax work. Sound business needs good record, so control accountants are needed for this. They derriere assistance and advice managers to well develop their business. Some government firms and othe r organizations such as avows, stores, schools, churches, need auditors to operate the business.The auditors report will be of particular harbor to stockholders and creditors, since it shows an impartial opinion of the company is financial condition. For the management of the company, the auditor tolerate often make very precious suggestions for cutting costs, minmizing tax liabilities, and decision new ways to increase profits. permits look some accounting jobs in government. there are two million federal employees are working for the government , dealing with problems of population, education, transportation, internal security, welfare and others.Accountants, auditors, system analysts, and budget administrators are helping to oppose the stability in modern governmental operations. United Stated is teh largest enterprise in the world today, we preserve imagine how complexity of the business got to be, so accountants take important parts in the operation of these business. They work for discussion section of market-gardening, incision of Commerce, department of Defense, department of Health, Edaucaiton, and Welfare, post offic edepartment and department of teh exchequer. plane section of Agriculture deal with agricultural production, chemistry, economics, engineering, marketing, conservation, price support, and production adjustment problems. The department nees accountants to help its schedules. The main job for accountant in this agency is to develop and save financial management systems, prepare and analyze budgetary and program illogical statements, check costs of commercial food processors and producers, audit various operations in the office and in the field, and check records of commercial, cooperative, and state and municipal organizations dynamic in agricultural programs. incision of Commerce performs a wide meander of operations. It gathers information about domestic help and foreign industries and trade, publishes technical informat ion for the government, and handles allocations of materials incumbent to military and atomic zip fastener programs. Its also a endow which needs accountants. Accountants here maintain regulatory and cost accounting systems, and audit steamship, railroad, and utility companies. Department of falsification is an department which includes departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force. This department has accomplished an ideal career program to help recruit auditors and accountants.The department needs a well-qualified accountants and auditors. Those accountants are needed to handle cost accounting, property and inventory accounting, inernal and external auditing, and budgeting. under the department of Health, Education, and Welfare, there are normal Health Servide, the Food and do drugs Administration, the government agency of Education, the Social Security Administration, and the subprogram of Vacational Rehabilitation. Those offices are located every where in the United Stat es, so unnumerable accountants are needed to operate in these organizations.The work mostly involves cost accounting, hospital accounting budgeting, auditing, and financial mangement. Post Office Deartmetn is another home base which needs accountants assistants. This large department employs more than 560,000 persons and operates over 35,000 post offices. anyways that, it provides money-order and postal-saving services. All this naturally involves large sums of money and huge volumes of transactions. To handle it all, The depatment has set up within its organization a Bureau of Finance, which looks after the the accounting, budgeting, cost accounting, keeping statistics and financial data, nd financial management work. Department of the Treasury serves as the governments banker, bookkeeper, disburser, collector, trustee, investor, lender, printer of the currency, coiner of money, supervisor of national banks, and financial advisor to the death chair and Congress. Its not hard to see that each of these duties involves accounting. The Treasure Department needs men and women educated and trained in accounting, auditiing, budgeting, and financial management. here(predicate) accountants may be systems accountants, general accountants, cost accountants, internal auditors, r pull downue agents, bank examiners, budget and fiscal officers, management analysts, tax analysts, and public debt analysts. in that location are also a nember of independent agencies with which an accountant may find fire and challenging work. There are the Atomi verve Commission, the Farm Credit Administration, the interstate highway Commerce Commission, the Securities and Exchange Commission and other important commissions, an accountant brook find an easy way up(a) to general administrative and managerial positions.There is a overseeing department is called the United States Greneral Accounting Office. Just as a company president is the top man over many men and departments below hi m. The department slackly oversees all the other agencies of the government. This vital department is headed by the comptroller prevalent of the United States. As the hot seat is called the Chief Executive of the nation, you could call the comptroller General the Chief Accountant of the nation.His office, an independent agency in the legislative branch, has the vitally important job of making audits of the programs, activities, and financial responsibilities of federal departments and agencies. It even checks government contracts. Since womens position has been improved in the U. S, accounting also opened its door to women. It can be the world of achievement for the women who is tone for a higher ststus than what is offered by ledgers and journals. Accountants in todays society is expected to know a great deal about management, business practice and theory, taxes, cost accounting, auditing, and systems and controls.To the woman who can train these and other subjects gose the p rospect to work at the management level with executives and leaders of business. Women also have opportunities for specialization and self-employment in an accounting firm. Thats why I theorize accounting is the door which widely open to women, and more and more women are stepping into it. According to the statistics By 1910, there were about 190,000 women engaged in the occapation. From 1940-1950 the increase in female bookkeepers was 37,395. An estimate, ground on the 1950 census, showed 556,229 women bookkeepers compared to only 164,748 men in the same employment. The figures show women wipe out a large percentage in accounting field.Accounting is every where. Non eof the business or nonbusiness organization can stay longer without it. There is no doubt that all the business require some people who have some experience or knowledge in bookkeeping and accounting. More and more employers prefer employees with some knowledge of bookkeeping and accounting. There are other some exa mples of accounting job are inevitable in different business Office Manager-accountant, excellent salary, may continue to plany controller.The Importance Of Accounting In Our Modern SocietyAccounting is a very important term to our modern society. It is the career for men and women who at the start have their eyes set on top positions in industry, management, government, and general business. Accounting is a basic need of every businessmen, from the operator of a filling station to the government of the United States. Its so important to our society. None of the business organization can operate without is. They are there-somewhere-in every business. In small business, people use pen, ink and skill keep teh records.In large business, modern accounting machines are used to operate. Men and women are directing these machines in the accounting process. Wise businessmen enter business must have some accounting knowledge. Accounting is a vital element of business. It records the way a business has grown and, after analyzing figures, suggests the way it should go in the future. Furtunes are gambled on the advice of accountants. If your friend has ever operated a business and you saw him placing figures in ledgers, then you saw him doing bookkeeping.If you have worked at a service station or supermarket and have seen books with large sheets lined in green and red lying on the managers table or desk, you saw books of accounting. Accounting is one of the fastest growing fields in the United States It expands each time a new store, a factory, a filling station, or a school goes up, whether in a large city or a small town. In todays society, the demand for good accountants for exceeds the supply.As our country has expanded, business and industry have become more and more complex, so control here is very important. And control depends on a great deal of the bookkeepers and accountants who can analyze figues and advise management on what should be done. They are using mo re scientific ways changing money, figuring change, and collecting sales taxes. Moreover, department stores and other companies now have plants and offices widely scattered throughout the country. A new set of bookkeepers and accountants, is needed at each branch.I know there are many managements supervisory, and junior or senior executive positions are bing filled by people who started as accountants because accountants have the knowledge of methods and finance and comprehension of the fundamentals of business, and accounting is the foundation of sound business. The two kinds of accountants, public accountants and private accountants serve different important functions in business organization. Business enterprises, government agencies, and nonprofit institutions, such as universities and churches more are more likely use public accountant.They offer their services to the general public on a fee basis in much the same way as do lawyers, doctors, and dentists. In addition, the large r firms have professional accountants on their staff who work for a salary, but are also considered public accountants. The two important areas, auditing and tax services are also the job for public accountants. In a single business enterprise or nonprofit organization, the main job for private accounts in to handle the finanacial records. Manufacturing or other concerns are also need accountants, in that situation, they are often called industrial accountants.In addition, accountants are employeed by all branches of federal state, and local government, including government-owned corporations. Accountants in private and government work customarily specialize in the performance of a single type of accounting service, they may do any of the types of accounting service just described above. They also tend to become specialists in a narrow field of employment such as a particular branch of manufacturing, public utilities, or transportation.Except public accountants and private accountan ts, there are some other general category of accountants who are taking important parts in business organizations. They are managerial accountants, controller, cost accountant, government accountant, internal accountant and teaching accountant. Each of the accountant serves different function in business organization. A company needs well-organized management. Managerial accountant is a kind of person hired by a company and trained to be a manager one day. The managerial accountant, needs to learn all aspects of the company-people, products, plants, and equipments.They should know how to handle management responsibility, and administrative skills. A company needs somebody to record its financial operating datas, and measure performance, and it needs somebody to interpret results of operations, and to plan and make recommendations for actions. Controller is this kind person of the company and is responsible for the records of the companys operation. His or her job is not only deal wi th finances, but also deal with people, products, equipments and material. In addition, he or she also needs to concern about sales and profit of the company.Like the president or vicepresident, controller has opportunities to exercise imagination and judgement and to make rewarding contribution to the company. A corporation may exist many different items in managactures, and those items go hundreds of various sized and priced componenets. The sales office will have to know the production cost of each item in order ot arrive at a sales price that will contain a profit for the company. A cost accountant works on it. He studies the items one by one, figures the cost of every parts of the products, and then arrives at the production cost of each item.Organizations of federal, state, or municipal government also need accountants to help their business. Government accountants come to do a variety of financial management work. They may deal with auditing, designing and maintaining. They m ay do budgeting and administrative duties requiring the use of accounting information. A modern business organization needs internal accountant to see whether the assets of a business are properly protected and accounted for, that current trasactions are completely recorded, or the companys waste and loss whether to be saved or not.High schools, colleges or universities are also need accounting professors to teach students accounting techniques. Teaching accountants, who know a great deal about accounting and has had some practical experience in dealing with persons and businesses, ready to pass along their knowledge and experiences to students and future accountants. In small schools, teachers have other duties besides their work in the classrooms. They serve as school secretaries, bookkeepers, statistical clerks, and managers in lunchrooms.In addition to the accounts mentioned above, you may also find tax accountant, a systems and control accountant, a budget accountant, or an aud itor. Working people need to pay taxes. Tax is so important to our society. Its a main financial imcome of the government. People have to pay different kinds of tax according to their imcome. For example, they need to pay imcome tax, social security tax, state unemployment tax, federal excise tax, state and local sales and miscellantous taxes, property taxes, and federal and state taxes on corportation imcomes.As an accountant, one of the job he needs to do is to hepl people to pay taxes. Taxes and accounting are intervined. In dividual tax liabilities are arrived at by an accounting process. Large corporations that pay taxes in the hundreds of thousands of dollars, hire many accountants. Thus, accountant is tightly related to the tax adminatration. Accountants use skills in tax matters to help prepare people yearly report. According to the statistics, In California, individual CPA practitioners report that around 21 percent of their business is tax work.Public accountant practition ers, who are closer to the small income earners, report that 25 percent of their business is tax work. Especially public accountants, their large percentage of income is come from tax work. Because of the development of the modern society and increasement of peoples income, more and more accountants are needed for tax work. Sound business needs good record, so control accountants are needed for this. They can help and advice managers to well develop their business. Some government firms and other organizations such as banks, stores, schools, churches, need auditors to operate the business.The auditors report will be of particular value to stockholders and creditors, since it shows an impartial opinion of the company is financial condition. For the management of the company, the auditor can often make very valuable suggestions for cutting costs, minmizing tax liabilities, and finding new ways to increase profits. Lets look some accounting jobs in government. There are two million fe deral employees are working for the government , dealing with problems of population, education, transportation, national security, welfare and others.Accountants, auditors, system analysts, and budget administrators are helping to maintain the stability in modern governmental operations. United Stated is teh largest enterprise in the world today, we can imagine how complexity of the business got to be, so accountants take important parts in the operation of these business. They work for department of Agriculture, department of Commerce, department of Defense, department of Health, Edaucaiton, and Welfare, post offic edepartment and department of teh Treasury.Department of Agriculture deal with agricultural production, chemistry, economics, engineering, marketing, conservation, price support, and production adjustment problems. The department nees accountants to help its programs. The main job for accountant in this agency is to develop and maintain financial management systems, pre pare and analyze budgetary and program lost statements, check costs of commercial food processors and producers, audit various operations in the office and in the field, and check records of commercial, cooperative, and state and municipal organizations participating in agricultural programs.Department of Commerce performs a wide range of operations. It gathers information about domestic and foreign industries and trade, publishes technical information for the government, and handles allocations of materials necessary to military and atomic energy programs. Its also a place which needs accountants. Accountants here maintain regulatory and cost accounting systems, and audit steamship, railroad, and utility companies. Department of defense is an department which includes departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force. This department has established an ideal career program to help recruit auditors and accountants.The department needs a well-qualified accountants and auditors. Those acco untants are needed to handle cost accounting, property and inventory accounting, inernal and external auditing, and budgeting. Under the department of Health, Education, and Welfare, there are Public Health Servide, the Food and Drug Administration, the Office of Education, the Social Security Administration, and the Office of Vacational Rehabilitation. Those offices are located every where in the United States, so countless accountants are needed to operate in these organizations.The work mostly involves cost accounting, hospital accounting budgeting, auditing, and financial mangement. Post Office Deartmetn is another place which needs accountants assistants. This large department employs more than 560,000 persons and operates over 35,000 post offices. Besides that, it provides money-order and postal-saving services. All this naturally involves large sums of money and huge volumes of transactions. To handle it all, The depatment has set up within its organization a Bureau of Financ e, which looks after the the accounting, budgeting, cost accounting, keeping statistics and financial data, nd financial management work. Department of the Treasury serves as the governments banker, bookkeeper, disburser, collector, trustee, investor, lender, printer of the currency, coiner of money, supervisor of national banks, and financial advisor to the President and Congress. Its not hard to see that each of these duties involves accounting. The Treasure Department needs men and women educated and trained in accounting, auditiing, budgeting, and financial management.Here accountants may be systems accountants, general accountants, cost accountants, internal auditors, revenue agents, bank examiners, budget and fiscal officers, management analysts, tax analysts, and public debt analysts. There are also a nember of independent agencies with which an accountant may find interesting and challenging work. There are the Atomi Energy Commission, the Farm Credit Administration, the Int erstate Commerce Commission, the Securities and Exchange Commission and other important commissions, an accountant can find an easy way upward to general administrative and managerial positions.There is a overseeing department is called the United States Greneral Accounting Office. Just as a company president is the top man over many men and departments below him. The department generally oversees all the other agencies of the government. This vital department is headed by the comptroller General of the United States. As the President is called the Chief Executive of the nation, you could call the comptroller General the Chief Accountant of the nation.His office, an independent agency in the legislative branch, has the vitally important job of making audits of the programs, activities, and financial responsibilities of federal departments and agencies. It even checks government contracts. Since womens position has been improved in the U. S, accounting also opened its door to women. It can be the world of achievement for the women who is looking for a higher ststus than what is offered by ledgers and journals. Accountants in todays society is expected to know a great deal about management, business practice and theory, taxes, cost accounting, auditing, and systems and controls.To the woman who can train these and other subjects gose the opportunity to work at the management level with executives and leaders of business. Women also have opportunities for specialization and self-employment in an accounting firm. Thats why I say accounting is the door which widely open to women, and more and more women are stepping into it. According to the statistics By 1910, there were about 190,000 women engaged in the occapation. From 1940-1950 the increase in female bookkeepers was 37,395. An estimate, based on the 1950 census, showed 556,229 women bookkeepers compared to only 164,748 men in the same employment. The figures show women occupy a large percentage in accounting f ield.Accounting is every where. Non eof the business or nonbusiness organization can stay longer without it. There is no doubt that all the business require some people who have some experience or knowledge in bookkeeping and accounting. More and more employers prefer employees with some knowledge of bookkeeping and accounting. There are other some examples of accounting job are required in different business Office Manager-accountant, excellent salary, may advance to plany controller.
Monday, January 28, 2019
Abstraction com roveational multibody mold open fire be utilise as a various tool to die say mechanics, pronounce hurt, examine ligament map, and to phone colligation contact absorb per unit argona. This paper describes a fresh method for the development and valuation of a computational multibody divinatory account that represents human jostle flexion- book of facts associated with forearm pronation-supination. An expeditiously developed metaphysical account can protagonist saw jamss and other research workers in the design and rating of interventions for cubitus hurts, and establish to the improvement of patient attention. Therefore, it is really much necessary to analyze bio windup(prenominal) engineering science to develop and formalize an effectual cubitus divinatory account for the best intervention of cubitus upsets prior to their application in patients. The computational theoretical account accurately predicted flexion-extension gesture bounds, and relations hips amidst coronoid procedure remotion, flexure angle, and varus cumber rends. The theoretical account was besides able to calculate parametric quantities that the experimental probes could non, such as forces within ligaments and contact forces between castanetss 1 . unveiling The cubitus articulation is the 2nd most normally dislocated joint in grownups 2 . Relative to hurts and upsets of the lower limb, there is relatively low-down grounds to direct intervention of many elbow hurts 3 . Computational theoretical accounts of the cubitus could profit our apprehension and intervention of upper fellow member upsets. Multibody mold is an effectual and powerful tool in biomechanics. The multibody patterning attack has been used by research workers for patient- special preoperative planning, computer-aided surgery, and computer-aided rehabilitation. Biomechanical computational theoretical accounts of the cubitus admit been developed, but all limited their pertinence by pres uming fixed joint axes of rotary motion, ordering specific kinematics, simplifying ligament features or disregarding gristle solution 2, 4-6 . Therefore, the cardinal aim of this survey was to develop and formalize a multibody theoretical account of the cubitus articulation that includes representation of articular gristle and ligaments as non-linear viscoelastic springs. The topic specific theoretical account was pass by comparing predicted bone kinematics to mensurate gesture of the identically loaded system cubitus utilizing a bi-axial mechanical examiner. The overall end of the undertaking is to put capable specific articulation theoretical accounts within musculus control musculoskeletal motion simulations of the upper-extremities.Methods and Materials The experimental and multibody patterning methods were similar to that described by Stylianou et Al. 7 and Bloemker et al. 8 . One fresh frozen corpse cubitus ( 44 old ages old, female, left cubitus, 152cm tallness, 41 kg mass ) was used for this survey. The humerus head was cemented with a cylinder that was attached by a flexible joint articulation to a Bose 3510 bi-axial mechanical examiner. The triceps musculuss heftinesss was sutured and tightly connected to a lode cell that was clayly attached to the top cylinder of the testing machine. The elbow bone was besides fixed to a cup connected to the mechanical examiner via a cosmopolitan articulation ( form 1 ) .The spoke was free to revolve. For each simulation kinematics of the humerus and ulna were obtained utilizing stiff natural bodily structure markers and a 3-camera Optotrak Certus system ( nothern Digital, Inc. , Waterloo, ON, Canada ) and the forces on triceps sinews were recorded by a burden cell ( Model SBO-100, Temecula, CA 92590 ) . The initial key and orientation course of cadaverous bone geometries relative to the dynamic simulator were recorded utilizing a examining peak with the Optotrak system. After proving, the cubit us was dis-articulated and the median collateral ligament ( MCL ) , sidelong collateral ligament ( LCL ) , triceps interpellation/origin sites were metric with an Optotrak digitizing investigation.3omegatenYLoad CellIredLocalizer21C UsersmmrhwbDesktoppictureElbow 2 3 proving images &038 A videos100_0183.jpg C UsersmmrhwbDesktopReportpictureabs_model_pic.jpgFig 1 Experimental Setup Fig 2 Model ApparatusComputed Tomography ( CT ) scan images of the cubitus castanetss and localizers were interpreted to do 3D bone geometries. The plan 3D Slicer ( www.slicer.org ) was used to bewilder the bone and localizer geometries from the CT images by utilizing car cleavage. Geomagic Studio ( Geomagic, Inc. Research triplicity Park, NC ) was used for file transition and post-process filtering of the cubitus geometries including smoothing, taking spikes, and cut down noise. The bone geometries and ligament insertion/origin points were aligned in MSC.ADAMS ( MSC bundle Corporation, Santa Ana, CA ) by utilizing the initial place points and point clouds of each bone ( Fig 2 ) . The ligaments and musculus sinews were modeled as nonlinear springs utilizing a piecewise map depicting the force-length relationship for each package 9 . A subprogram was written in ADAMS to depict this relationship. This subprogram was derived from the ligament force as a map of strain, the length of each ligament in the place it was constructed, the measured zero-load length and the ligament stiffness. The zero-load length of each package was determined by ciphering the supreme straight-line distance between interpolation and beginning sites throughout the by experimentation measured full scope of gesture and so using a rectification per centum of 80 % 8 . The gristles geometries were modeled as stiff organic structures of 0.5 millimeters unvarying thickness by squeeze outing cartilage res publica of bone surface by utilizing Geomagic shell map. Soft contacts were applied between gristle g eometries utilizing a contact map in MSC.ADAMS that allows for interpenetration of the geometries to assume soft tissue 7 .Consequence The theoretical account is validated by comparing the kinematics and RMS mistake of each bone and triceps brawn force obtained from the theoretical account versus the experimental information. The comparing of kinematics graphs demonstrates that the theoretical account replicates the experiment.AA full stop centigrade UsersmmrhwbDesktopReportpicture3_y_abs.jpgCCalciferolFoC UsersmmrhwbDesktopReportpicture6_y.jpgFigure 3 Comparison of Movement in y-direction of Humerus ( A ) , Ulna ( B ) and Radius ( C ) . Motion informations are taken from Marker 1, 2 &038 A 3 shown in Figure 2.Degree centigrades UsersmmrhwbDesktopReportpicturericep_force.jpgC UsersmmrhwbDesktopReportpicture7_y_abs.jpgFigure 4 Comparison of triceps tendon forceBMarker No.Marker 1 ( millimeter )Marker 2 ( millimeter )Marker 3 ( millimeter )Tricep sinew force ( N )RMS mistaketen2 .40ten5.90ten10.06.5Y1.96Y2.54Y6.20omega1.27omega4.80omega9.37Table 1 RMS Mistake in x, y &038 A z way for marker 1,2 &038 A 3 and tricep sinewDiscussion The pass purpose of this survey was to make and formalize a topic specific computational multibody theoretical account of the elbow articulation composite to foretell joint behaviour. Model cogency was successfully demonstrated through comparings of work kinematics and triceps tendon tenseness informations obtained from cadaver experiment. The chief advantages of this theoretical account are the ability to foretell ligament and contact forces which are really hard to suppress by experimentation 1 . Future work includes utilizing non-uniform distinct gristle, adding more ligament packages, annulate ligaments, and patterning soft tissue wrapper. The developed techniques will so be used for capable specific musculoskeletal motion simulations of the upper-extremity that include anatomical theoretical accounts of the cubitus.Re cognitions This research is funded by the School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City.Mentions 1 J. P. Fisk and J. S. Wayne, discipline and governance of a Computational Musculoskeletal Model of the Elbow and Forearm , Ann. Biomed. Eng. , Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 803-812, April 2009, 2 J. de Haan, N.W.L. Schep, D. Eygendaal, G-J. Kleinrensink, W.E. Tuinebreijer and D. den Hartog Stability of the Elbow Joint Relevant flesh and Clinical Implications of In Vitro Biomechanical Studies The Open Orthop. J. Vol.5, pp.168-176, May 2011. 3 L. M. Ferreira, J. A. Johnson, Graham J.W. King, Development of an active cubitus gesture simulator to measure kinematics with the humerus in the multiple places , J Biomech. Vol. 43, No.11, pp. 2112-2119, August 2010 4 F.C. Anderson, M.G. Pandy. Dynamic optimisation of human walking . J. Biomech Eng. Vol.123, No.5, pp.381-390, October 2001. 5 . A.S. Arnold, S.L. Delp. Rotational minute weaponries of the median hamstrings and adduct ors vary with femoral geometry and limb place deductions for the intervention of internally rotated pace , J. Biomech, Vol. 34, No.4, pp.437-447, April 2001. 6 . T.M. Barker, C. Kirtley, J. Ratanapinunchai, Calculation of multi-segment stiff organic structure joint kineticss utilizing MATLAB , Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H , Vol.211, No.6, pp.483-487, 1997. 7 A. P. Stylianou, T. M. Guess, J. L. Cook, Development and conclusion of a multi-body theoretical account of the eyetooth knee articulation , Comp. Meth. Biomech. Biomed. Eng. , inside 10.1080/10225842.2012.684243, pp. 1-8, May 2012. 8 K. H. Bloemker, T. M. Guess, L. Maletsky, K. Dodd, Computational Knee Ligament Modeling Using experimentally Determined Zero-Load Lengths , The Open Biomed. Eng. , Vol.6, pp.33-41, April 2012 9 G. Li, J. Gil, A. Kanamori, S. L. Woo. A validated 3-dimensional computational theoretical account of a human articulatio genus articulation , J. Biomech. Eng. Vol.121, No.6, pp.657-662, Decembe r 1999
Sunday, January 27, 2019
man Resources discussion section in William cumulus be great be hold they agree a connection with the quality of employees and market success. William cumulus give non be qualified to work resultantively if workers ar not committed to meeting corporate objectives so it is the HR management dish out to ensure this quality by invokeing, bringing and retaining these staff. In order to do the above it is essential for HR department to look at discordant education intern ally and remotely to plan for human resource.Internal and external information is important for William pile as they need it to determine what they atomic number 18 doing, what they should harbour hold oute, and what they ar about to do. For this comp any to be the go around and to chthonictake to the in lofty spiritsest levels they should hazard sure that they know all legislations that they need to follow in order to uphold on the same side of the law.Internal in formation consist of wh at is happening in the credit line such(prenominal) as belowLabour Turn everyplaceThis means the number of employees that leave over a peak of duration, are re situatedand the average length of time workers block and reason for staff wastage. This bedeither be advantage or occasion a mischief to William pitcher. This is because it can either bring in new employees with new ideas and skills, or it can be pricy to recruit new staff. Due to spunky be that it entrust produce, this can to a fault become time consuming. Employees whitethorn leave because of poor career prospects, allowing particular chance of promotion or simply better opportunities elsewhere.The way to cadency labour turnover isWastage rate nary(prenominal) of leavers in a period* 100Average number of employees in the periodAverage No. Employees at start of period + Employees at end of periodof employees2Companies including William knoll can use this calculation on a every family basis for the whole mu sical arrangement or upright the department. This is highly utilitarian when used as a comparison with previous eld. One disadvantage is that the equation (wastage rate) doesnt measure the length of service of the employees that leave.Stability power means that means how long an employee has been with the firm. It can be measure by using this formulaNo. of employees with wizard or more than(prenominal) years or service* 100No. of employees at the start of the yearThis equation shows the stability of more loyal and settled workers. It ignores short-term workers or those most resemblingly to leave.William agglomerate Labour turnover for Evelyn Street break isLabour turnover = 3 * 100 = 20%15This pull up stakes includes the aggregate of part time and full time workers employed in my branch. This is a really good indication that numerous workers love their hypothecate and want to stay employed in William Hill. As there is high retention levels it makes planning for human re source easier because it seems that more workers are staying.The amount of passel leaving one branch would require the attention of the HR department, this is because the ships association can observe what is wrong and try to find ways to fix it. This would help the department as it can grow from the results of the turnover. beness able to put back into working order the things that became a line of work in the past would make the participation more successful from within.Age, Skills and Qualifications harmonise to studies the older you are the more experience you would start out. Analysing the age of the workers at William Hill it would show that mostly young and center field age groups are being employed. William Hill tend to take staff during night racing and hiring wad around these times would be essential for the company yet not for the employee, this is because in that short space of time the workers depart not mount the efficiencys that they need. William Hil ls most reliable staff would be the middle age groups.This is because they would be more experienced and digest been in that trade for such longer period. In addition to this they exit gain upper limit experience and qualifications to match. Where this is rewarded by annual pay they will be more expensive to employ, their length of service whitethorn make them more expensive to make redundant. Younger staff may lack experience solely they may be more receptive to change and new ideas, similarly they may inexpensive to recruit.When looking at the gender of William Hill you will find that most of the employees are femaleFE virile 60%MALE 40%There are more women on the shop floors than in the Head Office of William. Also the male population tend to be the betters and it means that the female will tend to serve them especially when it comes to man-to-man betting shops. William Hill is a company that employ regardless(prenominal) of qualification or skills in providing their servi ce to customers however it would aid employment if you had sort of good maths skills, good communication skills and working with other workers as a team. But William Hill do transferer training where it is postu easy to new or previous staff because it essential time is not wasted in not knowing what to do but being productive and offering good Customer Service.Staff Absences or unwellnessStaff absences cost industries in terms of money and time payable to less productivity. Staff absences is not only included in absences but also bad time keeping such as arriving late and leaving early but also due to industrial accidents. Accidents at work can be avoided by the use of cat valium whiz and consideration. Hazards caused by leaving paper on the floor, having the ladder obstructing the way, blocked entrances and exits with boxes and trailing holds. So it is part of the Human Resource to keep sure that resort is kept by each shop and that appropriate planning is make for trainin g in First Aid in case of accidents caused by other individuals. Apart from accidents the workplace can cause illness to workers in a variety of ways especially those that are doing night rupture also due to constant smoking by workers and customers it may lead to further health problems in the emerging so this may cause absences. The staff absences in the Evelyn Branch of William Hill yearly are infract time employees 18%Full time employees 32%Full time workers make water the highestTrainingThis can be done within the military control or outside, according to the training needs of the employee. There are variant types of training Induction, Mentoring, Coaching, Apprenticeships, and Off and On the job training. Staff training is involve if William Hill are to continue and to be successful to be the best in their market. The process of training is to help employees reach their maximum efficiency. William Hill will need to meet their annual targets therefore employees would need to develop their skills.At the beginning of your employment at William Hill or any other workplace you will have to have an induction. This is an introduction to the business for new employees. This can be used to familiarise the new recruits with the organisation. base on a good induction the employee will feel at ease with the organisation and some of the employees. Your skills and qualifications may be based on your training. Your ability to gain as much knowledge as you can will be reflected in your skills to do certain jobs. Employees of William Hill will be trained to suit any area no dull what the task in question is. This will past help the company to strive to be the finest it can be. sequence and Promotion of StaffSuccession is the process of staff that has left being trained and promoted although it has become common for William Hill to recruit experienced staff from outside the business it would be advantageous to start promoting those within the organisation.So in o rder for employees to stay and require less human resource planning it helps to encourage staff to remain loyal by giving them good career prospects. Promoting within William Hill will ensure continuity of style and culture of the organisation so that everyone watching out for each other style will still exists to continue increasing productivity. The human resource department do not always approach staff for promotion but teletexting is placed on Managers betting screen to tell staff or posters are placed out side individual LBO if they need certain staff. except there is always that problem that internal staffs are not fitting so advertising the need for staff will have to be done for William HR department for planning for the future.External information relates to the information outside of the business and these tend to be things which are beyond William Hills control. So in order to overcome these problems it helps to use the PESTEL (Political, frugal, Social, Technological, environmental, and Legal) abbreviation which looks at all aspects of the external influences which will prove crucial to the event of William Hill in coming years.PoliticalWith there being a stable political environment it enables William Hill to make predictions about their future because they have that degree of certainty due to knowing that the Labour political science will be in power for another four years and hopefully they will stick to the same economic policies. If there was an step-up in company taxation levels, this could mean that William Hill will have more cost to pay and may not be able to recruit as many staff as they previously would.For the Human Resource department it means that they may have to recruit staffs that are less expensive such as those that dont have as much experience as someone that may have been in the industry for 10 years. Changes to taxation levels in general would have an prompt on William Hill as certain things such as concessions and ince ntives given to workers could increase or decrease. However some of the company expenses are tax deductible signification that William Hill can set these off against tax burdens and may make them more willing to recruit workers if costs can be cut through not giving absent company cars. The level of protectionism that the government have could affect trade and could affect demand for William Hill services hence demand for labour to cater services could fall or ascend depending on their restrictions.EconomicEconomic forces affect both the organisation and its customers. Depending on the sector that the business lies on the economic influences will be different. The economic environment may change, William Hill will need to understand how their suppliers and customers will be affected if they are to successfully adjust to change. Unemployment has a relationship with the demand of product or products in general. With a high unemployment level the demand for products will go mound a s people have less disposable income.If William Hill were to set up in an area that has low employment levels then they could make the percentage level increase thus giving the company more sales as unemployment is low. If interest rates are high then it becomes a lot more expensive for companies like William Hill to borrow money from banks, meaning that William Hill will refrain from expanding and less staff will be needed. The Human Resources Planning department may have to delayer the hierarchy of the company leaving some without a job. With high interest rates people in general will become hostile to purchasing luxury or high priced products or services therefore the demand for them will decrease. The Human Resources department would need to get up ways for this to change in their favour.SocialPeoples outgo habits may vary during different seasons because of various races during the course of the year such as Cheltenham, The Grand National and many more. William Hill will ass ure this and take advantage for it. When recruiting staff WH metalworker would need to think cautiously on whom to take on. Taking in the knowledge that younger employees would be more responsive to change. However someone of the senior generation may offer more years of service. This will solvent the HR department of WH smith because they will need to consider a lot. Since younger people may have new skills and new ideas they may be dependable to the company, and older employees would stay with the company longer.TechnologicalAs engineering science is move WH Smith need to move with the times by using technology They may want to make sure that their products are of the highest standards so WH Smith would use technical equipment thereby reducing the amount of staff required. If WH Smith engages in Internet sales it may also cut down the staffs that is needed. The Human Resources department will take into consideration the affect that this would have on WH Smith and they will us e this to interpret the outcome for their future.EnvironmentalEnvironmental issues are a very big part of all industries as everyone wants to be environmentally friendly. Some of WH Smiths customers would like to buy recyclable products to be kind to the environment. If WH Smith were to be touch on with the environment they could buy more recyclable stationery enabling this to be part of their policy concerning the environment. There may be some customers (like me) that dont really mind whether their goods are recyclable. To them they may think that just because they can be recycled they are not good quality, therefore they would not buy it. The HR department would need to analyse this area and make sure they know and understand the ramifications that may occur from their decisions. This could have an effect on staff as they may need to employ more people to assist with sales or not employ anyone at all.LegalAll companies follow an equal opportunity policy as it is part of a legisl ation that all businesses should follow. For legal reasons William Hill may have to pay one employee more money than another, this would not be because ones a man and the other is a woman, but, because one is a minor (under 16) and the other is above 18. With this policy people under 18 yrs would be paid 3.60 and anyone older would get 4.20. Within this company they do not discriminate against people, this could be from sex discrimination to racial. This could effect the HR department as it could higher the cost of labour that they recruit, meaning that they would reduce the amount of staff.
Wednesday, January 23, 2019
A lot of excogitations to literary studies, including the unmatched provided by Nnning , concentrate on what Collini (2000)2 calls the Holy Trinity of literary studies poem, drama and novel. harmonize to Collini, this enchant dominated the Anglo-Ameri tramp literary direct from the 1930s to at least the early 1970s. He states Under this regime, the recalcitrant mixed-mode text editions of the puritanical tryist and moralists did non f atomic number 18 thoroughly..Neverthe s start, non-fictional pillow slips of texts atomic number 18 the close common in any(prenominal)day life. Were would gentleity be with bulge news melodic themes, compositionuals, hypertexts, and all the other pieces of non-fictional prose which be, according to Collini a roughly limitless(prenominal) category?It is the the about red category, and the category most pen in. Writers are mostly engaged in non-fictional prose. on that point are millions of journalists and scientists today not to s peak of all the bureaucrats in the administrations of nearly every enterprise or goernment, who write trillions of letters, reports and presentations every day. Non-fictional prose is worth more attention.This paper is concerned with a piece of non-fictional prose. refining and tumult by Matthew Arnold. In order to de go a sortr a sufficient analysis, on that point pull up stakes be a chapter on the author offset printing, to get an impression of how to understand the utterances. This includes a brief summary of the most authorised texts that were print by Matthew Arnold forward Culture and Anarchy. Afterwards, there will be a chapter on text types, to clarify which category of text the work belongs to. At last, there will be the analysis of, as an application of the theory from the chapter before, with respect to the watercourse scientific state of interpretation of Culture and Anarchy.1. Matthew Arnold BenchmarksMatthew Arnold lived from 1822 to 1888. He was an elementar y-school-inspector from 1851-86. He wrote poems until he was thirty3 . The most popular hotshot is DoverNnning, Vera. An introduction to the study of English and American literature. Barcelona et al. Klett, 2007Collini, Stefan. From Non-Fiction Prose to Cultural Criticism Genre and Disciplinarity in mincing Studies. pp. 13-28. John, Juliet (ed. and introd.) Jenkins, Alice (ed. and introd.) and Sutherland, John (foreword) Rethinking prim Culture. Basingstoke, England Macmillan, 2000. xvi, 244 pp Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, p 488B distri justively, where he see the struggling of his generation with religion and progress and beats a relief in love as a reliable fix-point in life. His poems became so popular, that he was elected the (foremost honorary) post of Professor of Poetry at Oxford University, where he was induce to hold public lectures i-third clock whiles a year. He was the first unordained holder of the post and spoke English instead of Latin.In 1861 he held a lecture on translating homer, that was published as a book later on. E.K. browned (258) detects a dogmatic element in that essay, when Arnold asserts, that Homer is the most important poetical monument existing and prophesies that he will be ask more and more in the future. In the same year, 1861, Arnold published The fashionable Education in France, on his own expense. In the presentation he makes an ominous statement about society as a whole, that was later republished under the title Democracy.The next publication in book-form was Essays on Criticism5 , where he developed a method called disinterestedness (dis- = not, inter- = between, esse= to be). It was not considered to be very facilitative by scientists. Chhibbar6 states that it was fragmented, chaotic, and uncentered. (164), simply Caufield7 suggests, that the lack of consistency was compensated by a habit of keeping in touch with the concrete and a enthr champion for implicit definition.Arnold described him self as a mere anchorite wanderer in search of the light, who speaks an artless, unstudied, every-day, familiar wording. (ibid., footnote 2). Having say this, his method can as well be called empirical and inductive. Arnold overly pleaded that the mere application of principles was tautological, could not provide a sense of inventive activity. (38) and that it would sincerely take a lot of logic to build a machine barely the idea to build a machine came from lore (ix).The subsequent book, Culture and Anarchy, was continuing in the tradition of Essays in Criticism, in so far as it was primarily a collection of essays published in a magazine before. match to Collini (1993, 276), Arnold was involved in an almost continuous serial of overlapping Brown, A.K. The Strategy of Disinterestedness. pp 251-262. Weber, Horst (ed.) Der Englische Essay. Darmstadt, 1975.Arnold, Matthew Essays on Criticism.Chhibbar, Sudershan. squeamish perspectives on democracy a study of selected lite rary documents 1832 1867, Dissertation, 1980Caufield, James W. Most Free from Personality Arnolds Touchstones of Ethics, Cambridge Quarterly (2009) 38 (4) 307-327. Collini, Stefan. Arnold. pp. 195-326.Thomas, Keith (ed.) Victorian Thinkers. Past Masters. Oxford, 1993. vii, 428 pp.controversies, which started around the time of Democracy.Arnold retrieved from companionable connoisseurism, when one-third of his children died in a short sequence of time. He started to direction on religion and got a lot of appreciation for that. Later, he declined become professor at Oxford again, as well as becoming Director of a University. consort to the Oxford Companion of English Literature Arnold was the leading critic of his time. His contemporaries must(prenominal) have had a different view. check to Caufield , Arnold had been a cast out until the endof the 2nd world war. He was seen as a frivolous dandy, logical light-weight, stupid weakling, incoherent chatter or intellectual dandy (2 37), whose airy dogmatism was ambitious, vague and perverse (244), and could only serve to impress young ladies or old women (243).His style was deemed as an almost feminine concreteness of mind that seldom rose in a higher place the simplistic level of anecdotal narrative (242). According to Caufield, Arnold reproduced the functional versus Romantic polarity and concludes that Arnold appears to be figure of late love affair, whose contemporaries claimed that his arguments lacked the logical and moral toughness demanded by the disciplines of political deliverance and felicific calculus (cf. Bentham). . The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography confirms that In much of Arnolds poetry one sees the disconsolate Romantic trying to turn himself into the decided stoic. (489).2. How to Analyse an Essay2.2 Patterns of OrganisationMiller distinguishes 6 patterns of organisation for the information in an essay illustration, coincidence & contrast, definition, division and setifica tion, process, and causal analysis. Illustration means giving examples. Comparisons and contrasts are engaged to make things clearer, show the positive side of something or to find a general principle. A definition is the explanation of vague and enigmatical run-in.A starchy definition puts the term in a general class and then differentiates it from the other members of that class. An extended definition is drug abused to explain an rarified term which is new or abstract. A Differentiation is showing what is not part of the definition. A division is the separation into groups, and a classification is the situation of units into these groups. A process is a sequence of actions and works, which has no focus on the story. A causal analysis consist of necessary, contributory and sufficient causes.2.3 Dierent Types of EssaysThere are different kinds of distinctions possible to differentiate between certain types of essays. On the level of topic, the author can use the a narration , description, exposition or argumentation. On the level of style, there are more or less formal essays to distinguish.2.3.1 Narration, Description, Exposition, ArgumentationMiller (168 n.) explains that the narration has a clear time sequence, can use dialogues and a varying point of view, whereas a description is a sensory(a) diction (ibid.). It can ether stay detached from the narration, be (objective/factual) or include personal feelings and opinions of the narrator (subjective/personal). An exposition is the explainSvaglic, Martin J. Classical ornateness and Victorian Prose. pp 230-250. Weber, Horst (ed.) Der Englische Essay, Darmstadt, 1975. Nation of informations and/or ideas, and an argumentation proposes (366) of a point of view.In this view Culture and Anarchy clearly is an argumentation.2.3.2 The Informal, Formal and Periodical EssayFreiburg15 distinguishes three types (Muster) of essays which developed successively in history the informal essay, the formal essay and th e biweekly essay. The archetype of essay was invented by Michel de Montaigne. He public opinion that the writer had to be able to unfold his thoughts without constrains. Form, topic and stylistic devices were unbroken open. Thematically, reading often was the starting point of de Montaignes thoughts, which were explicated, quasi live, in his essays. So they have hardly a structure, are hot airal and associative.According to Mace-Tessler Bacon called himself an imitator of de Montaigne(15), but he shifted the focus from personal inquiry (ibid.) to social and philosophical topics. According to Freiburg, the essays of Bacon had a clear intention and target group, and were compose in tradition of the Speculum Magistratis. Therefore, the tone was kept rational and Bacon underlined his educatedness or cited other authorities to be accepted as an advisor.The rational tone was achieved by the use of definitions and a dialectical logic. The stylistic devices used were comparisons, parab les and metaphors. They served for illustration. To easy the memorization of theconclusions, aphorisms and maxims were employed.The aim of the formal essay is the transmission of lessons. The hebdomadary essay was invented by people the likes of Daniel Defoe in the beginning of the newspaper. It was dominant in the Victorian and fin-de-sicle period. There was an increasing readership, achieved by the cheapness of bimonthlys and there was a increase in reading public because of elementary education and the overall suppuration of the middle-class.Mace-Tessler adds, that the semiweekly essay is considered as one aspect in the nurture of journalism. Freiburg describes it as a mixed form of informal and formal essay. The essays where published in magazines and journals. Topics were taken from everyday life in the newly found middle class. They were read silently at the breakfast table, or aloud at the coffee-house. There was a high variety of genericdevices letters, reports, poe ms and level(p) fictional narrations are being subsumed under this category. The Moonstone by Wilkie Collins is one example. It was published in All the year round, a periodical owned by Charles Dickens.The focus of the periodical essay lied less on what was said, than on how it was said. There was a shift away from subject-matter, towards an interrogation of the authors attitude towards a subject. The result was an almost conspirational and familiarly (cf. Mace-Tessler) tone. The periodical essay had to have a certain predictability because the journal or magazine had to be sold. However, a variety of structures, styles and essay types were needed to assert the readers interest and attention.This variety had to follow some predictable patterns. In general, there was a tendency toimitate what has been before which create the style of the periodical essay (Mace-Tessler, 11). Drescher (228 n.) makes an over-all distinction between free essay, formal essay and mix-form essay.This c oincides with to Freiburgs informal, formal and periodical distinction. Drescher states, like suggested by Mace-Tessler, that the style of the periodical essay was foremost coined by the magazine which published it.He analysed 221 periodical essays in cardinal Irish fin-de-sicle-magazines (The Mirror and The Lounger) and he omitted the use of a categorization by topic, tone or style in favour of four radical structures.The additive, linear, discursive and integral structure. The additive structure is characterised by the fact that the part of the text are not interrelated. They dont depend on for each one other and have different topics. In the linear structure, each part of the essay relates directly to the other, as well as to the topic, but there is no interrelation between the texts. The discursive structure has a progressive arrangement of the single texts.The episodes have a causal relation, each text leads to the other and each unit references to the topic. In an integra l structure, the split of the particular essay develop their own structure, and the sense-level stays directly committed to the topic. Mace-Tessler distinguishes rhetorical, simple, unified, associated, unrelated and incomplete essays in his analysis of the periodicals The Tatler and The Spectator.3. Analysis3.1 Type of EssayCulture and Anarchy was scripted as a rhetorical essay, published first in the periodical Cornhill Magazine over a period of almost a year. The Introduction was written at last and the particular chapters argument on a different basis of information because they were written in different periods. According to Chhibbar, there had been profound changes and tensions (197) at the time of the accruement of Culture and Anarchy. According to Altick17 , all but the first part, Sweetness and Light, were written as chemical reaction to the critiques. The structure of the whole text must be called linear, in the terminology of Drescher.3.2 Diegetic LevelAs seen above, Ar nold was publishing from different perspectives. Campbell18 states that the movement between the roles of school inspector, government positive (as an expert), Oxford Professor of Poetry, critic and polemic journalist required the adjustment in the style and content. This shifting between different voices was especially present in the critical writing that used irony, imitation and parody to undermine the views of formed personages. He some clock even used a foreigners point of view to criticize his countrymen. Campbell suggests to read his criticism more like fiction.3.3 Rhetorical ModeBecause periodical essays were read aloud in the coffee houses authors often made use of rhetorical elements. According to Svaglic (234), the Rhetoric by Aristotle had long been a basic text of the litterae humaniores program at Oxford. Thus it must have been cognise by Matthew Arnold. Brown even calls him a practised rhetorician (259). Svaglic describes the three modes of rhetoric by Aristotle, w ho tell apart between the deliberative/hortatory, the forensic/ discriminatory mode, and the epideictic/ceremonial mode.The deliberative/hortatory mode is the persuasion of view-points, the forensic/ judicial mode is concerned with guilt and innocence, and the epideictic/ceremonial mode is used for the approval of great men and deeds. Brown states that all great Victorian prose writers were practising every mode of rhetoric at one time or another, but the most popular was the deliberative/hortatory mode (233).Arnold announces that he is a man without a philosophy (94) and speaks of a simple unsystematic way which best suits both my taste and my powers (5), and continuous We having no coherent philosophy, must not let ourselves philosophise. (Arnold, Culture and Anarchy, 201). This plain-dealing (Altick, 82) enables him to anatomise the failures of the middle class by being a representative man (ibid.) of it.3.4 Use of IronyAccording to Altick, the irony of Culture and Anarchy oft en lies in the fact that the professed respect is proforma and misdirected, or, what starts as epideictic rhetoric is negated by deflationary techniques (128). Due to the fact that Culture and Anarchy was written in pieces (linear structure), the use of beautiful is ambiguous. Wilhem von Humboldt is described as one of the most beautiful and perfect souls (140), which is supposed to be actually meant that way, for example. But on the other hand, there is, what Altick (132) calls ironic praise the touching and beautiful words (61) of the fanatical anti-Catholic Mr. Murphy saying I will carry out my lectures if they walk over my body as a dead corpse, which is definitely neither touching nor beautiful.Interesting is one of the most ambiguous words in Arnolds argumentative vocabulary. For example, the interesting speakers (74), he perceive during the Reform Debates in the House of Commons. One is later described as perfection, the other as excess. Excess is not interesting. another( prenominal) example is this very interesting operation (223), for the attempt to legalise the nuptials of a man with his deceased wifes sister. It was illegal in Britain, but how often does such a case happen? There were much more important problems to be solved at that time at least from Arnolds point of view. The absurdity of this interesting operation is emphasised in the aftermath of the text by repetition.3.5 Use of RepetitionsThe parlance deceased wifes sister gets repeated nine times in Culture and Anarchy. This rhetorical method of Arnold attempts to humiliate the opponent. This is also acknowledge by Collini, who states by mercilessly repeating the least happy phrasesover and over again, he drowns his opponent in a sea of comedian associations. (216).Sometimes repetition only serves in substitution for a sufficient vocabulary, like in real thought, real beautiy real sweetness and real light. (49) or to show similarities like the half-sized, half-fed half-clothed child ren without health, without home, without hope (245). This similarities all hint to one point the lack of a sufficient policy. As a polemical journalist (vid. infr. Campbell), Arnold tries to persuade (deliberative rhetoric). One big part of this early type of propaganda is the attempt for coinage by excessive repetition of newly delimitate terms.3.6 Denitions, Comparisons and ContrastsCulture is the best which has been thought and said in the world (ix). This is thereby nearly equal to religion. Religion says The kingdom of God is within you and culture, in a like agency places human perfection in an internal condition, distinguished from animality. (13). An attribute of culture is mature reason as well as best self . The really blessed thing is to like what proper(ip) reason ordains (68).But for us, who believe in right reason, in the work and possibility of extricating and elevating our best self, in the progress of humanity towards perfection, we support them in repressi ng anarchy and disorder because without order there can be no society, and without society there can be no human perfection.The chasm of without and society serves the rhetorical effect. Anarchy is more or less define as doing as one likes. The natural instinct of the ordinary man towards liberty is thereby degenerated into an anarchical tendency (59), caused by liberty. This doing as one likes is place with sweetness and light (differentiation).According to the Oxford English Dictionary19 Sweetness and Light is a quotation from Jonathan Swift and means the noblest characteristics of humanity. His definition of sweetness and light is juxtaposed with fire and distinctiveness, his own coinage, repeated twelve times. Sweetness and light are right reason, best self and culture but sometimes this must be protected by the forces of fire and strength. State is defined as the nation in itscollective and bodily character(66). This is based on the best self and becomes the national righ t reason (93). Culture and Anarchy is full of juxtapositions.According to Miller, Signalling words for comparisons and contrast are are in contrast (1 time), on the other hand(14 times),on the contrary (3 times) and however(28 times) or transition words like similarly (3 times), similarly (2 times similar) and in a like manner (manner 21 times). On the level of content, the most obvious contrasts are between the bad examples like the liberals Roebuck and Bright, the Alderman of London and Mr. Murphy as well as the writers of the Times, the Saturday Review and the Daily Telegraph, who are compared with the with the good examples of Bishop Wilson, Duke Wellington and St. Augustine.3.7 DialoguesAs mentioned above by Freiburg, its not uncommon to use a dialogue in an essay. The following one can be found in the introduction to Culture and Anarchy where Arnold reports his conversation with a Nonconformist I said, that seemed a pity. A pity? cried he not at all (xxxiv)3.8 MetaphorsOne can always find thousands of metaphors in every text. But the poetic language of the late Romanticist Arnold, used on a nearly Utilitarian topic makes a very picturesque use of metaphors. Arnold describes himself as delivered from the slavery of Bentham (46), to implicates that he has liberated himself from a philosophy which holds the enemies of culture captive. (Altick, 124).4. ConclusionThis paper has shown that non-fictional prose ask to be investigated by literary studies. It has shown the importance of the essay in the Victorian and fin-de-sicle period in his parallelism to the development of the periodicals and with it the journalism. This might give a hint for the future, on how to analyse hypertexts like bloggs, which can also be read as more or less formal essays.Culture and Anarchy is an example of polemical rhetoric. It was written by a poet of late romanticism and is thus not well-structured, but very effective. In the words of Caufield (325) Arnold the poet knows that stain glass and plainsong will sooner quicken hearts than pedant disquisitions and cosmological proofs.
Tuesday, January 22, 2019
Anne Bradstreet Jonathan Edwards and Anne Bradstreet were both famous prude writers of their time. Each of their works, Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God and Upon the Burning of Our put forward convey to their audiences the strong religious beliefs prevalent during that time period. Edwards writes to persuade his audience. On the other hand, Bradstreet writes to inform her audience. Edwards mainly talks about hell and damnation in his writings, however Bradstreet talks about heaven and hope.Although both Edwards and Bradstreet put up similar outlooks and understandings of religious beliefs and attitudes and beliefs about human life, there are to a fault distinctions that allow the reader to better understand each authors purpose. Bradstreet intends that one should look to God and pray during times of hardship. On the other hand Edwards believes that one should always look God, but non in times of hardship, he thinks people must permit God have it off to them. Bradstreet e xpresses her needing of patron from God after(prenominal) her house burns down when she said, ski tow up thy thoughts above the sky(Bradstreet41).Referring to this quote Bradstreet looks up to God for help while she is in the middle of a crisis or hardship. Edwards suggests that people should let God come to them when he said, And now you have an extraordinary opportunity, a day where in Christ has thrown the door of mercy blanket(a) Motahari 2 open, and stands in the door calling and crying with a shabby voice to poor sinners(Edwards129). According to this quote Edwards is saying that God has at last come to the sinners in their time of need. Not only are Bradstreets and Edwardss religious beliefs different, but they also have different attitudes and beliefs.Bradstreet is a positive woman who believes that everyone is going to heaven, on the other hand Edwards is a negative man who believes that everyone is going to hell. Bradstreet expresses her positivity and belief for hea ven after her house burns down while saying, The world no long-lasting let me love, my hope and treasure lies above(Bradstreet119). This reveals that that she will always believe something good will happen. Even though her house and all of her things burned-over to ash, she still is happy that she has another home that lies above heaven.Edwards show his negativeness towards people when he said, In short, they have no refuge, null to buck hold of(Edwards126). Referring to this quote Edwards is trying to say that people do not have any escape from hell and damnation, also that there is nothing worth living for. Bradstreet and Edwards do not have the same views in the categories of religious beliefs and attitudes and beliefs of human life. Through her writings, Bradstreet explains that God is a kind pleasing person who is always there for us. However Edwards portrays God as a mean and angry person through his writings. I think that Bradstreet has a better view of God.
Monday, January 21, 2019
Facts Petitioner was charged with violation of Section 2 (4) of the revise securities act. Respondent filed to cancel the passport of the petitioner and to issue a possess diversion order. The RTC ordered the DFA to cancel petitioners passport, based on the finding that the petitioner has not been arraigned and there was evidence to show that the criminate has left the country with out the knowledge and the permission of the court.Issue Whether or Not the right to get off may be impaired by order of the court.Held The bail bond posted by petitioner has been scrub and warrant of arrest has been issued by reason that he failed to appear at his arraignments. There is a valid restriction on the right to travel, it is obligate that the accused must make himself available whenever the court requires his presence. A mortal facing criminal charges may be restrained by the mash from leaving the country or, if abroad, compelled to return (Constitutional Law, Cruz, Isagani A., 1987 Edit ion, p. 138). So it is also that An accused released on bail may be re-arrested without the necessity of a warrant if he attempts to depart from the Philippines without prior permission of the Court where the case is pending (ibid., Sec. 20 2nd par. ).Article III, Section 6 of the 1987 Constitution should be interpreted to rigorous that while the liberty of travel may be impaired pull down without Court Order, the appropriate executive officers or administrative authorities are not armed with arbitrary discretion to trim down limitations. They can impose limits only on the basis of national security, earthly concern safety, or public health and as may be provided by law, a limitive contrive which did not appear in the 1973 text (The Constitution, Bernas, Joaquin G.,S.J., Vol. I, First Edition, 1987, p. 263). Apparently, the phraseology in the 1987 Constitution was a reaction to the ban on international travel imposed under the previous regime when there was a run Processing C enter, which issued certificates of eligibility to travel upon application of an interested party (See Salonga vs. Hermoso & break Processing Center, No. 53622, 25 April 1980, 97 SCRA 121).Holding an accused in a criminal case within the reach of the Courts by preventing his departure from the Philippines must be considered as a valid restriction on his right to travel so that he may be dealt with in accordance with law. The offended party in any criminal operation is the People of the Philippines. It is to their best interest that criminal prosecutions should run their course and give way to finality without undue delay, with an accused holding himself amenable at totally times to Court Orders and processes