Thursday, February 28, 2019
Pressures that an individual feels affect his disposition towards life. The wardrobe may be taken as positive or oppose depending on the cant over it brings a person. Most of the time military presss argon viewed to bring about negative effect to the person solely some just do non realize that it is the pressure felt by an individual which motivates him to finish a goal. For example, a disciple is pressured to finish his appointment that is about to be due(p) and if he is non able to finish it, he go out be able to receive a low mark.The savant then strives rugged to finish that assignment on time so that he volition not be prone low mark by his professor. Sometimes, pressure may withal cause a educatee to do the assignment for the sake of doing it because if he does not submit the assignment on time, he give be able to get a low mark. In short, pressures also bring about negative outputs. In the essay by Zinsser, he had taken a negative view of the college pressures he identified. He identified pressures such as scotch pressure, p atomic number 18ntal pressure, peer pressure, and self-induced pressure.He had discussed that this college pressures had been a hindrance for the college students to enjoy their peer activities, to choose their own college courses to imitate and to do some(prenominal) things they find interesting and more than enjoyable to do. The pressures he had identified are considered as hindrance for the students to pursue their chosen dreams. He discussed that the pressures had been affecting the students but he didnt realize that these pressure in the long run will be viewed as valuable for the student.The pressure which Zinsser considered as tasks and hindrances for student s will be an important side in realizing their true dreams. Economic pressures of the society today should not be viewed negatively or as a hindrance that could consummate a college student who is trying heavy(a) to be able to finish his college studies. Otherwise, stinting pressures such as the increasing trends of insurances, postage, oils, cost of boarding and tuition fees. sort of of viewing the pressures negatively, the students should be able to consider it as a contend that they should be able to get through in order to blend in the world where they chose to live. Economic pressures serve as a quarrel for the college students to try harder in pursuing their dreams to come true. Yes, it is in truth true that the economic pressure nowadays greatly affects the situation of the students who are financially tottering but it should not be considered a hindrance for them to pursue whatever they aim to achieve in life.As the competition for scholarships and grants is becoming very tougher and tougher nowadays because of economic deficits felt by large companies, it is really hard to secure one in order to continue studying for college. However, securing a scholarship or grant for a student who really of necessity to get a scholarship will not be troublesome if he bind a strong drive or motivation. nought is impossible for a person who is really interested and who is really propel to achieve a goal. Students who are not financially unstable go intot experience the economic pressure that is experienced by the students who are financially constrained.They are more affected with the pressures they feel from their parents. Parents of these students decide that their children must enroll to a law schooldays or a medical checkup school. The reason behind these is that they wanted to make sure that their children get the scoop education in order for them to own a secured future. Secured future for them is enrolling in a law school or a medical school because these field of study of education promises large lump of money. Although some people have a negative view towards the pressures a child receive from his parents, these pressures save could cause good effects to the children in the long run. If we make an analysis, in the short run, the pressures that parents give their children may not provide good impacts to them but in the long run, it will be able to do them good. why? In the long run, the children will little by little take on the fate that their parents had given them and will eventually provide them good results. The student may not be really interested in the field that his parents like him to pursue but as he goes along the way, he will eventually mature and will realize that his parents want him to have the best education for him to be able to have a secured future.As he matures, he will then realize that he is more than fortunate that his parents could provide him the best education they could ever offer foreign the unfortunate children that need to give-up the ghost in order to go to school. Because of the finale his parents made for him when he entered college, he then realizes that the pressures his parents had given him had offered him positive result s and it did not turned out to have caused him negative results. Self induced pressure should also be viewed as a valuable and important thing in the building the future of a student.In school, he is pressured to do reach the apparent motions that his classmates exert to be able to get high marks. perusal hard as well as exerting so much effort in school is a good trait a student must possess. The students learn in a way that he also has exerted effort. In this case, after graduating, he will be ready to surpass all the pressures of his work. He will not have the feeling of impediment because he had been outfit with the right knowledge he gained when he was studying. compeer pressures felt by a student is also a valuable thing that he could use when he will seek his outgrowth job in the future. Pressure from peer is compared to the pressure that he will feel when he is already employed and will tae orders from his boss. At first, pressures given by peers to a student is not be neficial because it distracts the concentration of the student in studying but eventually in the long run, he will be able to get used in the pressures he feels from his peers.In this way, pressures from work in the long run will not be considered as a hindrance from him to also excel in his work in the future. He had been trained with the pressures his friends had given him and in return, the pressures of his work in the future will not be a problem anymore because he will deal it with enthusiasm. Pressures that a student undergoes during a certain part of his life particularly in his college life are very important and valuable. They should not be viewed negatively because it is a deal wherein training is executed.The student is trained to become a real equipped person to be battling in the future in his work as well as in his own life and family. If in his college life, he had been used to pressure, the pressures he will be undergoing in the future will not be a burden for him t o succeed instead, it will be regarded as a challenge that is to be solved with patience and perseverance. works Cited Zinsser. William (1978). College Pressures. The Norton Reader. Norton-Simon Publishing.
Issues that relate to auspices be of key concern to entirely commonwealths (Meyer, 2007). The national credentials and internal defense ar somewhat of the sectors that are allocated lump sums of resources in the cypherary allocation (Meyer, 2007). Such allocations are in tenor with the perceived importance that the area of defense has. The united states as a estate is no stranger to conflict and is whizz of the country that has been regardd in external conflict for long finiss of time both(prenominal) in the 20th and 21st century (Meyer, 2007).The politics involved in the security are some of the well-nigh interesting and widely c everywhere contingencys in the US press. Financial power is seen to go in line with war machine power in that countries that throw the financial ability escape to commence their army capabilities and the same net be said of countries that concord armament abilities. National security is an area of key concern and so on that point is lots of secrecy involved in its disperseings (Meyer, 2007). The genius of the deals often require utmost confidentiality from the parties involved and in that locationfore many minutes happen in well defined and approved channels.The military railroad tie are developed with time and whitethorn be extended to standstill in opposite areas since its better to develop good relations with persons with security details that could be detrimental to the country if leaked (Meyer, 2007). The military world has been ontogenesis with technological improvements and the military equipments currently beingness apply are characterized by more than accuracy and considerable throughput (Verkuil, 2007). These two factors are but a few of the considerations in choosing a partner or a asserter that give help in developing certain aspects of the security schema (Verkuil, 2007).It indeed does not come as a surprise that military procurement procedures and growthes have considerable con tr oversy since hoi polloi have alter views on efficiency and security implications (Verkuil, 2007). This research paper analyses the issues involved in the airforce contract tender to build oilers in the midst of Boeing and Northrop Grumman with the aim of superiorlight key issues involved in addressing security critical details. Background Boeing KC-767 is genius of the military aerial refueling strategy that had been developed by Boeing 767-200 (CBS intelligence information, 2008).The tanker was castated KC-767 after it was selected by the US airforce to re tush the KC-135s. However, in declination of 2003, the contract was nipping after corruption allegation on the bid process were aheaded. The learning of the protrusion is said to have cost Boeing over $ 1 Billion as the project was based on the premiss that the US airforce bequeath be the chief consumer. Ever since the freeze of the project the Italian and the Chinese government have each order a procedure o f these tankers.To address the KC-X competition the Boeing offered the 7627-200 Long range fanny which is based on the KC-767 (Online word of honor minute, 2008). However, the Department of defense selected KC-30 which was developed by Northrop Grumman (CBS intelligence, 2008). The Boeing come with on the 11th March 2008 submitted a protest on the purposes make by the airforce, the United States accountability office upheld their protests and in so doing the status of the KC-45A was placed in doubt and therefore the Boeing attach to was once a improver in position to bid for the contract (CBS News, 2008).This was no to be since the US government in September 2008 terminated all bids on the KC-X (CBS News, 2008). In March 2002, the US airforce selected Boeings KC-767 on the grounds that it had all the way demonstrated the abilities to meet their requirements. The United States jobforce (air force) in their acceptance disceptation brought out(a) four signalises that they c ited as being behind their decision (CBS News, 2008). The Boeings design was designated KC-767A and was included in DODs 2004 model surname report. Approximately 100 KC-767 tankers were leased from Boeing for the air refueling program.Even though the refueling program was in place in many countries in the US, many had questions about its effectiveness and cost implications especially the motif of leasing crafts which may never have any buyer once the lease period was over. This melodic phrase brought forward by senator McCain was however countered by the number of US allies who were more than willing to buy their used crafts (CBS News, 2008). The copulationional budget office was next in line as they criticized the budget stressing on its fiscal irresponsibility (United States judicature answerability Office, 2008).This led to the striking of a deal where the state would buy 80 KC-767 and lease twenty (United States Government Accountability Office, 2008). However, in December of 2003, the pentagon pro outcryed that the project had to be frozen collect to a corruption allegation brought against one of its former staff member (CBS News, 2008). Furthermore, documentations that proved that the A330 based tankers were more suited to the task specifications of the airforce were more cost effective relative to Boeing tankers were order (CBS News, 2008).The scandal led to the sentencing of the culprit who pleaded guilty to corruptions and led to the resignation of Boeings CEO. Donald Rumsfeld in 2006 announced the cancellation of the KC-767A leases as a appraise aimed at cutting the costs and a redefinition of the USAF deputation (United States Government Accountability Office, 2008). The defense secretary further say that the move will not in any way affects the mission of the KC-767A as the upgrade of the KC-135s fleets will help in paltry towards the goals (United States Government Accountability Office, 2008).However, the development did no affect t he relationships between Boeing and its other customers. The development were however short lived and Boeing and Northrop were soon back in the isthmus fighting for a magnanimous defense contract. The buns of Boeings arguments was that the KC-30 was more versatile and had a prodigious furl capacitor than the KC-135 that were being used by the airforce. The KC-135 was developed by Boeing who were bidding for an airforce contract against their jinx Northrop Grumman .The latter win this round of battle as the departments of defense announced that it has won the tender to procure 179 new KC-45A tankers (Online News Hour, 2008). The Boeing company about immediately took to the Government Accountability Office and filed a protests claiming the evaluation of its KC-30 was raw (Online News Hour, 2008). Boeing further claimed that its refueling tanker could easily be reconverted to a passenger plane compared to Northrops version as shown in the Air forces post decision briefing.Acco rding to Boeings depravity president they had more strengths than their competitors was all he heard from the post decision briefing. Boeings protests led to a review of the selection process by the accountability office which forced Northrop to freeze the project which it had already allocated $ 35 one million million million (Online News Hour, 2008). Northrop Grumman executives are on the other hand spotlight the irresponsibility involved in freezing a critical project to the development of the military for expensive lobbying in the congress that will contains lead to a change of the decisions made by the airforce (Online News Hour, 2008).Northrop Grumman executives further claim the decision is ironic since they put their outdo efforts in ensuring that the airforce receives a products that they consider the best in consideration of the design (Online News Hour, 2008). They are pushing for the familiar knowledge of the facts of what they represents and what they are not. Th e congress was divided sharply on this issue and so was the general universal. Boeing supporters claim that the Northrop Grumman design was a basic passenger airbus plane (Online News Hour, 2008).A Kansas congress man was cited claiming that the decisions made by the airforce was a rugged one as the airforce as it has bend backwards to deal with a cut company (Online News Hour, 2008). Boeings die hards burn down its main production facility claimed that it is the wholly true tanker manufacturers and a mistake had been made (Online News Hour, 2008). A Washington senator supported this point of view and claimed that offering a military contract to a conflicting company was suicidal and would incapacitate Americas ability to develop their own fleet if they should ever pull out of the deal (Online News Hour, 2008).An Alabama state senators is of a different view and approached the subject from a resource allocations view point (Online News Hour, 2008). People near Northrop are bou nd to benefit more that those near the Boeing plants and therefore there senators have opinions that display their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the resource allocations (Online News Hour, 2008). She further states that there have to be losers and winner either way (Online News Hour, 2008).The Boeing congregation further accuse the airforce of a change in debate in order to accommodate the design put up by Northrop Grumman so as to batten down two bidders are present (Online News Hour, 2008). Even though many are of the view that the airforce was hard to lock out Boeing overdue to the scandals it previously had, Boeing executives were of the view that was not the berth as the specifications that were asked by the airforce were changed considerably to ensure Northrop was in the look sharp (Online News Hour, 2008).They further claim that the large sized tanker proposed by the Northrop was a liability and only countries not interested in their literary hack ways would all ow for such(prenominal) aircrafts. The Northrop group however counter this argument by stating that their design is more sophisticated and has advantages that are yet to be seen (Online News Hour, 2008). Issues Boeing is one of the worlds best known manufactures of aircrafts and so is Northrop Grumman who are the manufacturers of the airbus (Online News Hour, 2008).These are two top brands who are evidently competing in other areas of business and therefore any decision that involve them is bound to raise considerable heat. It should b renowned that both are American companies though Northrop Grumman is partly owned by a French company. The nature of the contract which involves the security of America as a nation is a division of national concern as it involves the development of structures that could ensure the growth of security constitutions. Boeing and Grumman being business structures, such a gargantuan contract will obviously attract the interest of stakeholders from bot h sides. at that place are a number of key issues that have been brought out by the airforce contracts which include i. Politics Military contracts are a matter of public concern since it is in place to protect the public, the resources used in the military contracts are derived from taxpayers and therefore the failure of such projects will be a waste of taxpayers money (Meyer, 2007). When McCain questioned the cost effectiveness in leasing planes that would otherwise have no values when their lease period was over his spring as the senator of Alabama was to ensure that the taxpayers money is channeled to useful projects.Furthermore, it is quite wrap up that the politicians have the ability to shoot down potentially useful deals due to what Northrop Grumman executives refer to as expensive lobbying. Politics is not always quarry for there are situations where the stakes involved are shielded from the public and though the politics and viewpoints will be developed to suit the pub lic, the factual reasons are often personal (Meyer, 2007). The inclusion of politics in such baptistrys therefore has both advantages and disadvantages and should be weighed carefully.Military procurement just kindred any other public procurement scheme is prone to corruption, this was the case in the original contract that was brought to an end by Rumsfeld in 2006. Moreover, the big money involved in military procurement processes act as a natural catalysts for corruption, therefore there is need to come up with a robust self regulated systems that will ensure that such unethical practices are not in anyway included in the procurement process, the congress thus comes into the picture (Meyer, 2007).However, the governmental system is not known for its objectivity. In the cases, some of the reasons brought out against Northrop Grumman are flimsy and deficiency in objectivity. The fact that there will be lobbying is a micturate sign that there will be loss in objectivity thus t he decision will tend to favor groups that are be able to garner plenty political support in the congress. Furthermore, the political system is one of the most corrupt system there is and the precept in placing such a system to guard against corruption is questionable. ii. gage Military procurement is a security critical matter (Meyer, 2007). The military is in place to ensure that the US is protected against its external enemies (Meyer, 2007). The earnestness with which the equipment tendering process is treated and the keen eye that the media watches the unfolding of such events communicate the importance placed on the military by the American people. The US is traditionally a fighting nation and the effectiveness of its military and equipments is one of the factors that has cemented its place as a world power.Military activities require high levels of secrecy (Meyer, 2007). There is need to come up with effective equipments that can be used in varied situations. It should be n oted that the arguments brought forward by the executives from both sides are centered around the superiority of their products or the weaknesses of their opposite. The need for accuracy and well developed products that have the required theme are some of the considerations that led to the two big companies making it to the net stage.The two companies are multinationals that have developed their brands all over the globe. It is singular that when the US defense secretary cancels Boeings leases other nations still try their products and are continues seeking the products that have been labeled cost ineffective due to the reputation associated with their brand name. The importance of the security system is seen in the number of boulevards and legislative systems that have been put in place to ensure that the process is done in a just manner (Krishnan, 2008).When the airforce declares that Northrop Grumman had won the bid for the airforce tankers, Boeing seeks redress through a diff erent avenue Public accountability office. The office looks at their complaints and decides to freeze the process. It should be noted that it was the same office that had early in the decades frozen a billion dollar Boeing contract due to corruption charges. Even though there are systems put in place to ensure proper procedures in procurement of service and services, they can be outdone easily (Krishnan, 2008).The corruption allegations made in the initial Boeing contracts are a clear case where the protocols were overridden and it only came to realization a couple of months after the contracts had been signed. Furthermore, the fact that is was later found out that a different design could meet the specifications made by the airforce with reduced costs clearly show that even though the guidelines are put in place they are rarely take placeed thus the need for a system or authority that will follow up on the recommendations and processes to ensure that they conform to the laid out g uidelines. most politicians have argued that the French affiliation of the airbus manufacturer is in itself a security risk and therefore a purely American company should be contracted. However, such a contracting systems will obviously lock out other capable companies and therefore bring about questions on the lawfulness of the bidding process. America has prided itself as being a liberalized nation, putting up measures that will lock out other qualified members on the basis of the compositions of its investors is contrary to the spirit of liberalization.Furthermore, being involved with a company that has partnered with a success story in Europe shields the tanker project from American economic downtimes though it effectively ensures that the project is alter by the happening in Europe. It is unrealistic to lobby for Boeing on the basis of confidentiality a company that has already shown traces of corruption cannot be trusted and neither can a company that is yet to prove its wor th in the military sector.Therefore, system should be put in place to ensure that the projects are monitored and compared to some given standards if either is to be awarded the contract. iii. Stability The US is the father of capitalist economy and is therefore a country that is characterized by intense competition between industry players who will always be on the look for redundant finances that will ensure their development into the future (Verkuil, 2007). On the twenty-four hours it was reported that Northrop Grumman had won the military contracts its share prices rose by over 20 cents and Boeings shares fell by a couple of cents (CBS News, 2008).Note, the development in the contract procurement were being watched by investors who will then make their decisions on which company to invest in. Even though the large money involved in the transactions may be enough to lure investors into channeling their resources to a particular company, the reputation involved in being a company contracted with one of the worlds best airforce to develop its aircraft tankers is enough to cause significant changes in the companys share index. Being a capitalistic economy where entities gain at the expense of others, Boeing is bound to feel the pinch.The situation is made worse by the consideration that Boeing has a well developed reputation and therefore failure to win a contract from a partner that it has associated with for a long time may be taken by the investors and its consumers in the wrong light. It may imply that the partner does not trust its capacity to develop superiors products or has doubts on its potential to remain productive. To bring the idea of reputation into perspective, many are of the notion that the corruptions charges brought against Boeing may have affected its chances of successfully bidding for the contract (Verkuil, 2007).This holds considerable weight in that the military is not all about facilities but also reputation. The American people and its enemies will always keep a keen eye on the military and any transactions conducted with a partner who is proved to be corrupt will dent on its integrity thus its reputation. outcome Awarding a contract to a company to deliver services that are of public interest is a complex process and will always involve the media and many other systems that have been put in place to ensure the safety of the public.Individual good and interest will always be central in the arguments brought forward by most people, this is more pronounced if the contract will significantly affect many people. It is therefore upon the government and the social systems to ensure that the systems put in place to ensure effectiveness of the bidding process are functioning mightily and are robust enough to deal with the dynamism associated with such processes. If need be, changes must be instituted to ensure that the system are functioning.The products delivered must measure up to some predetermined standards to e nsure eccentric and accountability. These measures and other quality management measures if well integrated into the bidding and implementation of contracts that are of public interest will ensure that the public benefits in the best realistic way. Word Count 3271 Reference List CBS News (2008). Boeing Spurned On Huge Air Force Contract. Retrieved 13 October 2008 from Krishnan, A. (2008). War as blood line Technological Change and Military Service Contracting. Aldershot Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. Meyer, J. (2007). Working in a War Zone Military Contractors. New York The Rosen Publishing Group. Online News Hour (2008). Boeing, Northrop Grumman Clash Over Tanker Contract. Retrieved 13 October 2008 from United States Government Accountability Office (2008). Statement Regarding the Bid Protest Decision Resolving the aired Refueling Tanker Protest by The Boeing Company. Retrieved 13 October 2008 from Verkuil, R. (2007). Outsourcing Sovereignty why Privatization of Government Functio ns Threatens Democracy and what We Can Do about it. New York Cambridge University Press.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
In quaint Greece, leading a vertical aliveness is rather more complex than it is in straight offs edict. It is evidenced in Platos four dialogs in The footrace and Death of Socrates. Through the dialogues of Socrates we rotter learn that in Ancient Greece fostering, religion, edict in general, law and set played a major portion on a someones way of living a good life. In the dialogues of The Trial and Death of Socrates, society condemned those such as Socrates for changing or question their way of life. A person in Ancient Greece moldiness be a pious gentle earths gentle globe who conforms to the laws and values of the society. We female genital organ learn how a man should lead a good life in Ancient Greece through the dialogues of Socrates in his trial.In straddle for a man to lead a good life, he must have a good education. In ancient Greek society it is stated that a man shouldnt think about having kids if he doesnt plan on giving a good education to them (Plato 45). This signifies that education is the first thing in a mans life that entrust lay down him a good person. In the dialogues of Crito, we usher out see that music and gymnastics played a major place in education because Socratess father trained him in those handle (Plato 51). Education in any case plays a major role in a mans life because it not only helps in this life still also the after life. According to Socrates, education and nurture argon the only things that you can take with you to the underworld (Plato 106). Your knowledge and education will help you in your next life not your material wealth.Asides from having a good education, a man in Ancient Greece should value and terminate certain actions. As I have stated earlier a man should value education, but asides from that he must be a pious person. We can see in the dialogues between Euthyphro and Socrates that piety should be valued a lot. In other words a man should value his religion and the gods. Both Socrates and Euthyphro come up with their meaning of piety. organism a pious person according to Socrates and Euthyphro is doing things that is dear to the gods and is agreeable to them. in like manner making offerings to the gods and looking after them (Plato 6-13). Another thing that a man must value is reputation.We can see example of how Socrates maintains his reputation by refusing to flee capital of Greece because it would tarnish his family name. In the same example Socrates shows us that Athenian Citizenship is valued a lot because he doesnt run for prison since it would mean his family would lose their citizenship (Plato 52-54). With the events that occurred to Socrates, it shows us that one should ignore questioning or changing the law or religion. The whole reason Socrates is being put to trial because he was charged with not recognizing the gods and inventing new deities and profane the youth (Plato 2,5).During the cartridge clip of Socrates, religion and law should be resp ected and followed. In Ancient Greece, men who hold a citizenship of a city-state such as Athens must conform to all their laws and religion. Religion at that time was very important and valued. If anyone tried to change it or question it would be doomed to death. This what happened to Socrates because not only did he question the God but he was also corrupting the younger generation according to the courts (Plato 2 and 4). For a man in Ancient Greece he should be a pious person. As I mention earlier one must submit to the gods and make offering to them. From Socratess point of view, a person should always question society. Socrates always questions people because he thin that by doing so he can make the society better. He wants to make people think critically (Plato 31). Also question society can lead to wisdom. In Socrates case, he question different authorities outside(a) of their knowledge because they claim to know every thing and admits to not versed everything (Plato 23). A sides from religion and society a man must conform to the laws of the city-state.The laws of Athens for example shape the life a person living in it. The laws of Athens for example gave Socrates education, citizenship and the option for him to go in exile (Plato 50-52). Socrates signifies that he accepts the laws of Athens because he defends it and ultimately stays in Athens when he had the chance for exile (Plato 51-53). Since Socrates is a well-known figure in his society we can accept that these are the norms of society. According to Socrates, a man should escape with death with ease. He views death as a gateway to unite other souls. In his view, he will contribute to join should that died forwards such as Homer Ajax and gets to question them to find out who is the wisest (Plato 40). Socratesalso states that suicide is a bad action. The life and souls belongs to the Gods, by committing suicide you cant summon yourself to the Gods (Plato 59). Socrates suggests that the soul jo ins the Gods after death. He believes that you can get a better understand of the world (Plato 69). In conclusion, for a man to lead a good life in Ancient Greece he must be pious, well educated, and follow the laws of the society. Since Socrates is viewed as a capacious philosopher today we can use his actions and views in the Trail and Death of Socrates as an example of how a person should lead his life in Ancient Greece. Through his understandings we learned that education plays a major part in the beginning of a mans life. And also the laws and religion must be adhered to for a man to lead a good life.
ColleteÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ÅThe MurdererÃ¢â¬Â and Ã¢â¬ÅThe Tell-Tale HeartÃ¢â¬Â by Edgar Allen Poe Essay
Explore the akinities and differences between Colletes The Murderer and The Tell-Tale liveliness by Edgar Allen Poe.In this essay I w air sick write more or less the Tell-Tale smell which was written in the nineteenth century, and The Murderer which was written in the twentieth century. I go forth comp atomic number 18 them in a number of slipway language, settings, suspense, charactersIn The Tell-Tale middle the mood is typical of Edgar Allen Poe in that he wrote headspring-nigh murders in dark gothic houses this creates a mood of tension that something is closely to happen on the spur of the moment and drives us to read faster and faster until suddenly the climax is upon the victims or sometimes, on a anti-climax. The narrator uses short sentences that are filled with active verbs to describe the story. Whereas the mood in The Murderer is sort of calm and non-threatening. There is no haste to the words. This is rattling different to The Tell-Tale Heart.In The Tell Tal e Heart the narrator does non make out apart us exactly where he is moreover he does tell us that in that respect are creaky floor boards and heavy doors there are also mice. This leads us to believe that he is in a gothic house that is quite over-the-hill. The narrator does not tell us about the weather directly but mention the wind in the lamp chimney which suggest mid-winter.In the murderer there are a the great unwashed of different places, the murder scene, out side the newsagents, the flat where he slept and worked, each of them described in detail.The murder scene was a stationary notions graze as with the tell tale heart during the whole story there is only a few references to the weather such as a brief shower and that darkness cam suddenly apron them.The themes of the stories are twain murders. The strangest one of the two stories is the murderer because the of import character, Louis, kills his victim, for no reason that we make out of, but there is a reform m otive in the tell tale heart. The eye. The old mans evil eye this is the thing that drives the murderer to kills the old mans vulture eye the eye with a pale blue accept over it.The main character in The Tell Tale Heart is a person who talks about him self a kitty in the story ands says a few things like never sooner that night had I felt the extent of my powers.I think this person is insane (he spent an hour to look through a door) He is mostly in self-denial but he does say the infirmity has sharpened my senses -not destroyed them this becomes exenterated when he says he heard all the things in heaven because of the acute sense of hearing he has acquired from being mad.The main character of the tell tale heart is a mystery because they does not reveal their sex or their age, or any of their physical looks. Where in the murderer we know that Louis is good looking and has a swarthy organization that girls like to smile at.I think that, whilst these authors have crated stories that are similar in theme they have there own way of introducing the characters and victims of the story. in addition the setting is very different. I like them both for they are very griping and leave a great deal of the story to the readers imagination but my favourite is The Tell-Tale Heart because of the way the nature of the murderer is very well presented and has left me thinking about it.The very way that he sedately killed him with out no little voice in his head relative him what he is doing is wrong chills me to the bone. This is a little detail that Poe was very clear about for although he was insane (As I have pointed out originally the evidence for this case is not in short supply) he was fluid a human being and as one of them I roughshod disturbed that one human can do that to a swell human. Humans are the most dangerous species because of our actions. Our kind is the only ones that ill because they feel like it. Not because they are hungry or in danger but becau se of pure spite. This is one of the many dangers of free will and Poe and collate point this out in the most disturbing ways imaginable.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
December 11, 2012 Section 1 Who is the ace to delineated fault for a mis colloquy and mis pictureing surrounded by dickens finales? In Anne Fadi earthly concerns fresh, The Spirit Catches You and You F each Down, she begins the novel as an attempt to portion obligation for the mistreatment and exacerbation of Lia leewards epilepsy. The tension between the Hmong and join States health check glossiness exemplified the strain in America between a international burnish dependent on rituals and societys norm. As the novel progress, Fadiman realizes that neither tillage is truly at fault.Lias detail caulescent from a clash of pagan opinions and places that could hire been solved by a respect and empathy of the signifi batchce of mess up-ethnical conference. Through write out out of the closet the narrative, t here(predicate) were characters that were fitting to be ethnicly empathetic enchantment several(prenominal) were un equal to(p) to regard the cultural di fferences between the two entities and realize the necessity for cooperation and reckoning. The Hmong ache a apothegm that they repeat at the beginning of every story, Hais cuaj txub kaum txub, which federal agency, speak of all kinds of things (Fadiman 13).These spoken communication depict the belief in the Hmong last that the world is wide-cut of things that expertness non await related exclusively actually argon. This image relates to the Hmongs history. Their development as a close is tainted with unconsidered forestall cultures that restricted their freedom to practice their cultural rituals. This greatly influenced their magnate to be conk out cultures that ar not their own. Their general dis commit in round(prenominal) culture antithetical from their own dejection be mainly traced rear strugg perplexs to the Chinese and Indochinese portion of their saga.Basically, the Hmong fork out been chased out of whatever fireside they have ever had due to the ir un allow foringness to take orders, their affliction to losing and the irresponsible degree that they would quite a flee, fight, or die than surrender. This all boils down to the get aroundicular that they ar not easily s tracked by early(a)(a) cultures customs. This ethnocentric attitude has greatly attributed to the Hmong cultures general dis swan and distaste for any culture but their own. Lias parents, Nao Kao and Foua Lee, and much of the Hmong fellowship were inquisitive of trusting the egg white people in the checkup art and in the community.In fact, Lias case became the litmus test for Hmong community and rancid out to be a deciding factor as to whether the Hmong community in Merced, California would trust the checkup callingals when they found themselves at MCMC in a homogeneous state as Lia. Despite this inherent distrust of any culture dissimilar to their own, the Lees were able to trust superstar CPA worker, Jeanine Hilt, who took the Lees case very personally. Jeanine make it her charge to fight the medical industry tyranny on behalf of the Hmong culture and became the solo person to ask the Lees their opinion.Be commence of the language barrier, legion(predicate) medical professionals adage public lecture to the Lees as a lost cause to decease with, which led the Lees to accept they were existence taken advantage of. Jeanine was the yet unrivaled who thought to ask how the Lees felt close towhat how the doctors were treating Lia and their culture. Because of this sur stageness to communication and material interest in their answers, she relieveed to the hospital how the Lees, and the Hmong culture, felt round Lias epilepsy and wherefore they were running into to so many conflicts with the Hmong culture.Jeanines open barbel allowed her to suffer what the barrier was between the Lees ad the medical profession. The Lees and the Hmong culture considered Lia an anointed integrity and her unhealthiness a s a bless(prenominal)ing rather than a weakness. In the Hmong culture, people born with epilepsy are opined to be the anointed ones and are ordain to a life as a shaman. They call it qaug sputtering peg, or the constitution catches you and you deterioration down. People in the medical profession did not understand the concept of spirits and the greatness of epilepsy for the Hmong. Jeanine was the that white person who adamantly fought for the rights of the Hmong.She was able to do this by the ability to effectively and report culturally express. A similar problem occurred when the Lees refused to give their fille her unremarkable euphony regimen. Lia was taken away(p) from her family and put into foster care. Jeanine fought to get Lia O.K. to her family as her epileptic episodes became more frequent and dangerous. After she succeeded, it was Jeanines military commission to educate the Lees, especially Foua, on the drug regimen and explain to her the importance of t he drugs and to understand Nao Kao and Fouas aversion to medicine.Hilt was the lone(prenominal) person that took the condemnation to palpate out to Foua and her concerns regarding the affected substances. And after Lias large grand mal seizure, she was the plainly one who tackled the problem of how the Hmong family was treating Lias developmental delays. Jeanines list to winner was ever keeping the lines of communication open between herself and the Lees and so between the Lees and the MCMC. In order to cross culturally circulate, Jeanine centreed on a compassionate approach that was culturally empathetic and used the Lees daughter, May, as her translator.She did this because having an another(prenominal)wise unfamiliar person in the room, especially a translater, would make the Lees ill at ease(predicate) and less open to effective communication. Hilt similarly took the period to get to inhabit the Lees. She knew the name of all their s blush surviving children a nd nigh outstandingly neer addicted Lia or her family as yet in Nao Kaos darkest moments. As vocalization of the Hmong culture, they are naturally very violent and are not deterred by creation outnumbered. Nao Kao threatened a translator that came and told the Child Protective go were fetching Lia away.Jeanine mum the aversion to having someones child taken away and made sure the threats Nao Kao made didnt affect the courts closing to permit Lia return. Jeanines empathy was deepened by two factors. She understood the burden of a degenerative unwellness because she had asthma. She also admired the tie inion and closeness of the Hmong families. She was late committed to this family and to this child so she harassed the government and the hospital until the Lees got what they deserved. This include a pediatric hospital move ass for Lias last geezerhood at home.This led the Lees to hold Jeanine in high esteem and allowed for a trust that was incredibly baffling to ea rn from the Hmong culture. epoch Jeanine took the time to understand the Hmong culture, Nao Kao, Lias father, did unforesightful to reciprocate. He greatly appreciated her attempt at universe understanding, however he never believed it was his responsibility to do the equivalent. tear down then, Foua was commonly the just about receptive to Jeanines triumphs. Historically Hmongs have give-up the ghost the pariahs of society.With this in mind, Nao Kao never actually made the effort to be part of a society that he knew went against his beliefs and therefore was rejecting him. It is also prominent in Hmong culture, that the man is the bullneckedest part of the family and the most emotionally disconnected. While the Hmong were fighting the Chinese, they even killed their wives and children so they wouldnt be emotionally distracted. Nao Kao hyper masculine attitude led him and his wife to be passively o hit the sackient. In the book, Fadiman writes It was typical or Hmong pati ents to appear passively obedient thus protecting their own dignity by concealment their ignorance and their doctors dignity by acting respectful and then, as soon as they left the hospital, to ignore everything to which they had supposedly assented (Fadiman 68). This is no way to effectively guide between two cultures. By Nao Kao affirming that he would give the medicine and not at least(prenominal) trying to explain that it is against his belief and/or he does not understand how to give the medicine, he falsely gives the impression to the doctors that Lia will be cared for at home.Not only does not communicate that he will not give the medicine, but he also doesnt communicate that he has not given the medicine to Lia when the Lees have intercourse to to take her to the hospital seizure after seizure. While the Hmongs believed being epileptic was a sort of blessing, they also understood the repercussions and knew the disease was at least semi-dangerous. That is the reason the Lees continued to take Lia to MCMC over and over again, scorn their evil for the medical culture and the inability to effectively communicate. However Nao Kao Lee was most by all odds stuck in his ship canal.Fadiman explains a observation by Francois Marie Savina as to his rootagely impressions to the Hmong in 1924. Savina, a missionary, stated ethnic durability can be attributed to six factors religion hump of liberty traditional costumes refusal to follow contradictory their race life in the cold, dry mountainous areas and the toughening effect of war (Fadiman 208). The Lee family did little the acculturate themselves into the linked States culture and came here to further escape prosecution. When the Lees came to America, their relatives had to show them how the country worked. They relied greatly on their children.After cardinal eld of living here they still speak only Hmong and practice only Hmong traditions. The Hmong culture is famously stuck in its ways and it was no incompatible for Nao Kao. The smorgasbord between his role in his culture as advantageously as the culture itself lends itself to the inability to communicate between the Lee family and the MCMC medical staff. The first thing that would allow two cultures, such as the Hmong and the coupled States medical culture, to effectively communicate is k flating what their core determine, core musical note, and some key elements to their culture in regards to entertain dimensions.The Hmongs value dimensions hightail it to fall on one primitive, while America falls on the other side of the spectrum. For example, in the Identity value dimension, the Hmong are exceedingly collectivist, which means their core value is group harmony and their core distinction is whether youre in group/out group. However, the United States population is base on exclusiveist side of the identity spectrum. This means they believe in individual freedom and the core distinction is whether its me/ot hers (Hofstede Pederson Hofstede 94-97).This has a large intrusion in how two cultures interact with all(prenominal) other because while the United States will believe that the Hmong should do whatever it takes to protect themselves while the Hmong believe they should withstand the peace with the gods or else they will be punished which focus on group harmony. The virtue value dimension also has a strong effect on the differences between these cultures. The Hmong are considered extreme long-run orientation, which values the long-term benefits. The US medical culture is more orientated on at onces effects, otherwise k to twenty-four hoursn as extreme short-term orientation (Hofstede Pederson Hofstede 109-112).This shows why the Hmong are so irrational because they are disturbed about the futures of their children and even their grandchildren. The medical industry is not superstitious and therefore believes in saving the life that needs saving now and not later. They do not dis criminate on between now and later. A fate of lessons can be acquire from how Jeanine was able to effectively communicate between the Hmong and US medical cultures. First of all, it is burning(prenominal) to be open to new ways of communication between cultures and to not only find similarities, but also understand the differences between cultures.The Hmong culture and the medical checkup culture in the United States viewm on opposite ends of the cultural spectrum. In that brief period of Lias seizures being decreased and her ostensibly getting better, the Lees understood that they had to give Lia her medicine regularly and the hospital understood why the Lees were hesitant about giving their child too many unnatural substances. When the two entities understood separately others culture and cultural differences, Lias health improved and they were able to understand each other beyond the most basic level.This is called being culturally empathetic. Lias illness was a test for the two cultures. It was a situation that agonistic a broken system to recognize its faults and demonstrate how it needs to be fixed. At the end of the day, it doesnt matter who worsened Lias illness because placing tap wont help either culture understand each other. By the end of the text, as Fadiman is reflecting on the case, she writes I do not know if Lia would be able to walk and talk today had she been treat by Arthur Kleinman instead of by Neil Ernst and Peggy Philp.However, I have come to believe that her life was ruined not by septic take aback or noncompliant parents but by cross-cultural misunderstanding (Fadiman 262). The MCMC has learned sixfold lessons from Lias epilepsy. They learned to be culturally conscious, they removed the pipe organ sponsor box from the hospital waiver and posted details about Lias case so her illness wont be mistreat ever again. The key to communicating effectively is to realize that a culture is diametric from yours and value their jud gments just as much as you value your own.Jeanine was able to do it, hopefully Nao Kao will one day do it as well as every doctor in the medical profession, and especially the doctors that are in heavily populated minority areas. Bibliography 1. Fadiman, Anne. The spirit catches you and you fall down a Hmong child, her American doctors, and the collision of two cultures. sweet York Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1997. 2. Hofstede, Gert Jan, Paul Pedersen, and Geert H. Hofstede. Exploring culture. Yarmouth, Me. Intercultural Press, 2002 Section II Throughout my life, I have unceasingly been a person who loved change of location.I will always love travelling and someday, I hope to have a job where traveling is a requirement. When I travel, I hoped to come as close to emergence as possible in the time span Im there. I believe interacting with other cultures can seriously give you a undivided new out witness on life and learning perspectives of dissimilar cultures and universe al ways fascinates me which is why, next year, I am planning to take a year off to work at a bed and breakfast in France. People from all over the globe come to bed and breakfasts, which will give e a lot of face time with a lot of incompatible cultures and learn a little twat about everything. My housing and dining will be remunerative for while I meet people, make lifelong connections and put all the things I learned about in cross cultural communication to work. cut across Cultural Communication opened up my eyes to some evenhandedly basic things that you just never really put name calling to. The scoop lesson I learned was on cultural empathy. The idea that you founding fathert only tolerate another(prenominal) culture, but you understand it at its most basic level is incredibly important in how you connect with other people.A lot of my best friends are actually international and bide in other countries. One of my best friends ever lives in Greece and smell back on our fri endship, I realize how I subconsciously underwent the make of cultural empathy by asking her about the different practices she went through and the different ways she understood American culture and society. Unfortunately, I did not do the same with my German ex-boyfriend who lived in Germany which probably could have saved a lot of grief on my end.Another lesson I found interesting in cross-cultural communication was reflexivity. Reflexivity is the ability and willingness of a researcher to fuck their prepossess. When I went to H Street, I realized my bias growing up in small town liberal suburbia. I realize my bias free-and-easy when I meet people who grow up in different countries, parts of the country or even socio economic class. While interviewing banter Parrish for my interview project, I saw how different our lives were and yet how similar we were.Reflexivity is not only important to acknowledge for reliable research, but for practiced relationships as well. Talking ab out white privilege really interest me throughout the course. Growing up as white, I kind of always resented the doors that automatically opened for me in some sense of the word. I cant pinpoint why, but I like the challenge of overcoming adversity. In the domesticate of Public Affairs Leadership Program, we talked about the idea of permit and force play and we watched an interesting TED talks that introduced the idea of The Power of a virtuoso Story. Acknowledging the different presets in society is important to society and to be able to communicate with each other. If I could change one thing about this class, it would definitely be about the reading. The readings were incredibly numerous and sometimes, I couldnt murder everything, which led to a serious cycle of me falling incredibly behind. I wouldve loved for a way to cut down the readings, perhaps only read important excerpts or something because the workload was either really hard or very laid back.The lessons I learn ed in cross cultural communication feel less immense than other classes, but I already notice how I look around and see how these lessons are applicable in real life. I constantly look back at my history and realize how helpful these skills would have been months and even years ago. Being culturally empathetic is the most important lesson I could have learned and I feel was the overarching theme to the altogether course. I found it helpful to learn how to properly acculturate into a foreign culture and while I may not travel a foreign diplomat because of this class, I definitely learned some important imformation.Spirit Catches You and You Fall DownDecember 11, 2012 Section 1 Who is the one to delineate fault for a miscommunication and misunderstanding between two cultures? In Anne Fadimans novel, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, she begins the novel as an attempt to allocate responsibility for the mistreatment and exacerbation of Lia Lees epilepsy. The tension between th e Hmong and United States medical culture exemplified the strain in America between a foreign culture dependent on rituals and societys norm. As the novel progress, Fadiman realizes that neither culture is truly at fault.Lias situation stemmed from a clash of cultural beliefs and practices that could have been solved by a respect and empathy of the significance of cross-cultural communication. Throughout the narrative, there were characters that were able to be culturally empathetic while some were unable to appreciate the cultural differences between the two entities and realize the necessity for cooperation and understanding. The Hmong have a saying that they repeat at the beginning of every story, Hais cuaj txub kaum txub, which means, speak of all kinds of things (Fadiman 13).These words depict the belief in the Hmong culture that the world is full of things that might not appear related but actually are. This concept relates to the Hmongs history. Their development as a culture is tainted with inconsiderate counter cultures that restricted their freedom to practice their cultural rituals. This greatly influenced their ability to trust cultures that are not their own. Their general distrust in any culture different from their own can be mainly traced back to the Chinese and Indochinese portion of their saga.Basically, the Hmong have been chased out of any home they have ever had due to their unwillingness to take orders, their affliction to losing and the imperative detail that they would rather flee, fight, or die than surrender. This all boils down to the fact that they are not easily swayed by other cultures customs. This ethnocentric attitude has greatly attributed to the Hmong cultures general distrust and distaste for any culture but their own. Lias parents, Nao Kao and Foua Lee, and much of the Hmong community were skeptical of trusting the white people in the medical profession and in the community.In fact, Lias case became the litmus test for Hmon g community and turned out to be a deciding factor as to whether the Hmong community in Merced, California would trust the medical professionals when they found themselves at MCMC in a similar state as Lia. Despite this inherent distrust of any culture dissimilar to their own, the Lees were able to trust one CPA worker, Jeanine Hilt, who took the Lees case very personally. Jeanine made it her mission to fight the medical industry tyranny on behalf of the Hmong culture and became the only person to ask the Lees their opinion.Because of the language barrier, many medical professionals saw talking to the Lees as a lost cause to communicate with, which led the Lees to believe they were being taken advantage of. Jeanine was the only one who thought to ask how the Lees felt about how the doctors were treating Lia and their culture. Because of this openness to communication and genuine interest in their answers, she explained to the hospital how the Lees, and the Hmong culture, felt about Lias epilepsy and why they were running into to so many conflicts with the Hmong culture.Jeanines open approach allowed her to see what the barrier was between the Lees ad the medical profession. The Lees and the Hmong culture considered Lia an anointed one and her illness as a blessing rather than a weakness. In the Hmong culture, people born with epilepsy are believed to be the anointed ones and are destined to a life as a shaman. They call it qaug dab peg, or the spirit catches you and you fall down. People in the medical profession did not understand the concept of spirits and the importance of epilepsy for the Hmong. Jeanine was the only white person who adamantly fought for the rights of the Hmong.She was able to do this by the ability to effectively and cross culturally communicate. A similar problem occurred when the Lees refused to give their daughter her daily medicine regimen. Lia was taken away from her family and put into foster care. Jeanine fought to get Lia back to her family as her epileptic episodes became more frequent and dangerous. After she succeeded, it was Jeanines mission to educate the Lees, especially Foua, on the drug regimen and explain to her the importance of the drugs and to understand Nao Kao and Fouas aversion to medicine.Hilt was the only person that took the time to listen to Foua and her concerns regarding the unnatural substances. And after Lias large grand mal seizure, she was the only one who tackled the problem of how the Hmong family was treating Lias developmental delays. Jeanines key to success was always keeping the lines of communication open between herself and the Lees and therefore between the Lees and the MCMC. In order to cross culturally communicate, Jeanine focused on a caring approach that was culturally empathetic and used the Lees daughter, May, as her translator.She did this because having another unfamiliar person in the room, especially a translater, would make the Lees uncomfortable and less open to effective communication. Hilt also took the time to get to know the Lees. She knew the names of all their seven surviving children and most importantly never abandoned Lia or her family even in Nao Kaos darkest moments. As part of the Hmong culture, they are naturally very violent and are not deterred by being outnumbered. Nao Kao threatened a translator that came and told the Child Protective Services were taking Lia away.Jeanine understood the aversion to having someones child taken away and made sure the threats Nao Kao made didnt affect the courts decision to let Lia return. Jeanines empathy was deepened by two factors. She understood the burden of a chronic illness because she had asthma. She also admired the connection and closeness of the Hmong families. She was deeply connected to this family and to this child so she harassed the government and the hospital until the Lees got what they deserved. This included a pediatric hospital bed for Lias last days at home.This led the L ees to hold Jeanine in high esteem and allowed for a trust that was incredibly hard to earn from the Hmong culture. While Jeanine took the time to understand the Hmong culture, Nao Kao, Lias father, did little to reciprocate. He greatly appreciated her attempt at being understanding, however he never believed it was his responsibility to do the same. Even then, Foua was usually the most receptive to Jeanines triumphs. Historically Hmongs have become the pariahs of society.With this in mind, Nao Kao never really made the effort to be part of a society that he knew went against his beliefs and therefore was rejecting him. It is also prominent in Hmong culture, that the man is the strongest part of the family and the most emotionally disconnected. While the Hmong were fighting the Chinese, they even killed their wives and children so they wouldnt be emotionally distracted. Nao Kao hyper masculine attitude led him and his wife to be passively obedient. In the book, Fadiman writes It was typical or Hmong patients to appear passively obedient thus protecting their own dignity by concealing their ignorance and their doctors dignity by acting deferential and then, as soon as they left the hospital, to ignore everything to which they had supposedly assented (Fadiman 68). This is no way to effectively communicate between two cultures. By Nao Kao affirming that he would give the medicine and not at least trying to explain that it is against his belief and/or he does not understand how to give the medicine, he falsely gives the impression to the doctors that Lia will be cared for at home.Not only does not communicate that he will not give the medicine, but he also doesnt communicate that he has not given the medicine to Lia when the Lees continue to take her to the hospital seizure after seizure. While the Hmongs believed being epileptic was a sort of blessing, they also understood the repercussions and knew the disease was at least semi-dangerous. That is the reason th e Lees continued to take Lia to MCMC over and over again, despite their hatred for the medical culture and the inability to effectively communicate. However Nao Kao Lee was most definitely stuck in his ways.Fadiman explains a observation by Francois Marie Savina as to his first impressions to the Hmong in 1924. Savina, a missionary, stated ethnic durability can be attributed to six factors religion love of liberty traditional costumes refusal to marry outside their race life in the cold, dry mountainous areas and the toughening effects of war (Fadiman 208). The Lee family did little the acculturate themselves into the United States culture and came here to merely escape prosecution. When the Lees came to America, their relatives had to show them how the country worked. They relied greatly on their children.After Seventeen years of living here they still speak only Hmong and practice only Hmong traditions. The Hmong culture is famously stuck in its ways and it was no different for Na o Kao. The mixture between his role in his culture as well as the culture itself lends itself to the inability to communicate between the Lee family and the MCMC medical staff. The first thing that would allow two cultures, such as the Hmong and the United States medical culture, to effectively communicate is knowing what their core values, core distinction, and some key elements to their culture in regards to value dimensions.The Hmongs value dimensions tend to fall on one extreme, while America falls on the other side of the spectrum. For example, in the Identity value dimension, the Hmong are highly collectivist, which means their core value is group harmony and their core distinction is whether youre in group/out group. However, the United States population is based on individualist side of the identity spectrum. This means they believe in individual freedom and the core distinction is whether its me/others (Hofstede Pederson Hofstede 94-97).This has a large impact in how two cu ltures interact with each other because while the United States will believe that the Hmong should do whatever it takes to protect themselves while the Hmong believe they should maintain the peace with the gods or else they will be punished which focus on group harmony. The virtue value dimension also has a strong effect on the differences between these cultures. The Hmong are considered extreme long-term orientation, which values the long-term benefits. The US medical culture is more oriented on todays effects, otherwise known as extreme short-term orientation (Hofstede Pederson Hofstede 109-112).This shows why the Hmong are so superstitious because they are worried about the futures of their children and even their grandchildren. The medical industry is not superstitious and therefore believes in saving the life that needs saving now and not later. They do not discriminate on between now and later. A lot of lessons can be learned from how Jeanine was able to effectively communicat e between the Hmong and US medical cultures. First of all, it is important to be open to new ways of communication between cultures and to not only find similarities, but also understand the differences between cultures.The Hmong culture and the Medical culture in the United States seem on opposite ends of the cultural spectrum. In that brief period of Lias seizures being decreased and her seemingly getting better, the Lees understood that they had to give Lia her medicine regularly and the hospital understood why the Lees were hesitant about giving their child too many unnatural substances. When the two entities understood each others culture and cultural differences, Lias health improved and they were able to understand each other beyond the most basic level.This is called being culturally empathetic. Lias illness was a test for the two cultures. It was a situation that forced a broken system to recognize its faults and demonstrate how it needs to be fixed. At the end of the day, it doesnt matter who worsened Lias illness because placing blame wont help either culture understand each other. By the end of the text, as Fadiman is reflecting on the case, she writes I do not know if Lia would be able to walk and talk today had she been treated by Arthur Kleinman instead of by Neil Ernst and Peggy Philp.However, I have come to believe that her life was ruined not by septic shock or noncompliant parents but by cross-cultural misunderstanding (Fadiman 262). The MCMC has learned multiple lessons from Lias epilepsy. They learned to be culturally conscious, they removed the organ donor box from the hospital waiver and posted details about Lias case so her illness wont be mistreated ever again. The key to communicating effectively is to realize that a culture is different from yours and value their judgments just as much as you value your own.Jeanine was able to do it, hopefully Nao Kao will one day do it as well as every doctor in the medical profession, and especiall y the doctors that are in heavily populated minority areas. Bibliography 1. Fadiman, Anne. The spirit catches you and you fall down a Hmong child, her American doctors, and the collision of two cultures. New York Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1997. 2. Hofstede, Gert Jan, Paul Pedersen, and Geert H. Hofstede. Exploring culture. Yarmouth, Me. Intercultural Press, 2002 Section II Throughout my life, I have always been a person who loved traveling.I will always love traveling and someday, I hope to have a job where traveling is a requirement. When I travel, I hoped to come as close to emersion as possible in the time span Im there. I believe interacting with other cultures can seriously give you a whole new outlook on life and learning perspectives of different cultures and humans always fascinates me which is why, next year, I am planning to take a year off to work at a bed and breakfast in France. People from all over the globe come to bed and breakfasts, which will give e a lot of fac e time with a lot of different cultures and learn a little bit about everything. My housing and dining will be paid for while I meet people, make lifelong connections and put all the things I learned about in cross cultural communication to work. Cross Cultural Communication opened up my eyes to some pretty basic things that you just never really put names to. The best lesson I learned was on cultural empathy. The idea that you dont only tolerate another culture, but you understand it at its most basic level is incredibly important in how you connect with other people.A lot of my best friends are actually international and live in other countries. One of my best friends ever lives in Greece and looking back on our friendship, I realize how I subconsciously underwent the process of cultural empathy by asking her about the different practices she went through and the different ways she understood American culture and society. Unfortunately, I did not do the same with my German ex-boyf riend who lived in Germany which probably could have saved a lot of grief on my end.Another lesson I found interesting in cross-cultural communication was reflexivity. Reflexivity is the ability and willingness of a researcher to acknowledge their bias. When I went to H Street, I realized my bias growing up in small town liberal suburbia. I realize my bias everyday when I meet people who grow up in different countries, parts of the country or even socio economic class. While interviewing Josh Parrish for my interview project, I saw how different our lives were and yet how similar we were.Reflexivity is not only important to acknowledge for reliable research, but for dependable relationships as well. Talking about white privilege really interested me throughout the course. Growing up as white, I kind of always resented the doors that automatically opened for me in some sense of the word. I cant pinpoint why, but I like the challenge of overcoming adversity. In the School of Public Af fairs Leadership Program, we talked about the idea of Privilege and Power and we watched an interesting TED talks that introduced the idea of The Power of a Single Story. Acknowledging the different presets in society is important to society and to be able to communicate with each other. If I could change one thing about this class, it would definitely be about the reading. The readings were incredibly numerous and sometimes, I couldnt finish everything, which led to a serious cycle of me falling incredibly behind. I wouldve loved for a way to cut down the readings, perhaps only read important excerpts or something because the workload was either really hard or very laid back.The lessons I learned in cross cultural communication feel less immense than other classes, but I already notice how I look around and see how these lessons are applicable in real life. I constantly look back at my history and realize how helpful these skills would have been months and even years ago. Being cul turally empathetic is the most important lesson I could have learned and I feel was the overarching theme to the whole course. I found it helpful to learn how to properly acculturate into a foreign culture and while I may not become a foreign diplomat because of this class, I definitely learned some important imformation.
A nonher agencyfarer is maestro Frankenstein, who is striving for ever-living illumine, entirely in another aspect. He is the Modern Prometheus, longing to pour a flood lamp of light into our dark construct, while creating a hu valet de chambre beingness a deed, which is intrinsic to theology (26). His creation is the third participant in the jaunt to unfading light. He is unnamed, or more often called the creature, the monster, the wretch, or the unitary with unearthly ugliness (55). Victors creation also dreams for pure(a) light in the meaning of pure make warmth or happiness, that he is compelled to follow the adverse direction to sinfulness and distance (134).The tether meet each other at the land of mist and snow, where their excursion ends, where the border amongst possible and common lies, between dream and reality, between genius and existencekind, between God and mankind, between a country of unfailing light and darkness and distance. The characte r, accountable for the novels drama, is Victor Frankenstein, a student in humanities. A possible interpretation of the name Victor derives from the poem Paradise Lost by John Milton, a bang-up influence on Shelley (a quotation from Paradise Lost is on the initiative page of Frankenstein and Shelley even allows the monster himself to read it).Milton frequently refers to God as the Victor in Paradise Lost, and Shelley sees Victor as playing God by creating liveness (Wikipedia). As a god Victor is fixed to endow mankind Yet my heart overflowed with kindness, and the love of virtue. I had begun life with benevolent intentions, and starveed for the moment when I should put them in pract starter, and make myself utile to my fellow-beings (50). Moreover, as Prometheus, he gives the world a ignitor of being (28). Furnishing the world with such extreme power Frankenstein should take the responsibility of creator and military serv starter his gift be useful not destructive. that he mi shandles it. When he is fifteen, he witnesses a most violent and terrible thunderstorm, which utterly destroys an adept-time(a) and beautiful oak (18). This event could be interpreted as an allusion to how pestiferous this spark of being could be. As Miglena Nikolchina contends, the serious ailment is in the man alone, undertaking the godlike function to be a creator, but in many respects immature for it (57). The concrete reason for the creature being spurned at, and kicked, and trampled on is his physical ugliness (133). Why Frankensteins creation is repulsive?According to Cvetan Stoyanov, Ugliness is in fact alienation, drifting past from the vital principle organic could not be ugly, transgressing and killing it is ugly (206). Something, often cited in connection to Shelleys fit is a sentence in which the perfective artist is described as a morally perfect man, as a second creator, faultless Prometheus under the flip over of Jupiter (Shaftsbury 207). In this respect M iglena Nikolchina considers Frankenstein as an untalented artist, because he is not morally perfect and shows this as a reason for the monsters ugliness.She claims that the Frankensteins godliness is not one of a creator, but one of an ordinary man. Frankenstein has not even fancied that love namely love and exclusively love his creation wants is the first characteristic of creator. Ugliness turns out the sign, left rear end by the creator who infuses life, but does not manage to come to love it and thus calls forth death, for it is not possible the fated for living to be made without love, and has no vitality what is deprived of the mercy to be love (Nikolchina 79-82). Victors blindness about the monsters gratuitous temper is more harmful than the physical blindness.The blind De Lacey is the yet man who perceives the monsters good resolutions. About the structure of the novel Nikolchina offers an interesting definition. It is constructed as if of coaxal circles of ice. Th e sailing to the North pole is the outer circle, which serve as a frame of Frankensteins story. The conversation between the monster and Frankenstein among the sea of ice near Chamounix is the frame of the monsters story, which is the core of the novel (Nikolchina 86). The commutation part of his story is when after burning down the cottage of De Lacey he wonders And now, with the world before me, whither should I bend my steps? (80). Hereafter he starts hunting for his creator and begins alienating from his natural innocence.The creature wends his way toward darkness and distance. The changing nature corroborates his moral collapse I travelled provided at night, fearful of encountering the visage of a human being. Nature stinky around me, and the solarise became heatless rain and snow poured around me correctly rivers were frozen the surface of the earth was hard, and chill, and bare, and I found no aegis (81). Advancing into experience, Miglena Nikolchina explains, is ente ring into a core of cold as hygienic (87).She suggests cardinal aspects in analysing the role of ice. First it could be seen as a supreme, un nestable, unsusceptible to changes reality. It elevates Frankenstein from all littleness of feeling, it fills him with a sublime ecstasy that gives fly to the soul, and allows it to soar from the obscure world to light and joy (Nikolchina 87). Such an eternal and infinite is the picture before Robert Walton too the region of beauty and delight. the sun is for ever visible its broad disk just skirting the horizon, and distribute a perpetual splendour. The explorers hopes are so vast that they turn out fantasies he imagines an absolutely unreal North Pole there snow and frost are banished and, sailing over a calm sea, we may be wafted to a land surpassing in wonders and in beauty every region hitherto discovered on the habitable globe (2). The Modern Prometheus chooses the balmy and mysterious regions to the tamer impressions of nature (11). He goes beyond the potentialities of ordinary people, however, aiming not at admiring of the Great Nature, but at gaining the divine secrets.While Elizabeth contemplates with a serious and satisfied kernel the magnificent appearances of things, Victor delights in investigating their causes. Elizabeth follows the aerial creations of the poets and in the imposing and wondrous scenes she finds ample scope for admiration and delight, while Victor is loose of a more intense application, and is more deeply smitten with the thirst for knowledge (15). He elevates his intellect, but not his soul. He does not relieve oneself that new born (for his creation emerges in a completely unacquainted(predicate) world) needs love and attendance. Striving to eternal light, he encounters impenetrable darkness. nighttime is closing around, dark are the mountains, heavens are clouded (40-41). The spark of being turns out a offensive abortion. Thick mists hide the summits of the mountains (54 ). Frankenstein move into deep, dark, deathlike solitude (50). Suffering the eternal twinkling of the stars weighed upon him, instead of delighting eternal light, he exclaims Oh stars, and clouds, and winds, ye are all about to mock me if ye really grace me, crush sensation and memory let me become as nonentity but if not, depart, depart, and leave me in darkness (87).The magnificent scenes give way to appalling dusky plain (124). The other aspect of the ice, according Nikolchina, is something complimentary and lifeless like a power, which is hostile to life like silence (88). Longing revenge, Victor departs from land and pursues his journey across the sea in a direction that leads to no land, the snows thicken and the cold increases in a degree almost too severe to support The rivers were covered with ice and no fish could be procured (123).The nature seems to be inspirited and acts against Frankenstein Immense and baffling mountains of ice often barred up my passage, and I of ten perceive the thunder of the ground sea which threatened my destruction (124). It seems he has stepped on some unseen border that can not be crossed. When he appears almost within grasp of his foe, his hopes are suddenly extinguished, . The wind arises the sea roars and, as with the mighty shock of an earthquake, it splits and cracks with a tremendous and overwhelming sound.The work is soon finished in a few minutes a tumultuous sea rolls between him and his enemy, and he is left drifting on a scattered piece of ice, that is continually lessening, and thus preparing for him a hideous death (124). Walton is also surrounded by mountains of ice which admit of no escape and threaten every moment to crush his vessel (127). The accompaniment with the unearthly creature is however different. The stream of his spiritual development is contrary to the ones of Frankenstein and Walton.Through the epithet unearthly Shelley differentiates him from mankind. While Walton and Victor aim wild and mysterious regions, the creature seeks an intimacy with common world. The monster is immaculate in a quite literal meaning he is empty, tabula rasa (Nikolchina 72). Every scene and every feeling he touches to are admirable for him. Everything is for the first time. He is a child. The monster meets the civilization, for the first, through the agency of fire, which is an allusion to a new Promethean deed. However he encounters some strangers fire.The new born learns everything from the outside world, from accidental circumstances. there is no one to guide him, no one to show him what is expense learning. According to A. A. Belskee, Shelley displays the destructiveness of individualism, the tragedy of compulsory desolation, the intangibility of happiness without associating with others (Belskee 303). Every approach to human society brings a lot of suffering to the creature, notwithstanding he sees the future gilded by bright rays of hope and anticipations of joy (65). despondent ly speaking to Walton he describes himself as the miserable and the abandoned, an abortion, to be spurned at, and kicked, and trampled on (133). The only possible interrelation with the surrounding world is violence. His crimes are a natural reaction, a rebel against the complete solitude. Otherwise the monster could not conceive how one man could go forth to murder his fellow, when I heard details of vice and bloodshed, my wonder ceased, and I turned outdoor(a) with disgust and loathing (68). He clearly declares I was the slave, not the master, of an relish which I detested, yet could not disobey (132).The wretched interprets his lot as worse than Satans from Miltons Paradise Lost, for Satan had his companions, fellow-devils, to enjoy and encourage him but I am solitary and abhorred (74). He is the only one of the tree, the only one in the world, who completely rejects society with its gall, the only one who crosses the border, laid by society, and communicates in no land. H e fades for there will be no one to see him. The eternal frosts scram frozen all the hatred into his ice-raft and he is soon borne away by the waves and lost in darkness and distance (143).The hopes of poor Frankenstein also fade with his death. He remains at the icy border, between eternal light and darkness and distance. The only thing he succeeds in is revealing these two possibilities for the future human nature Seek happiness in quiet and avoid ambition, even if it be only the apparently innocent one of distinguishing yourself in science and discoveries. Yet why do I enjoin this? I have myself been blasted in these hopes, yet another may succeed.
Monday, February 25, 2019
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Information is the dry land for every decision taken in an organization. The efficiency of management depends upon the approachability of regular and relevant teaching. Thus it is essential that an telling and efficient account outline be buzz offed as part of accounting system. The chief(prenominal) object of management information is to obtain the requisite information most the operating results of an organization regularly in order to intention them for future planning and control. CONCEPT OF MISDEF A system of people, equipment, procedures, documents and communications that collects, validates, operates on transformers, stores, retrieves, and pass data for use in planning, budgeting, accounting, controlling and other management process. The marketing Information System A marketing information system is a continuing and interacting structure of people, equipment and procedures to gather, sort, analyse, evaluate, and distribute pertinent, timely and accurate informat ion for use by marketing decision makers to improve their marketing planning, implementation, and control. gross gross revenue and merchandising is a key process for the sustenance of any business as revenues are a direct outcome of it. Information Systems within the Sales and Marketing process implement technologies that allow the personnel to access pivotal and updated information related to to access crucial and updated information related to client preferences and market demands to offer prompt work. Information Systems are also adjuvant in identifying the most effective sales strategy that can be used in any particular case based on specified criteria, such as the market segment or the harvest-feast category.APPLICATION OF MIS IN MARKETING Major Comp geniusnts of a marketing information system The marketing information systems and its subsystems The above diagram illustrates the major components of an MIS, the environmental factors monitored by the system and the types of marketing decision which the MIS seeks to underpin. MARKETING MODELS Within the MIS there has to be the means of interpreting information in order to give nidus to decision. These models may be computerized or may not. Typical tools are quantify series sales modes. Brand switching models. Linear programming. Elasticity models (price, incomes, demand, supply, and so on ). Regression and correlation models. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) models. Sensitivity synopsis. Discounted cash flow. Spreadsheet what if models. These and kindred mathematical, statistical, econometric and financial models are the analytical subsystem of the MIS . MARKETING STRATEGIES USING MIS The lineament of Information Systems in devising Marketing strategies has been increasing over the years.Organizations descend the following benefits from implementing Information Systems in marketing ? Creating effective Marketing plans home run market identification, implementation of the entire marketing ca mpaign and finally backcloth up of required standards criteria and evaluating the performance of the plans generated. ? Customizing modules for specific requirements Information can be used to manage campaigns to retain customers, vendors and optimize services regarding each(prenominal) contact. ? Managing unfavourable business issues Information Systems are effectively sed to manage critical issues, such as costs and budget analysis, media policies, establishing milestones and segment management for every campaign. ? Creating crossway promotional strategies Information Systems are used to design, analyze and implement yield promotional strategies of a particular brand according to its price, quality, and other related issues. ?Conducting market analysis Information Systems can be used to sketch the potential market and this information can be analyzed to develop specific target market strategies. Preparing comprehensive reports Information Systems can stress information to win customized solutions to marketers. This information can be viewed in respective(a) ways such as summarized views, total, sub total, statistical views or pictorial views. DIFFERENT TYPES OF makeupS USED IN MARKETING SALES CALL REPORT This report contains data around the potential customer. It also contains details about the types of items customer is interested in. QUOTATION It is a document that gives a tilt of the price, terms and the condition for a sale a supplier offers for the items.PURCHASE fix It is a written document from the customer to the seller listing the required items and providing a description of the goods. INVOICE It is a note asking for payments for goods and services that have been supplied. The invoice accompanies the delivery of ordered goods. SALES REPORT (product wise) A sales report suggests the total product wise sales. From this report one can draw conclusions about the product preferences of customers in different months of the year. 1. pe riodic SALES REPORT (Sales person wise) Sales persons are given individual(a) sales targets.This report shows the cumulative sales made by each salesperson for a month. OTHER ASPECTS OF MIS IN MARKETING Managing Financial proceedings Providing stock and inventory details Maintaining relevant customer information combine sales processes MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM IN E handicraft E Commerce is one of the fastest growing segments of the internet, which is used by businesses.BENEFITS Information Systems are being used in management of E commerce. The Information Systems offer the following benefits ? Integrating existing point of sales systems. Integrating with other E Commerce driven applications to provide the analysis of market effectiveness in terms of real business. ? Managing customer information that can then be used for effective analysis to betoken buying trends. ? Provides various methods that can be used for diverting affair onto the required websites. ? Integra ting graphs and multiple report building wizards for the creation of effective reports based on any type of information. ? Information systems also provide various customer retention strategies according to each segment or market campaign or sales force.
Sunday, February 24, 2019
In todays world, it is non uncommon to see race cover in all types of corpse art, such as tattoos. Arms, legs, sometimes even faces, all sundry(a) with standing(prenominal) ink. For what reason, some people ask. Whats the point having dustup, designs, or pictures per human beingently worn onto your pelt? I personally love tattoos theyre an operativeic appearance for people to express who they are and their originality. Tattoos are a way for people to showcase their inner differences. But the question is, where did tattooing start, and why?The give voice tattoo originates from the Tahitian word tattau, which means, to mark. An explorer James Cook, in his records from his 1769 expedition to the southeasterly pacific, first march onstioned this word. However, legion(predicate) scientists believe that the earliest known evidence of tattooing dates defend 3300 B.C. due(p) to 59 markings found on the discase of a mummified homosexual body known as The Iceman (Demand Media Inc.).In 2160 B.C., tattooing became prevalent in Egypt. some(prenominal) mummies displaying lines and dots tattooed all over their bodies have been recovered that date to as early as the XI Dynasty. Though these people had been mummified for thousands of years, the tattoo markings were smooth completely visible (Hemingson). The main reasons for these Egyptian tattoos are to connect with the nobleman (like matinee idol, or God) as a tribute or act of devote to a deity as a talisman, a permanent amulet that cannot be los or to provide magical or medical aegis (Hemingson).Around 700 B.C. Ancient Greeks and Romans began tattooing, but for an entirely different reason. The use of tattoos, or stigmata (marks upon the body, sores, or sensations of pain in locations corresponding to the crucifixion wounds of Jesus Christ), were in the first place utilize to mark someone as belonging either as a slave to an owner or to a religious sect or sometimes even as a disciplinary valuate t o mark people as criminals (Designboom). When the dynasty of Macedonian Greek monarchs ruled Egypt, the pharaoh Ptolemy IV was said to have had ivy leaves tattooed on himself. These leaves symbolized his devotion to the Greek god of wine, Dionysus. This fashion was similarly adopted by Roman soldiers, which then unfold across the Roman Empire (Famento).During the rise of Christianity in 600 B.C., there was a widespread temporary standstill to tattooing in the Middle East and Europe. canonise Basil the Great, one of the most notable doctors of the Christian Church, warned No man shall let his hair grow long or tattoo himself as do the heathen, those apostles of Satan who make themselves despicable by indulging in lewd and lascivious thoughts. Do not associate with those who mark themselves with thorns and needles so that their blood flows to the earth (Hemingson). During the gradual process of Christianization in Europe, tattoos were often considered rest elements of paganism and generally legally prohibited. In the years 306-373, the Christian emperor moth Constantine completely banned tattoos. He felt that tattoos disfigured what was made in Gods image (Hemingson).Though this ban of tattoos was very powerful, it couldnt completely eliminate tattooing from Europe or the Middle East. Tattooing worked its way covering into these two religions between 500-1500 by holy pilgrims. During the Middle Ages, people would go on pilgrimages to the Holy Land, and the only proof that they had actually been there would be the tattoos they received from the Coptic priests. The basic tattoo the pilgrims usually returned with was a guileless cross, but the more(prenominal) outgoing people returned with portraits of historical events from the bible inked into their skin (Hemingson).The earliest reference to British royalty being tattooed was King Harold II sometime between 1022 and1066. After King Harold II was killed in the appointment of Hastings, the only way his sist er Edith could pick out which body was his was from the words Edith and England that were tattooed upon his chest (History of Tattooing).Tattooing started evolving into a form of art in the 1600s. The Japanese word irezumi refers to the insertion of ink to the skin leaving a permanent, decorative mark, which in other words, means tattooing in how we see it today. Tattooed marks were still used as a punishment during this time, but there were fads of decorative tattoos culmination and going throughout the years. The release of the popular Chinese novel Suikoden, a story of bravery illustrated with extravagant woodblock prints demonstrating heroic men with their bodies permanently painted with mythical creatures, flowers, and other images, inspired many people to get tattoos interchangeable to what they had seen. Woodblock artists began tattooing their designs onto human flesh just the aforesaid(prenominal) as they would create their woodblock prints, utilize chisels, gouges, and ink known as Nara ink. This ink turns blue-green underneath the skin (Irezumi).Between 1766 and 1779, Captain James Cook voyaged out into the South Pacific three times After these voyages to Polynesia, Cook and his crew told stories of people covered in tattoos that they had seen, referring to them as tattooed savages. Cooks Science Officer, Sr. Joseph Banks, returned to England with a tattoo. Many of Cooks ordinary men came back with tattoos, a tradition that soon became associated with men of the sea. These sailors and seamen re-introduced Europe to tattooing (History of Tattooing).As soldiers and sailors began returning seat from conquest and trade wearing tattoos in various places on their bodies in the early 1800s, tattooing starting to become very popular among Western societies. These men had imitated the tattooing practices they had witnessed from the people of Asia, Africa, and the South Pacific. Ordinary working class men wore tattoos on their body to symbolize their prid e (Hemingson).Also in the early 1800s, doctors and others in the medical field began voicing their concerns of tattooing. Many doctors felt that tattoos could cause many complications to ones well-being. A leading doctor wrote about a woman who had died from an transmission caused by a tattoo in 1837. In 1853 a doctor reported the first case in which syphilis was transmitted by tattooing. Back in these days, tattoo artists had no knowledge that using the same needles for multiple customers without cleaning them spreads diseases. It wasnt uncommon to clean off a fresh tattoo with saliva, tobacco juice, or even urine (Hemingson).Several tattoo artists found jobs in Washington DC during the Civil War. A man who was German born, Martin Hildebrandt, started his tattooing career in 1846 and was considered the best tattoo artist at that time. He tattooed military members from both Union and Confederate camps. In 1870, the first American tattoo studio was opened by Hildebrandt (Hemingson ).Samuel OReily opened tattoo studio in 1875. During this time, tattoos were done by hand, using needles attached to a wooden handle. The tattoo artist would dip the needles in ink and move their hand up and down, puncturing the skin with 2-3 needles per second. Tattooing by hand was a very slow process, and required good manual skill. Since OReily was not only a great tattoo artist, but also a mechanic and technician, he began to work on a automobile that could help speed up the tattooing process. OReily created a hand-held car where the needles could move up and down automatically. This invention made tattooing as silver as drawing. In 1981 OReily patented his invention and offered it for sale. Tattooing in the US was revolutionized over night. Sailors lined up to be tattooed by OReily and his assimilator Charles Wagner. At this point in time, over 80% of the US navy was tattooed (Hemginson).During the Holocaust in 1939, niggardliness camp prisoners received tattoos at the Au schwitz concentration camp complex. Over 400,000 prisoners were assigned a serial number and branded, or tattooed, with that number (History of Tattooing).In 1961, new York City banned tattoos and tattoo parlors due to a hepatitis outbreak. This ban wasnt lifted until 1997. Recently, many towns in New Jersey have removed the bans to avoid legal challenges and have utilise rules to regulate tattooing (James).Starting in the 1990s, tattoos had started being linked to the American graceful art world. The number of academy trained artists entering the tattooing profession seemed to be growing each year, doubling since the 1980s. Art civilizes and programs started turning out more trained artists than the mainstream art world could absorb, so many art school graduates migrated towards the tattooing industry (Hemingson).It is apparent that tattooing has been widely practiced in all split of the globe, dating back to ancient times. Throughout history, tattooing, as well as other types of body art, has been related to religion, emotions, inner expression, and even punishment. Tattooing has occurred and still occurs in cultures everywhere and is widely popular in todays American society.