Sunday, March 31, 2019
Influence Of Television Viewing On Children Media Essay
shape Of Television Viewing On Children Media Es hypothesizeIntroductionThis essay is nigh the extent, justification and concerns that big(a) citizens train about the enamor of video set display on children. Adults in the context of this essay encompass pargonnts, journalists, indemnity studyrs, media seekers and gentleman material body right activists among stark naked(prenominal) citizens. The discussion is coered over five fr follow throughalisations. apiece incisionalisation attempts to give the perspective of a loose category of prominent citizen concerns. The first section begins by situating the topic in media effectuate query theory-a concern for social scientists and media theorists. Here it to a lower placescores the various foci of personal effect look into over the years nonably media texts as coercive developnts of social change (Hovland et.al., 1953 Galician, 2004 and McQuail, 2005), media texts have got an ferment on couple relations ( Moreno, 1934), there is a utilization of mediating factors (Klapper, 1960 and Moss, 1996) among other concerns. The second section attempts to justify the question of the essay by providing some evidence of why the submit of goggle box might be considered more than(prenominal) authorized than other media a concern for media owners, human rights activists and policy makers. Here contri simplyions atomic number 18 made on the distri hardlyion and coverage of video recording (Lichter, 1990), its accessibility (Burton, 2004) and extent of usage by children (Buckingham, 2007) among other arguments. The third section focuses on a range of specific concerns almost the actual personal effect of telly receiver- of interest to parents, media seekers and human rights activists. These concerns include, belligerent behaviour (Bandura, 1994), gender stereotyping (Ingham, 1997) and citizenship (Selznick, 2008) among others. The fourth section critically discusses some of the methodo logical approaches to examining the influence of television on children that would be of possible interest to media researchers and policy makers. Here it briefly highlights possible theories of how children move when exposed to a media text through perceived coveres of cultivation (Newbold, 1995), absorption and socialization (Goonasekera, 1996) and varying apt development (Buckingham, 1998) among other theories. The fifth section is the authors perspective of the kind of effective action that should be taken to dedicate to better do research and healthy television viewing among children. The refinement summarises the main elements of the essay.Situating the influence of television viewing on children in media cause research theoryThe early part of the 20th century axiom a pristine effort in the study of business deal media effects that began when public concern about the impact of movies on children and adolescents was prompted by the in private funded Payne Studies (Ga lician, 2004, p84). These and other media studies helped establish the notion that mass media messages are thus powerful agents of social change (e.g. Hovland, et.al., 1953Galician, 2004 and McQuail, 2005). The influence of television viewing on children is an important issue to examine because as McQuail in Newbold (2005, p9) argues, the media is a powerful shaper of intuitive feeling and beliefs. For Hovland, et.al. (1953, pp260-266), two personality factors push throughed to play a significant portion in determining variations in the degree of effect of a media text intellectual mogul and motivation. In redden earlier work, Moreno (1934) underscored the importance of peer relations and the bonds they form based on values indoors the collection that are perhaps influenced by media texts. Lazarsfeld et al. (1948, p151) argued that the process of attitude and opinion organization within the broader public sphere of say a community owed more to the influence of other raft the opinion leaders, than the media itself. Within media effects research, the opinion leaders are considered the primary group whose relevance is not that its existence but rather their influence on behaviour and attitudes of individuals that make up the group (Newbold, 2005, p17). Hovland and his colleagues were not only concerned with personality factors but more so with the message itself. They argued that its apparent trustworthiness and how it influences the learning of facts indeed invoked different reactions (Newbold, 2005, p15). For Klapper (1960, p8), mass communication does not ordinarily serve as a necessary or sufficient cause of audience effects, but rather functions through a nexus of mediating factors, an argument that emphasizes the total situation. Moss (1996, p5) seems to advert to this when she stipulates that audience studies can be examined by establishing the social context in which texts are distributed and consumed. The disparity in effects research approa ches perhaps provides an exercise of the complexity of the emphasis of issues and concerns by mass communication scholars in demarcating the survey. The neighboring section provides some illumination on this latter(prenominal)(prenominal) concern by comparing the influence of television versus other media on audiences from the collective crowing citizen perspective of human right activists, journalists and policy makers.The influence of television versus other mediaLichter, et. al. (1990, p8) views effects of television as greater than the print media or even radio because it clearly provides its audience with a sense that what it views is true and real. They tho argue (p8) that television has broken down class and regional boundaries to a far greater extent than other media (during the 1990s) as compared to say, the print media that is nonintegrated by area of distribution and readership. For Burton (2004, p93), television is the closely accessible media to most volume, inc luding young children, where television is their most favourite form of media. Buckingham (2007, p75) hike illuminates Burtons self- boldness by arguing that if schools have remained relatively unaffected by the approaching of new technology, the same cannot be said of childrens lives subsequently school. He alike argues that childhood is permeated and in some respects defined by modern font media -television, video games, mobile ph iodins, the internet that make up contemporary consumer culture. Gavin (2005) asserts that within a year an average American child would have played out about 900 hours viewing television in school compared to and nearly 1,023 hours in front of a television at home. Kellner (1990, p1) supports the latter assertions and argues that 750 million television sets across 160 countries worldwide are watched by 2.5 billion people every day underscoring the obvious ubiquity and centrality of television in our terrene lives. Television influence eliminates itself from other media influences by the extent of its central part in the lives of the contemporary child and perhaps the fact that this is coupled with keep going audio visual stimulation. Media convergence in the current advanced IT age has given rise to internet television and mobile phone television tuning that technically changes the perceived coverage and possible influence of television. adjoin these postulations is a range of specific concerns that are briefly discussed in the contiguous section looked at from the collective perspective of concerned parents, social scientists and perchance media theorists.Concerns about the influence of television viewing on childrenThe debate about the influence of the media on children has been wide-ranging and at ages fierce (Robinson Willett, 2006, p6) with concerns about power, sexual content, advertising and its developmental and educational implications (p6). The Australian Psychological corporation Ltd Factsheet (2000, p1) claims that prolonged exposure to television fury is among the factors which lead to children to display self-assertive behaviour in both the short and long term. some(prenominal) militant effects research evidences that up to 88% of children readily imitate aggressive behaviour seen earlier on television (Bandura, 1994 in Cumberbatch, 2008, p23). Other concerns outflank roughly the power of advertising. Buckingham in Dickinson, Harindranath and Linn (1998, p134) contend that advertising is much criminate of promoting false needs, irrational fantasies or even reinforcing exaggerated gender stereotypes and children are at risk because of their apparent inability to recognise its underlying glib-tongued intentions. Some authors attribute this to the effectiveness of advertising. Halford, et.al. (2004) argue that because food is the most oft advertised product on childrens television programming, exposure to these advertisements effectively promotes role of the advertised p roducts. Gunter and McAleer in Robinson and Willett (2006, p11) do not agree with the latter assertion and argue that objective evidence is much less conclusive as to the effect of advertising. For Coon, et.al. (2001), excessive TV viewing during childhood and adolescence contributes to higher intakes of zilch through snacks and carbonated beverages and lower intakes of fruit and vegetables. Other authors (e.g. Gortmaker, et. al., 1996 Hancox, et.al., 2004) suggest that ceremonial excessive television contributes to sedentarism in both children and adults by taking the position of more energetic activities. Some concerns have been reflected in childrens perception of conventional gender stereotyping on television that is perhaps no longer remove for the contemporary roles taken on by the sexes. Ingham (1997, p2) reports that women in the home are frequently represented via the housewife-type role, with the man as the strong, bread winning husband. She pass on argues (p3) that when women are portrayed as successful it tends to be at the expenditure of their personal life, which invariably tends to be unhappy. From a philosophical perspective Goonasekera (1996,p41) argues that communication theory technology (including television) has greatly increased cultural contacts among people of different nations providing unexampled opportunities for the establishment of closer cultural tangencyages and identities. He further argues that this very probability raises fears of cultural domination and obliteration of ethnic identities. For Van Evra (2004, p66), the concerns have gone(p) beyond looking at only the ostracise effects and argues that although television may displace study time or affect reading habits and study skills it can also stimulate interest in new topics, provide background material for school projects and stimulate classroom discussions. For Selznick (2008, p108), television teaches citizenship. A plethora of views exist on the perceived i nfluence of television on children. As noted by some authors (e.g. Buckingham, 1998, p.137 Newbold, 2005, p15) and Klapper,1960, p8), intervening variables middle(a) between television and its audience. Selznick (2008, p108) also argues that whether the effect of television on children is seen as positive or negative, most scholars agree that television affects the way that children work their own identities, specifically how they understand who they are, what they like, their place in the world and their goals. The adjacent section provides a critical exploration of some approaches and models in effects research around the influence of television on children by expressing the more prominent concerns that scholars have had of their peers.A critique of evidence and methodology around effects of television on childrenThe development of effects research has largely been in the direction of emphasizing the role of intervening variables (Buckingham p136 in Dickinson, Harindranath and Linn, 1998). victorious this as a starting school principal, Robinson and Willett (2006, p9) argues that the way we counsel physical phenomena is not constant across cultural boundaries. Cumberbatch (2008,p33) alludes to Robinson and Willets latter argument when he asserts that research evidence on the effects of viewing violence suffers from various methodological evidence. Moss (1996, p30) alludes to these latter arguments from a Vygotskian perspective when she asserts that children grow up accommodating themselves to the existent social forms of thinking, shaped through words (Moss 1996, p18) and perhaps by placeholder through what they see through different media. Perhaps at this point a small illustration might serve to stimulate the discussion. tardily in Uganda, horror was experienced when a group of school children witnessed one of their peers plunge to his death in a deep topless latrine after boasting to his friends about being Tinky Winky one of the Teletubbies on childrens television often seen to emerge or drop down a hole in the ground. The Tinky Winky illustration peripherally suggests that negligence might have caused such an ominous situation for the kids. But as some of the Ugandan community apparently believed television implanted a fatal irrational fantasy depict by Buckingham in Dickinson, Harindranath and Linn (1998, p134). Gerbner and Gross (1976) in Newbold, 1995, p30) prefer to call the latter case cultivation that places emphasis on long-term effects of the media. Perhaps, what creates a fair gist of legal separation in effects research and perspectives is not only linked to the way we interpret physical phenomena but also to the way that populist views (Robinson Willett, p9) are taken as gospel truth. The elite Ugandan community called for a total ban of the teletubbies -a demand that spread to human rights groups. Could peers perhaps have influenced their unfortunate friend through vicarious transfer of their televis ion experience with the teletubbies? For Moss (1996), children sense of the media is mediated through blather with peers, parents and teachers. Goonasekera (1996, p26) attempts to demarcate the process that leads to anti-social behaviour that he contends happens through a process of acculturation and socialization, where values such as respect for the sanctity of human life stick weaker and values promoting short-term hedonistic behaviour become stronger. Does this latter postulation apply to the Ugandan tragedy above? Some authors think otherwise. Gauntlett in Dickinson, Harindranath and Linn (1998, p124) criticises the effects model for its media depictions of anti-social acts that he says is limited to fictitious productions. The weakness with this latter assertion of the effects model is that other anti-social activities which appear in other media do not have similar effects on the same audiences. If also, as McKenna (1995,p25) asserts that public service broadcasting tends to be dominated by the elites, whence how can one account for the violence that is prevalent in many rural areas in Africa that are not exposed to the media? Can this perhaps be controlled when testing hypotheses? McQuail (2005, p16) alludes to this when he asks which looking at of the medium is being regulated? This latter assertion has connotations for media effects research methodology especially testing hypotheses. Buckingham (2008, p31) recommends that research should contribute to the wider debates about the aims and methods of media education. For Moss (1996, p24), this kind of research could explore on a macro level, the influence of media products on society and its culture or the socio-psychology of the process for individuals. Buckingham in Dickinson, Harindranath and Linn (1998, p136) however notes that effects models assume that effects can simply be read sour from the analysis of content. This latter assertion appears to undermine the mediating factors paradigm that he further argues, has a weakness of viewing the audience as a mass of undifferentiated individuals. However, Buckingham (p.137) also validates mediating factors research approaches that underscore the dependence of the socializing influence of television on diverse and variable meanings which its users attach to it (uses and gratifications) and where viewers induce meaning (constructivist). Anderson and Lorch (1983), allude to an active relationship between children and television as they view them as actively making the choice to pay care to television which in turn influences the way they understand what they watch and on the activities available in their viewing environment. This approach appears not to account for time to come similar anti-social behaviour that children exhibit after recently watching television. Indeed, Buckingham (1998, p139) expresses this latter concern with the ways in which childrens understanding of television changes along with their intellectual dev elopment and uncertainty over their ability to distinguish between worldly concern and fantasy on television. But for Cumberbatch (2008, p13 p32) doubts remain over the validity of empirical evidence to the case of causality in effects research into media violence that he argues fails to raise the question of study why many people seem unaffected by television violence. On the other egest Moss (1996, p30) postulates that through social activities, childrens interpretation of media text goes through a teddy as they represent what they know in the current context, and renegotiate its consequence in the light of others comments to generate and sustain their talk. For Robinson and Willett (2006,p25), both popular and academic research view children as passive receivers of whatever messages the media offers, with little ability to resist the effects. These hypotheses in the underlying models of communications create a separation in the evidence generated by effects research of the media on audiences. The calico demarcation of concerns in this and other sections only adds to the complexity of the issues around televisions influence and further raises the question of kind of effective action that needs to be taken. The next section attempts to illuminate this latter question from the authors perspective.Effective action for better effects research and healthy television viewing among childrenThe concerns rigid out in previous sections are based on the forego that watching television might have both positive and negative effects. This said, there appears to be vast inconclusive literature on anti-social effects such as violence compared to pro-social influence that television might have on children. Research might better serve in demarcating the field by illuminating the more positive aspects of television influence on audiences. With global processes such as the current economic recession and globalisation unfolding or deepening, it might be useful for rese arch to analyse the effects of television viewing on cultural practices or on economic status of audiences across an array of ethnic groups. Also investigating the effectiveness of mediating factors in influencing the resulting effect(s) might be an fire area for research e.g. does someones religious beliefs rein-in or promote potential anti-social behaviour? Can say criminal anti-social behaviour have a genetic link that manifests under a threshold of specific media exposure? How can research separate media and non-media influences across different audience age groups by first establishing a baseline of what children already know about the media?In terms of the presumed effects of advertising, media violence and so forth, parents or guardians need to review the balance of the childs effortless activity based on some anti-social indicators. For example, if a child ever chooses to watch television instead of play with friends or only talks only about television programs and char acters, or is not performing tumesce in school, it would be prudent tocut back on the amount of time spent in front of the television. Television viewing time should be negotiated together with the child. Parental Guidance locks should also be instituted on undesirable programmes. It is also helpful for adults, media text producers and regulation to help children interpret and critique the viewed material in order to promote constructive ways that life and values should be interpreted.ConclusionThis essay has benefited by examining some of the salient issues around adult citizens concerns about the influence of television viewing on children. It focused on loosely defining the category of adult citizens and their specific interest in aspects of the topic. The discussion was demarcated by situating the topic in media theory, justifying the importance of examining the influence of TV versus other media and then specifically highlighting the plethora of concerns that were mainly nega tive. These concerns then spilt over into a separate section that focused on a critique of some of the existing methodological approaches and concerns. This was important to examine because methodological approaches inform the existing evidence and facts that a range of adult citizens base their understanding of the issue on. The essay then underscored the fact that mostly negative evidence exists around examining the influence of TV viewing on children and inconclusive in its findings. The essay then recommends time to come research to look into more positive facets when examining the issue and to incorporate the interesting dimensions of genetics, ethnicity and spirituality. This complex essay would have benefited more from an in-depth examination of the causal link between ethonographic, child development and economic issues and critical distancing in the influence TV television viewing on children.