Tuesday, April 2, 2019
Risk Factor Risk Based Prevention To Young Offending Criminology Essay
Risk Factor Risk Based Pr even outtion To youngish Offending Criminology EssayRisk factors which ar used by developmental criminology, be those characteristics such(prenominal) as a striking family, experience of horror and having criminal p atomic number 18nts whereby longitudinal and quantitative research shows that im pause present damaging outcomes such as afterwardlife offend and the to a greater extent ilkliness of anger. in that respect has been research into juvenility pique which shows that there is a range of identifiable assay factors which atomic number 18 present in the lives of numerous pincerren and young population. on that point atomic number 18 a number of seek factors which is said to increase the youths likelihood of world involved with criminal or anti-social behaviour, Family, individual, environmental. These risk factors rush some(prenominal) agencies in spite of appearance them. The basic judgment of risk- found ginmill is simple . It is to identify the key risk factors for offend and weaponing prevention methods planned to counteract them. Through legal manduction of culture it provides the prospect for the former(a) identification of those children and young people well-nigh at risk.In this essay risk factors and risk ground prevention approaches ordain be outlined and critically assessed as approaches to young offending, for the premier(prenominal) time in the essay explaining and analysing risk factor approaches to youth offending by looking at the main foundation of risk factors and risk counselling by looking at the ideas of the approaches. Then Reliability of risk factors as a way to take in charge delinquency to reduce prevention of reoffending depart be looked at. The essay go away also analyse techniques for risk ground prevention methods and empathizeing the reasoning behind it. Lastly the essay will assess the effectiveness and efficiency to see if risk based prevention approache s beget do a leaving to youth offending.It is a lottimes wondered as to what triggers the youth to offend at such an early age. on that point are risk factors that are said to be predictors of delinquency. Risk factors come from the principles of developmental Criminology. This criminology ideology is concerned with three key issues that are the developing of offending and antisocial behaviour, risk factors that focus on antithetic ages, and the effects of events that turn over happened in brio on the course of development. Developmental criminology thus tries to guarantee to identify non-criminal behaviour which leads to criminal behaviour and to avoid them from happening at an early age with risk based prevention techniques. Offending is often part of a big syndrome of antisocial behaviour that arises in childhood and tends to continue into maturity (West and Farrington, 1977).Risk factors and risk management had become in-chief(postnominal) and had been highlighted i n the 1980s. The public of the US wanted more accountability and modestness in the policies of the justice brass. So that is when a new system of actuarialism had emerged. Jonathan Simon was first to notice actuarial assessments. The old society which was based around penalisation of an individual in order to correct society was then challenged by a new risk society whereby its target was to find the dubious population by using scientific calculations. These populations were controlled with minimum welfare bear out because they were targeted (Source Muncie Pg.22)Risk analysing has become very common since the 1990s as come to in preventing disgust research has grown rapidly. The approach which suggested that offending is part of the continuum of anti social behaviour which starts at childhood then persists to adulthood and which is then reproduced in generations is the criminal career approach. A jutting was investigated on why delinquency begins and to see if criminality ca n be predicted. The project was an ongoing Cambridge study in delinquent development. A group of labor boys that were aged 8 were selected, twelve from ethnic minorities. They were contacted again at different ages in their life from 10 up until 48 to see which of those boys had unquestionable a delinquent life and why some continued the life of discourtesy when they came to adulthood. It was found that a fifth of the participants that had been selected had in fact perpetrate an offence and had been convicted as a juvenile. Some of them had shared characteristics which were similar, for lesson they were troublesome, driving etc. and had a tendency to come from families that were ugly or large(p) and that had parents who had been convicted. Farrington maintained that longitude research and recognized that the risk prevention double had world-wide implication and strong practical application. (Source Muncie 2009 Pg.26)Based on all this information Farrington had identified family, individual and environmental predictors to future criminal behaviour. Among the family factors that are approximately principal(prenominal) are criminal or antisocial parents, Criminal offences whitethorn run in the family and is shown that a high percentage of youth offenders had convicted members within the family. This whitethorn be due to the youth seeing that criminality is in the norm and whence feel it is ok to offend. Children that come from criminal families often have an anti authority attitude and so therefore accept that offending is acceptable. Also large family size is an beta family factor to delinquency, it was researched in the Cambridge study that if a boy had four or more siblings by the time he was 10 he doubled the risk of existence a juvenile. There are many a(prenominal) reasons why having a large family may make a youth turn to criminality. Parental help decreases when the number of children increase in the family, therefore making the ho usehold more overcrowded which can then lead to conflict and frustration. There are many different types of child rearing methods which may lead to delinquency. There have been studies to show that parents that dont know what their children get up to i.e. not knowing where they are when they are out, and parents that al junior-grade their children to be out roaming the streets whilst unsupervised at an early age, tend to end up having delinquent children. Important individual factors were first intelligence, Having low intelligence and bad performance in school is a predictable reason for offending. There is a link between low intelligence and aversion and it is associated with a poor ability to manipulate concepts to understand the feelings of victims. Empathy and impulsiveness are key factors which are personality traits that predict whether youth will become delinquent. Farrington took particular attention to this as he recognized them to be signifi pretense emotions in delinqu ency. Someone who lacks in empathy wont care active separate peoples feelings and will have selfish attitudes, also like those who are more impulsive wont think about what their actions may have caused in the future. The important factors within environmental factors are peer pressure, Delinquents commonly have delinquent friends therefore sometimes may be a result of peer pressure. As a youth they could be good manipulated and convinced into participating in anti social behaviour, Drinking, smoking, drug outcry etc. There are many more risk factors provided these factors just mentioned are most common and they are easily identified. (Source Farrington 2007)There is sometimes a misunderstanding of risk factors as they may be seen as scientific facts and the real cause of aversions, However they should not be mistaken as they are merely a prediction of what may make youths offend in the future. However it does slip away in an insight as to what areas need to be looked at in order to reduce crimes. The idea of risk factor approaches is that it generalises those individuals who are considered to fall into the risky category and those who are more likely to become offenders in the future. Risk factors surely cant be easily generalised, as the UK is a diverse nation, and it cannot be faux that everyone lives in a similar community with the same customs. Risk factors snitch to explain the variables of culture and context fully. What if there were different circumstances for example a child from a large wealthy family does this make the youth at risk of future delinquency? However this contradicts with the fact that children from poor families tend to turn to delinquency. So are risk factors a bona fide tool to tackle delinquency and reduce crime? it can be seen as a reliable tool however risk factors by and by all are just risks, so technically it doesnt mean its a certain reason as to why crime happens, it does on the other hand show which areas need to be focussed on and what ineluctably to be done in order to help prevent future crimes.The idea of risk-based prevention is to identify the main risk factors for offending and to implement prevention methods planned to reach against them. Risk-focussed prevention first came from medicine which was later imported into criminology from medicine and public wellness by Hawkins and Catalano (1992). There are many methods of crime prevention through early intervention. Visits from health professionals to give advice on things such as infant development, nutrition, alcohol and drugs so this reduces child abuse from parents. Intellectual enrichment programmes in nurseries which will stimulate reasoning and thought skills for young children, parenting education programmes, cognitive and social skills training to teach children the consequences of their actions in terms of behaviour, there are many other risk based prevention methods but these are the common approaches used to help pre vent and reduce crimes.It is easy to point out the risk factors and predicting the nail down causes of a youth being delinquent so therefore preventing youth crime can be done, however it is not easily done and may not be the case. There are many of the factors which are coordinated and there are problems with trying to spot which variables are independent and which variables are dependant. It is a crucial point when analysing risk factor evidence, because distorted results may produce false conclusions and focussing on risk factors which may not be necessarily needed. A huge problem of risk-focussed prevention is to physique out which risk factors are causes and which are simply markers or jibe with causes (Farrington, 2000). A key problem with the risk factor prevention paradigm that its presentation of specified individualised risks as though they compromise uncontroversial facts, truths and scientific realities. The research within risk factors shows some correlations with statistical records of offending and so therefore shouldnt be confused with having discovered the causes of such offending. Risks may be pointed out and may try and be prevented however some youths may be punished for crimes they may have never committed and there is a bechance that they may end up offending in the end due to interventions and as a retaliation, so therefore risk prevention management end up becoming a risk itself.So are risk based prevention approaches good and effective and have they make a difference to youth offending? The youth crime action plan is a comprehensive, analysis made by the government as to what they are going to do to tackle youth crime (Source Homeoffice.gov.uk). The government are aware of the risks and have been trying to prevent them. i.e. the risk based prevention methods mentioned earlier. However there is a problem with this. Individuals and families are being targeted rigorously on the basis that they are risky candidates and therefore bei ng punished for crimes which they have not even committed. Risks are just predictions and probabilities and chances of something which could happen or likely to happen. Its not certain that these risks could become reality. This therefore may seem unfair to those who may fall into the risky category however have no means or intention to commit a crime. Even though there is a chance in being able to prevent youth crime through prevention methods there is also a high chance of innocent people being labelled. So the question is whether risk based prevention approaches are fair? A large family in a deprived area may find it patronising for a health professional to come to their home to tell them about how to look after their children, and also may seem unfair because they are being targeted purely because they fall into a risk category, whereas a large family that live in a less deprived may not need such risk prevention methods directed at them. So would it not be fairer and more equal if everyone had the same help and support, because people who dont fall into the risk category may also offend in the future.On the other hand there are good signs of progress made by the government due to their intervention which is making a huge difference to youth crime. It is said that between 2000 and 2007 young offenders who have been reoffending within 12 months fell by 2.7%. the number of youths going into the criminal justice system has made improvements by reducing by 9% from 2006/07 to 2007/8. There has been a decrease in youths using drugs and alcohol (Source Youth Action course of study 2007) So their youth action plan methods are efficient and effective as there is evidence of improvement however there will always be the minority which prevention methods will not get going on.To conclude Risk factors and risk based prevention are important approaches to youth offending as it is important to try and tackle where the root of the problem is coming from and then ways to prevent youth crime from happening. However it is increasingly difficult to predict the patterns of a youths behaviour. Risk factors should not be seen as the causes of the crime, they should be seen as factors which contribute to the problem of crime in the majority circumstance. Risk factors and risk management can work for some people but may not work for others. it seems like people are picked out at random even if they may not even be the problem. There are clearly many problems with risk based prevention approaches which were mentioned in the essay, main one being whether the approaches are fair and whether it is fair for risk factors to target certain people even if they have no intention to commit crime, however it is important to try and deal with crime and trying to prevent it to keep the train of crime low even if the minority may be below the belt accused. The youth action plan on the other hand shows statistics of improvements made by the governments interventions wh ich shows that risk based prevention approaches are worthwhile.Perhaps braggart(a) everyone the same support would be a better approach disregarding of whether they are in the risky category because someone who may be out of the categories within the main risk factors may still go on to offend, and it is hard to predict who is at risk of offending as the UK is ever changing and there are far too many factors to consider.