Friday, May 31, 2019
lacquer is known for its contemporary culture and patterned advance in electronics and engineering. We could also learn from the traditions Japan can offer. From advancement in cars and electronic devices, Japan holds on to ancient arts and traditions that play a role in their daily life. Japan has various climates from tropical in the south to cooler temperatures in the north, and the famous tourist site of the active volcano Mount Fuji. Mount Fiji is the highest mountain in Japan, with a tundra climate the temperature is misfortunate and covered with snow causing. The average temperature is always below freezing, excluding the summer. Geography of JapanJapan is a country made up by a orbit of thousands of islands on the Pacific Ocean. Japan is located to the east of South and North Korea, China, and Russia. The Sea of Japan separates the Asian continent from the Japaneses islands. Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku are the largest islands of the country. Japan offi ci in ally divided into the following eight regions Hokkaido, Chubu, Shikoku, Tohoku, Kinki/Kansai, Kyushu and Okinawa, Kanto, and Chugoku. The eight regions divide into 47 prefectures, which are similar to the 50 States in America. Eight RegionsThe Hokkaido region is in the Hokkaido Island, the northern some of the islands and the second largest. This region mostly known for the beautiful scenery offer by the mountainous terrain, volcanoes and the vast amount of lakes has become the fishing and agriethnical most important industries that motivate the Hokkaido region. This region also defers from the rest because of the location and mountain ranges that help maintain the region cooler in the summer and the winters are the coldest of all the Japans regions. Chu... ...4). Japan Government. Web. 17 Nov. 2015. http//globaledge.msu.edu/countries/japan/governmentJapan-Traditions,Holidays, and Folklore. (2001). Web. 14 Nov. 2015.http//acad.depauw.edu/mkfinney/teaching/Com227/cultura lportfolios/japan/traditions.htmJapan Geisha Culture. Discovery.com. (2014). Web. 11 Nov. 2015. http//dsc.discovery.com/tv-shows/other-shows/videos/discovery-atlas-japan-geisha-culture.htm3Japan National Tourism Organization. Web. 15 Nov. 2015. http//www.jnto.go.jp/eng/indepth/cultural/experience/a.htmlWeb-japan.org. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.http//web-japan.org/factsheet/en/pdf/e03_flora.pdfMerriam-Webster.com. (2014). Parliamentary Government Definition. Web. 17 Nov. 2015. http//www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/parliamentary%20governmentWeb-japan.org. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.http//web-japan.org/factsheet/en/pdf/e02_regions.pdf
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Different authors have different approaches to the same issue. In this paper I will contrast and compare how the authors Alexis De Tocqueville, Holly Dover, and Christina Hoff Sommers, tackle the myth of the procedure of women in society and what the consumption of women should be according to them. De TocquevilleDe Tocqueville was a French aristocrat who came to America to study the American penal system. Coming from a European society he was struck by the way Americans understood the equality of the sexes. He published his book Democracy in America in 1835, which is from where our pick came from. De Tocqueville seems very impressed with the fact that American women are capable of performing the same duties as men but do not choose to because they preferably maintain their natural fructify in society. American women are just as capable as men in understanding politics and early(a) important affairs, but choose not to occupy themselves with such matter, so they spend more time in preserving their natural beauty and their natural place in society without being forced to. He also seems pleased by the fact that the women take pride in bending themselves to the yoke.He seems to be very content with American men as well who, unlike European men, do not flatter their women constantly and boast themselves to be womens slaves but instead, show the appreciation of their women through their actions. European men on the other hand are all talk. De Tocquville says in his closing stemma that even though American women are extremely dependent on the men, he has never seen any women occupy a loftier position. He attributes Americas superiority to the superiority of her women.Another way of looking at the portions we assume in society is that they are socially constructed. Holly Devor brings this view to our attention in an essay. macrocosm a professor of sociology at the University of Victoria in British Columbia, she is an expert in the field. She uses a more scien tific approach, as compared to De Tocquville, to the argument about the role of men and women in society. She believes that we learn how to live our lives according to our gender at a very young age. According to research, by the age of five old age old, children may be able to accurately recognize their own gender and the genders of the people around them however, they will often do that on the basis of role information, such as hairstyle and clothing, rather than physical attributes such as genitals.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
The Oppression of Women in The Yellow Wallpaper                  The Yellow Wallpaper is a story, by Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Although the work is short, it is one of the most interesting works in existence. Gilman uses literary techniques very well. The symbolism of The Yellow Wallpaper, can be seen and employed after most thought and make sense immediately. The views and ideals of alliance are often found in literary works. Whether the author is trying to show the ills of society of merely congress a story, culture is woven onto the words. The relationship between the narrator and her husband would be disagreeable to a modern womans relationship. Today, most women crave equality with their partner. The referee never learns the name of the narrator, perhaps to give the illusion that she could be any woman. On the very fist page of The Yellow Wall-Paper, Gilman illustrates the male dominated society and relationsh ip. It was customary for men to assume that their gender knew what, when, how, and why to do things. tin can, the narrators husband, is a prominent doctor and both his and his wifes words and actions reflect the aforementioned stereotype stern laughs at me, of course, but one expects that in marriage, (9). This statement illustrates the blatant sexism of society at the time. John does not believe that his wife is sick, while she is really distraint from post-partum depression. He neglects to listen to his wife in regard to her thoughts, feelings, and health through this thought pattern. According to him, there is not anything wrong with his wife except for flying nerve issues, which should not be serious. By closing her off from the rest of the world, he is taking her away from things that important to her mental state such as her ability to read and write, her need for human interaction, her need to make her own decisions. All of these are important to all people. This idea of forced rest and serenity to cure temporary nervous problems was very common at the time. Many doctors prescribed it for their female patients. The narrators husband, brother, and their colleagues all feel that this is the correct way to fix her problem, which is practically nonexistent in their eyes. Throughout the beginning of the story, the narrator tends to buy into the idea that the man is always right and makes excuses for her feelings and his actions and words It is so hard to talk to John about my case, because he is so wise and because he loves me so, (23).
Increase in Nontraditional College Students   Seven Works Cited      A 1995 report from the National Center for Education Statistics reveals that 76 one million million American adults, 40 share of the adult population, are enrolled in adult education classes, an 8 percent increase from 1991 (Adults Thrive). Nearly 50 percent of the 14.2 million college and university students in the United States are over twenty-four years of age, and the percentage is rising (Mathews w22). Enrollment in degree programs at the University of Phoenix, the University of Denver, and Regis University, schools catering to operative adults, has almost doubled in the last five years (Scanlon 3A). Between the reporting years 1985-86 and 1996-97, nationwide enrollment increased 11 percent among students amidst the ages of 25-29, 5 percent among 30- to 34-year-olds, and a whopping 65 percent for those 35 years old and older (Hussar 4). What explains the increase in the enrollment of nontraditional1 college students?  The causes are umteen and range from changes in the job market and the work environments to a desire for a more rewarding career and to an increasing U.S. population.   One reason for the enrollment increase is job changes and company downsizing. As companies adjust to ever-changing economic conditions, many people find themselves unemployed and look to a college education to assistant them attain different or better jobs. And it is not only newly hired, younger employees who are the unfortunate casualties of corporate downsizing. Tonye Nelson had been an accounting clerk for twenty years. On March 2, 1996, she arrived at work only to be told she had been laid off because of company down... ... w22. Online. Lexis-Nexis. 2 Nov. 1998.   Pickard, Marilyn. Personal interview. 19 Nov.1998.   Rich, Kim. College Pays. Anchorage Daily News 4 Aug 1996 D.1. Online. Proquest. 19 Nov.1998.   Scanlon, Bill. Adu lt Education Colorado Colleges Reach Out to the Grown-Up Crowd. Rocky Mountain News S Apr.1998 F.3A. Ouline. Lexis-Nexis. 2 Nov.1998.   1 Students between the ages of 14 and 24 are commonly considered traditional students, whale those aged 25 or older are considered nontraditional.   2 The baby-boom generation, those born between 1946 and 1964, comprises 76-77 million individuals, an average of 4.2 million births per year. The next generation of individuals, born between 1965 and 1978, sometimes called the baby-bust generation or Generation x, averaged only 3.4 million births per year.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
John F.Kennedy was destined to be president of the UnitedStates. He would rather mold chronicle than let history molditself. John Kennedy was born in Brookline, MA in 1917.His mother was Irish and his father was a graduate ofHarvard University and had entered the business world. after(prenominal) their arrival as immigrants, Johns grandparentsentered politics. John had attended four different schoolsbefore attending Harvard. He first attended Dexter workin Brookline where he played football. He was thenenrolled at the Riverdale Country Day School in Bronxville,NY because his father had moved for business reason. Hehad in like manner attended the Canterbury School in New Milford,MA and then he spent his secondary school years atChoate in Wallingford, CT. As a student, Kennedy wasaverage. He had potential of a great intellect and had acapacity to learn scarcely he failed to apply himself. Therefore,he was happy as a B student. In 1946, JFK started downthe road mapped out for him b y his father. Since Kennedywas more of a scholar than a politician, it wasnt easy whenhe ran for Congress from mammy 11th district.Since his family was well known, he fit right in. He servedin the House of Representatives for six years. Then in1952, he ran for the Senate against Henry Cabot Lodge.He win and then began to capture the eyes of men in theDemocratic Party. In 1956 he decided to run as theDemocratic Vice Presidential nominee, but he lost to theSenator of Tennes design. His effort, however, earned himnational prominence, exactly what he wanted. In 1960 hewon the Democratic Presidential Contest. From that timeon JFK had developed into oneness of the most effectivespeakers in the history of the presidency. While a juniormember of the Senate in 1952, Kennedy me Jacquelin LeeBouvier, who was working as a photographer for the working capital Times Herald. On September 12, 1953, theymarried in Hyannis Port on Cape Cod. Although Kennedywas not born a politician, he learned the trade fast. His pursuance for presidency started in 1959. His campaign was avery exhausting experience for him. He had planned earlyon that he would cover everything, do everything and seeeveryone. The highlight of the 1960 Presidential Campaignwas the series of four television debates between Kennedyand his adversary, Richard M. Nixon. Even off screen,Kennedy had a way of turning the debates to hisadvantage. When the ratings were in, Kennedy had clearlypassed up his opponent by a considerable margin. Manyexperts believe that his appearance on television was thekey factor in winning most of the votes.
derriere F.Kennedy was destined to be president of the UnitedStates. He would rather put history than let history molditself. John Kennedy was born in Brookline, MA in 1917.His mother was Irish and his father was a graduate ofHarvard University and had entered the business world.After their arrival as immigrants, Johns grandparentsentered politics. John had attended four different schoolsbefore attending Harvard. He first attended Dexter Schoolin Brookline where he contend football. He was thenenrolled at the Riverdale Country Day School in Bronxville,NY because his father had moved for business reason. Hehad also attended the Canterbury School in New Milford,MA and then he spent his secondary school years atChoate in Wallingford, CT. As a student, Kennedy wasaverage. He had potential of a great intellect and had acapacity to learn but he failed to apply himself. Therefore,he was happy as a B student. In 1946, JFK started masterthe road mapped out for him by his father. Since Ke nnedywas more of a scholar than a politician, it wasnt easy whenhe ran for Congress from Massachusetts 11th district.Since his family was well known, he fit right in. He servedin the House of Representatives for six years. Then in1952, he ran for the Senate against Henry Cabot Lodge.He won and then began to capture the eyeball of men in theDemocratic Party. In 1956 he decided to run as theDemocratic Vice Presidential nominee, but he lost to theSenator of Tennessee. His effort, however, acquire himnational prominence, exactly what he wanted. In 1960 hewon the Democratic Presidential Contest. From that timeon JFK had developed into one of the most effectivespeakers in the history of the presidency. While a juniormember of the Senate in 1952, Kennedy me Jacquelin LeeBouvier, who was working as a photographer for theWashington Times Herald. On family 12, 1953, theymarried in Hyannis Port on Cape Cod. Although Kennedywas not born a politician, he learned the trade fast. Hisquest for pr esidency started in 1959. His foot race was avery exhausting experience for him. He had planned earlyon that he would cover everything, do everything and seeeveryone. The highlight of the 1960 Presidential apparent movementwas the series of four television debates between Kennedyand his opponent, Richard M. Nixon. Even off screen,Kennedy had a way of turning the debates to hisadvantage. When the ratings were in, Kennedy had clearlypassed up his opponent by a capacious margin. Manyexperts believe that his appearance on television was thekey factor in winning most of the votes.
Monday, May 27, 2019
Samuel Gander Mr. Dunham English 102 April 25, 2012 Farming On a Whole New take aim Although people have worked in agriculture for more than 10,000 years, advance in technology assisted with maintaining and protecting land, figure outs, and animals. The demand to keep food affordable encourages those workings in the agriculture industry to operate as efficiently as possible (Newman & Ruiz, pp. 33-47). Almost all people and companies in the industry have some(prenominal) acres of land they must maintain, and it is not always feasible for farmers to take frequent trips around the property to perform basic tasks such as lacrimation soil in the absence of rain.The number of people-hours required to water soil manually on several thousand acres of land might offspring in businesses spending thousands of dollars in labor and utility costs. If the irrigation process is automated, sensors detect how much rain has fallen recently, as well as whether the soil is in need of watering. The sensors then site this data to a electronic computer that processes it and decides when and how much to water. In addition to keeping the soil moist and reducing maintenance costs, computer also can utilize sensor to analyze the condition of crops in the field and determine whether pests or diseases are affecting the crops.If sensor detects pests and/or diseases, computers send a notification to the appropriate individual to take corrective action. In some cases, according to Brewster, the discovery of pests might trigger a pesticide to discharge in the affected area automatically (Agriculture Expanding and Growing). Many farmers social function technology in a daily basis to regulate soil moisture and to keep their crop pest free. With technology, farming can be much more convenient and efficient. 1 . Barton states the many automated home irrigation system also are programmable and use rain sensor (pp. 67-73)
Sunday, May 26, 2019
John Searle in his paper Minds, Brain and Programs presented the strong critics of the strong intelligence. First of each in the paper Searle differentiates between different types of artificial intelligence weak AI, which is provided a helping tool in study of the see, and strong AI, which is considered to be appropriately designed computer able to perform cognitive operations itself. Searle conducted Chinese agency test, the primary goal of which is to prove that machines squirtnot posses the states of certified aw beness, like perceiving, reasonableness or knowing (Searle, 1980).According to Stevan Harnad, in his research Searle real(a)ly does not argue about artificial intelligence at each(prenominal) but in particular he attacked the main positions of computationalism, a position (unlike Strong AI) that is actually held by many thinkers, and hence one worth refuting (Harnad, 2001). Shortly, Chinese Room thought experiment usher out be described the following way. Se arle places himself on the place of the computer. He supposed that he had to process a batch of Chinese characters with the help of the explicit computer program and produce the output.Searle is totally unfamiliar with Chinese he cant even differentiate Chinese characters from Japanese ones. He could only split up them by their shapes. Searle was able to process those symbols due to the fact that the rules were given in English. That enabled him to operate with the Chinese characters. In some time as the soul learns the rules better, touch on the Chinese wrangling be scrapes easier and the answers atomic number 18 more correct.So, people who ask questions in Chinese and receive answers are sure that the person knows the language as the answers are just undistinguishable from the answers of native speakers of Chinese. The conclusion is that obeying definite rules Searle can process Chinese questions and give correct answers to them without even knowing a word in Chinese. Nobo dy just looking at my answers can tell that I dont speak a word of Chinese, Searle writes (Searle, 1980). The same thing is with computers. They are in fact in the same position as Searle.Computers dont have mind, they dont think in Chinese, but they are manipulating with symbols just as Searle did. Thats why people might have the impression that computers can possess intelligence. However, this work of Searle was not a complete explanation on the problem of artificial intelligence. It was just a beginning and it raised the wave of critics and argument. On the one hand almost all researchers couldnt but change course with the Searles statement that he was able to give correct answers to the questions without knowing the word in Chinese.But still on that point were a number of people who considered that Searles experiment couldnt be judged as a valid critics of the artificial intelligence. All the replies can be roughly divided into the following main groups (Cole, 2004). The fron tmost group argued the Searles experiment by identifying, who it is who speaks Chinese. The imprimatur group of critics researches the way how pithless symbols can become meaningful. The third group of scholars believes that there is a wish to redesign the Chinese way along the lines of a humour.Finally the last group of scholars considers that there are numerous pourboires which testify to the fact that Searles argument is totally misleading. So, as it was already mentioned the first argument was concerned with the mind source. This group of researchers was interested in the question where the mind was since the person in the fashion wasnt speaking Chinese. The main issues under research were main ontological controversies of mind and body and mannikin and reality (Cole, 2004 Hauser, 2005 Hearn, 2007). The group of the researchers attempting to answer this question fell into several(prenominal) categories.The first category proposed systems reply (Searle, 1980 Cole, 2004, H auser, 2005 Russel & Norvig, 2003 Dennett, 1991 Hearn, 2007, Crevier, 1993), which believes that since the person is not the one who possesses the knowledge of Chinese but the answers are still correct, it is the system, comprising the man, batch of words and rules for touch on the words, which comprehends Chinese. The person in the room is just a part of this run intoing system, which implies that the fact that the person does not understand and does not know the Chinese language is completely irrelevant.However, Searle was able to answer this critical response saying that the man can be the whole system in case he memorizes all the rules for processing the Chinese words and will keep them in his mind. However, this wont change the fact that he does not understand Chinese (Searle, 1980). The an separate(prenominal) point on which Searle argued this response was that critics are in fact missing the point as they on the one hand were trying to find the mind, but on the other hand point that it belongs to some system, which is a room.But this doesnt make sense as the room itself has nothing to do with the mind. It can be true only on the point when the critics explain this from the metaphysical point of view, which means that the mind is something that appears or emerges in the room and continues to exist there (Harnad, 2005 Searle, 1980 Crevier, 1993). The other response, which belongs to the group of mind finders, is virtual mind reply (Cole, 2004). This seems to be a more correct reply, which sticks to the idea that there is some Chinese-speaking mind in the room but it is virtual.It was argued that computing machinery possesses the ability to implement another computer, which implies that any computer can simulate other machines step-by-step, performing the functions of both. Cole even argues that a program can be created, which in fact is able to implement two minds at once. So, despite the fact that there exists only one man in the room and one system, the number of virtual minds can be unlimited (Cole, 2004).However, Searles response was that such a mind is nothing but a simulation by itself No one supposes that computer simulations of a five-alarm fire will burn the neighborhood down or that a computer simulation of a rainstorm will leave us all drenched(Searle, 1980). This statement was argued by the supporter of the virtual mind idea, Nicholas Fearn, in the following way When we omen up the pocket calculator function on a desktop computer, the image of a pocket calculator appears on the screen. We dont sound off that it isnt really a calculator, because the physical attributes of the device do not matter (Fearn, 2007).Anyway, the following conclusion can be made on the one hand these scholars were able to argue the Searles statement that strong artificial intelligence is false due to the fact that the man in the room doesnt understand Chinese, which implies that nothing in the room understands Chinese (Cole, 2004). On the ot her hand the scholars still failed to prove the existence of the strong AI as they couldnt prove that the system or virtual mind understands Chinese. Searle maintains that the systems reply simply begs the question by insisting that system must understand Chinese (Searle, 1980).The other groups of scholars, who argue Searles work, were concerned with finding the meaning. Their replies are generally referred to as robot and semantics replies. The main concern of these scholars is to argue the Searles work at the point of intentionality and syntax-semantics controversy. For the person in the room Chinese characters are just meaningless squiggles, however, if the Chinese room can really comprehend Chinese words, there should be the source of the meaning. Thus, this group of scholars was trying to find the connection between the symbols and the items they symbolize.According to the proposed replies to these questions, several categories could be differentiated. First one is robot reply (Searle, 1980 Cole, 2004 Hauser, 2006 Hearn, 2007), which states that if the program is lay in the robot instead of the room nobody would doubt that he understands what hes doing due to the establishment of the causal connection between the symbols and things, which are represented by them. According to Hans Moravec If we could graft a robot to a reasoning program, we wouldnt need a person to provide the meaning anymore it would come from the physical world (in Crevier, 1993).However, Searle argued this idea by stating that there is no difference who operates the words, as the person in the room is just following the rules without understanding what the words actually mean. Searle further says that he doesnt see what comes into the robots eyes (Searle, 1980). The second group proposed derived meaning theory (Hauser, 2006 Cole, 2004), which there is a connection between the room and the world through Chinese speakers and programmers, which implies that the symbols the person works w ith are already meaningful in general, which does not necessarily mean that they should be meaningful to him.However, Searle argues that symbols can only possess derived meaning, which depends on the conscious comprehension of Chinese speakers and programmers outside the room, which does not at all mean that the room by itself possesses the ability to understand by itself (Cole, 2004). The other semantic replies were concerned with the commonsense knowledge idea (Dennett, 2007), which states that the meaning of symbols could be derived from the background of the commonsense knowledge, which serves as a context providing meaning for the symbols.Searle argument was based on the idea that although the background does exist, still it cant be built in programs. So, it is obvious that Searle supports the viewpoint that there is no difference in the amount of knowledge written into the program and the connection of the later with the world. Still the person is the only one, who operates in the room and his actions is purely syntactic, which do not provide him with the meaning of the words, thus, the main Searles statement is that syntax is insufficient for semantics(Searle, 1984 Searle, 1989).However, it should be admitted that there is some sense in the virtual mind theory, saying that even though the symbols mean nothing to Searle, they acquire their meaning from the virtual mind, which is connected with the outside worlds through Chinese speakers and programmers, which implies that it is irrelevant whether these symbols mean anything to Searle. The third group of scholars argued Searles work on the point that it the system needs to be redefined.Thus, according to brain simulator reply (Searle, 1980 Cole, 2004 Hauser, 2006 Churchland & Churchland, 1990.) the program is sure to understand Chinese in case it is a simulation of the interaction of the neurons in the brain of a speaker of the Chinese language. Searle argues this reply saying that this type of simulation is otiose to reproduce such basic features of the brain as its causal and intentional states, saying that human mental phenomena are dependent on actual physical-chemical properties of actual human brains (Searle, 1980). He further states that only brains can cause mind (Hauser, 2006).According to the brain replacement scenario (Russell Norvig, 2003 Cole, 2004 Moravec, 1988 Kurzweil, 2005 Crevier, 1993,) the scholars maintain that in case one small computer is able to simulate the work of one individual neuron, this wont cause that much difference to the system in general, however, in case all the neurons are replaced, we would create digital computer stimulating the brain. This means that if we support Searles point of view this will lead to the disappearance of the whole conscious awareness (Searle, 1992 Russell & Norvig, 2003).Combination reply (Searle, 1980 Hauser, 2006) supported the idea that in case there is a robot created on the basis of brain simulation, which is linked to the world in the way that it has the causal power of the real brain, it is able to think. Connectionist reply (Cole, 2004 Hauser, 2006) has much in common with the brain simulator reply and believes that the real comprehension is possible in case there is a massively parallel connectionist architecture. So, basically these arguments can be divided into two main groups.The first one believes that Searle is true in this Chinese room experiment, however, in case some changes are made in the room or the program, it can acquire mind and consciousness (Cole, 2004). The second group considers that redesigning should be made in order to see at which point Searle is ravish. Searle argues that machines still are unable to understand anything even if they are redesigned. The other argument is that in case there is a need of a robot body or a connectionist architecture are necessary, this would mean that we cant speak any longer of strong AI (Searle, 1980 Harnad, 2001).According to Searle I thought the whole idea of strong AI was that we dont need to know how the brain works to know how the mind works (Searle, 1980) So, as far as we can see Searles argument of the strong artificial intelligence has its grounds. It is exhaustively based and well-considered. There was a lot of argument on his Chinese room experiment, however, hardly any critic was able to prove that Searle was completely wrong at some point.References1. Churchland, Paul and Churchland, Patricia. (January 1990). Could a machine think?. scientific American 262 32-39.2. Cole, David. (Fall 2004). The Chinese Room Argument, in Zalta, Edward N. , The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.3. Crevier, Daniel. (1993), AI The Tumultuous hunt club for Artificial Intelligence. NY BasicBooks.4. Dennett, Daniel. (1991). Consciousness Explained. The Penguin Press.5. Fearn, Nicholas. (2007). The Latest Answers to the Oldest Questions A Philosophical Adventure with the Worlds Greatest Thinkers. New York Grove Press.6. H arnad, Stevan. (2001). Whats Wrong and Right About Searles Chinese Room Argument. in M. & Preston, J., Essays on Searles Chinese Room Argument, Oxford University Press.7. Harnad, Stevan. (2005). Searles Chinese Room Argument, Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Macmillan.8. Hauser, Larry. (1997). Searles Chinese Box Debunking the Chinese Room Argument. Minds and Machines, 7 199-226.9. Hauser, Larry. (2006). Searles Chinese Room, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.10. Kurzweil, Ray. (2005). The Singularity is Near. Viking Press.11. Moravec, Hans. (1988). Mind Children. Harvard University Press.12. Russell, Stuart J. and Norvig, Peter. (2003). Artificial Intelligence A Modern Approach (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River. NJ Prentice Hall.13. Searle, John. (1980). Minds, Brains and Programs. behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3) 417-457.14. Searle, John. (1983). Can Computers Think? , in Chalmers, David, Philosophy of Mind Classical and Contemporary Readings, Oxford.15. Searle, John. (1984). Minds, Brains and Science The 1984 Reith Lectures. Harvard University Press.16. Searle, John. (January 1990). Is the Brains Mind a Computer Program? Scientific American 262 26-31.17. Searle, John. (1992). The Rediscovery of the Mind. Massachusetts M. I. T. Press.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
2/20/13 English 1102 Introduction I start off with a couple of stereotypes I recently heard or saw great deal discussing and give my feelings/opinions on why I feel passel say things uniform that. Next is my feelings toward SSU, its a mixed feeling really a love and hate relationship. I end my short talks with my first, and definitely not my last, fight I had that occurred in kindergarten. All I can say about that is never and I mean NEVER touch my crayonsOn Stereotypes- All black fate like chicken, is one of the or so commonly known stereotypes scarce recently I ran into some really interesting stereotypes like all black people have gaps, if your black your house has roaches, black people were more helpful to America as slaves, all black people are ugly when theyre babies, and black girls put weave in their hair because they dont have any. When I hear people talk like this all I can do is laugh at the ignorance, you have to be on a whole other level of stupefied to even thin k like that and then to let that stupidity slip out of your mouth.People let statements like that get to them and get them all roweled up over it but, you have to sit digest sometimes and think about where they get their point of view on African Americans people from. I find that a lot of it comes from the erstwhile(a) generations in their family where the racism is still alive and brewing, and once again I laugh because it is 2013 and if you still feel African Americans should be slaves and theyre ignorant monkeys then go ahead and do you.As far as those other statements though I have a gap I know plenty of black people who dont, my house doesnt have roaches and never will, I wouldnt be a good slave because Im way to a fault strong willed and I only work for pay, I was a beautiful baby, and plenty of African American girls have long beautiful hair. On savanna State- You are so rachet with your power outs, slow wifi, bad cable connection, rude faculty and staff, and rising tuiti on thats mostly going to gymnastic fees for teams that arent even good. -AnonymousI love my SSU but I hate it too, it has so much potential to be a great school but at that place has to be some major changes first. The first thing that the people over the school should take a good look into is the way a lot of their staff members act towards current and future students some of them are rude and nasty every day to everybody. Next, they should move to the problem professors, which are the ones who the students complain the most about, they have the highest rate of students dropping out, and they have the highest failure rate.Lastly, would be what they use the budget for the school on I feel some of the funding for original things could be used for more important things that the school needs, like a full time doctor for example. On Self-Respect- How can you expect anybody to respect you if youre half naked on Facebook for likes? Girls are always crying on Facebook, twitter, instag ram, and other social sites about how they want a real man but yet they have all of these lewd, distasteful pictures up for the whole internet to see.On top of that they get mad when they get a bunch of sexual comments and messages, its kind of baffling because what else would they expect to get if thats how they present themselves. On the struggle- Its hard being in college with no form of income coming in, eat ramen noodles every night, and borrowing paper from other students in class. Being broke makes your refund check, no matter how big or small, look like a little slice of heaven.Refund check time is when all of the ballers come out, when the mall is packed with college students going on a spending spree for themselves and for the homies who dont get a refund, and when all the parties you go to have a bunch of alcohol and weed but a month later its patronage to the struggle. The month after refund is when people go back to begging for things, back to one or two bottles of li quor at the party, and back to those stupid ramen noodles. On my first fight- I remember when I was a little, sweet, loving, only child living in Yonkers, NY.I got everything I treasured and I never had to portion out anything, unless I wanted to and I was always kind enough to do it anyway. My mother came home one day with these new glitter crayons for me, since I love to draw and color and I loved them. I brought them to school the next day to show my best friend and we colored with them during breakfast, before class. One of the older students saw us and came over, she took all of my friends crayons and pushed her out of her seat and proceeded to reach for mine.I grabbed my things, backed away and told her she couldnt have my crayons. I saw a little touch of rage in her eyes as her friends laughed at her for not being able to take a kindergarteners crayons so she pushed me and went to take my things. I wanted to sit there and cry like my friend was doing but instead I got mad, I got real mad just thinking about the event my mother just bought me some new special glitter crayons and some hood rat with no manners was going to have them for free wasnt sitting right with me.I got up and punched her in the face and I could tell by the look in her eyes that it hurt, so I punched her again and again and again I even started to scratch at her face. Her friends who were at first laughing saw how serious I was about those crayons and went to get the schools officer, who eventually stopped me. I didnt get in trouble that day but I got a newly found confidence that would breaking wind me into trouble with anyone willing to cross the wrong path with me.
Friday, May 24, 2019
1. Place an electronic scale on a level surface and put a 50g weight on the scale and calibrate 2. Measure the weight of conical flask 3. Accurately measure a mass of KH(C8H4O4) near to 5g, placing it in a 250ml conical flask 4. Record the reading from the scale, subtract the weight of conical flask measured in step 2 5. Dissolve KH(C8H4O4) in a conical flask with minimum garishness of distilled water 6. Transfer the solution from the conical flask into Standard Solution 1. Use an electronic balance equal to three tenfold places to accurately weigh out in a 250ml beaker a mass of KH(C8H4O4) approximately equal to 5. 005g. Record this mass. 2. Dissolve the KH(C8H4O4) in a minimum volume of distilled water in a beaker.3. After washing the 250ml volumetric flask with distilled water, rinse with more distilled water. 4. Transfer the solution from the beaker to a volumetric flask development a funnel. 5. Wash all traces of the solution from the beaker and funnel by rinsing the beaker and funnel thoroughly with distilled water from a wash bottle into the volumetric flask. 6. gyrate the solution in the volumetric flask but do not invert. 7. Add more distilled water until the bottom of the meniscus is aligned with the calibration mark.To contain accuracy use a teat pipette to add the final few millilitres of distilled water. 8. Stopper the flask and invert several times to mix the circumscribe and thereby ensure the solution is of uniform concentration throughout. Standardisation of Sodium Hydroxide 1. Prepare the burette and fill with the sodium hydroxide solution to 50ml. 2. pipet the KH(C8H4O4) solution into a conical flask. Use three drops of phenolphthalein as the indicator. 3. Titrate carefully until a colour change from colourless to pink is observed. 4. Perform a rough titration first, then repeat until 3 concordant titres are obtained.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Using what you have identified in DQ 1 as a base, what elements are important when attempting to trans political programt an native demeanor in a company (e. g. improve customer service). (Hint Insert the strategic programmening process in your answer). How does identifying the best plan for this subscribe to aspects of scientific and benignant management? Improving customer service is the one of the keys to success in healthcare zeal. Ingrained behaviors of the healthcare professionals can hinder success. If the patients, families, community, and the slant goes on are not happy with a healthcare facility it can cause some real problems for the facility.Any facility that has problems with ongoing ingrained behaviors need to order their strategic plan and fix the problem. The key elements to strategic planning is the mission, objectives, plan of action, resources needed, plan how to measure the performance, and evaluation plan. The mission statement ineluctably focus on the expectations of how the employees will act when working in the organization. The objective should be produced by the staff that will be monitoring it. The objective call for be attainable and clear on the focus of behaviors.The action plan is coming up with steps on how to reach goal of the objectives. This is good orient for coming up with ideas on how to change the ingrained behaviors and throw out the old plans that are not working. The resources is a big part of the strategic plan because this where the facility comes up with resources they may need to complete the action plan. The resources for changing ingrained behavior could be education, money needed for the changes, and so forth. The evaluation dodging is where the strategic plan is being monitor for effectiveness.Ways to evaluate if the strategic plan is successful for changing ingrained behaviors is through random audits in the facility watching employees, doing a survey, talking with the stakeholders of the facilit y to see if they have noticed a change (Liebler & McConnell, 2008 5th ed. ). The scientific management examines improving work order performance with employ easy elements and systems. This type of plan should be used when it comes to changing work regulate behaviors because one of its focuses is on performances in work place (Scientific concern Progression in Hr, 2008).Strategic PlanUsing what you have identified in DQ 1 as a base, what elements are important when attempting to change an ingrained behavior in a company (e. g. improve customer service). (Hint Insert the strategic planning process in your answer). How does identifying the best plan for this involve aspects of scientific and human management? Improving customer service is the one of the keys to success in healthcare facility. Ingrained behaviors of the healthcare professionals can hinder success. If the patients, families, community, and the list goes on are not happy with a healthcare facility it can cause some re al problems for the facility.Any facility that has problems with ongoing ingrained behaviors need to revise their strategic plan and fix the problem. The key elements to strategic planning is the mission, objectives, plan of action, resources needed, plan how to measure the performance, and evaluation plan. The mission statement needs focus on the expectations of how the employees will act when working in the organization. The objective should be produced by the staff that will be monitoring it. The objective needs be attainable and clear on the focus of behaviors.The action plan is coming up with steps on how to reach goal of the objectives. This is good place for coming up with ideas on how to change the ingrained behaviors and throw out the old plans that are not working. The resources is a big part of the strategic plan because this where the facility comes up with resources they may need to complete the action plan. The resources for changing ingrained behavior could be educati on, money needed for the changes, and so forth. The evaluation system is where the strategic plan is being monitor for effectiveness.Ways to evaluate if the strategic plan is successful for changing ingrained behaviors is through random audits in the facility watching employees, doing a survey, talking with the stakeholders of the facility to see if they have noticed a change (Liebler & McConnell, 2008 5th ed. ). The scientific management examines improving work place performance with using easy elements and systems. This type of plan should be used when it comes to changing work place behaviors because one of its focuses is on performances in work place (Scientific Management Progression in Hr, 2008).
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Skim version could be what leads to the next epidemic for pen works. This can be explained as the phenomenon in which get a lineers pick out only what appear to be the most important and valu satisfactory pieces of knowledge from a text. In Skim teaching is the new normal. The effect on society is profound. Maryanne skirt chaser delineates the negative effect of skimmed reading on our intellectual processes such as critical analysis, deep reading, and research surfacing as individuals move into digital based modes of reading.Wolf introduces the term cognitive impatience to explain how we ar unavailing to take the time to concentrate beca phthisis skimming has taken over most of our reading. This affects our readiness to comprehend important randomness. The argument states that humans be losing the ability to use their intellectual comprehension skills when it comes to reading. Skim reading is affecting the process to obtain information without analyzing the facts. This l eaves the reader with false information and demagoguery.False information is obtained through skim reading as the act itself causes one to attain general information and words which can lead to misinterpretation. In addition, it adds a prejudice point of thinking as the reader fails to dive into facts which stand to be the main focus of the information cosmos presented, and this can be explained as demagoguery. As a solution, she comes up with the idea of a bi-literate brain that will be capable to form the deepest of thoughts on either traditional or digital forms.It will benefit everyone as it will compose a sustainable society by giving us the ability to seek more knowledge than we already have. Essentially, Wolfs essay is a warning of the dangers that skim reading has. It is leading individuals to misinterpret knowledge causing them to have false information.In her opening paragraphs, Wolf states (The neuronal circuit that underlies the brains ability to read is subtly, rapid ly changing a change with implications for everyone from the pre-reading toddler to the expert adult.) The term Cognitive impatience is introduced and explained how individuals around the world are slowly sightly impatient when it comes to reading denser, more difficult texts. It is say that what underlies cognitive impatience should be critically analyzed far more than the problem itself. Specific real-life examples are presented in relation to cognitive impatience, such as wills, contracts, and voting.For instance, contracts are essential when getting a job, purchasing a house, etc. If individuals fail to read the information correctly regarding the agreements or rules, it can cause them to miss out on specific information one may need to know to avoid superfluous conflict. The author try ones the importance of deep reading by presenting real-life factors that rely on our growth as a society. The use of these examples in the article is a federal agency of appealing to the r eaders emotions, having them become more aware of the impacts skim reading can have even in situations we would not think of, such as the ones that were stated previously as well as digital skim reading.Technology has affected the ways in which we obtain information. As it becomes more advanced we are beginning to rely on applied science to gain access to the information that we may require. However, various studies have proved that digital screen use may be causing troubling effects on reading comprehension in high school and college students. Ziming Liu from San Jose University conducted a study where he indicated that Skim reading is becoming the new norm. Many students began to glance at specific words and sentences for the rest of the text. When the brain skims likes this, it does not allow us to to grasp complexity, understand others feelings, grasp beauty and for readers to have thoughts of their own.By this, the author is trying to inform us that reading is comprised of mo re than just understanding the moral of a story. It is about being able to connect with the author and the emotions being presented, look at situations from a different perspective, as well as create thoughts of our own as we read in depth. Since technology has become a widely used tool in classrooms, this is seen as an opportunity to explain how it is affecting the information that we acquire.Negative effects of reading in digital modes can appear as early as the fourth or fifth grade. The author grasps the attention of the readers by intercommunicate them how early the effects of screen reading can affect the mental health of students. By this, she raises awareness to those who provide technology to their children or students constantly. For instance, parents giving their children technology to keep them occupied from a young age can cause them to rely on technology, hindering the development of basic reading skills leading to the underdevelopment of the childs brain.scientific t erms, such as circuit, neuroscience, and brain were present to stress and boost explain the issue of skim reading. The author uses various studies conducted by psychologists as evidence to further support her argument. Anne Mangen, a psychologist from Stavanger, Norway came to a conclusion indicating (That students who read on print were superior in their comprehension to screen-reading peers.) The reading circuit is a part in our brain that both psychology and science are parallel to.When our brain cannot comprehend information, or critically analyze along with various basic reading skills, it affects our brain which in turn affects psychological behaviours. The author references other neuroscientists which show the timeline the issue began, to stress the point that this is an issue across all age groups. meter reading is a lot more than just being able to comprehend the text, It is being able to critically analyze and empathize, which is a crucial factor. It involves being able to understand the perspective of the author and the emotion they are trying to portray. Wolf also introduces a type of bi-literate brain, a brain capable of forming the deepest thoughts in traditional or digital mediums.The author does not only stress the importance of deep reading, perspective taking, analyzing, comparing etc. just for a naive book or text, but also indirectly tells us to have the same understand towards our society and the way we live. The Bi-literate brain will help view life and certain situations in other perspectives, look at things and be appreciative of the beauty around us and also be able to create beauty with our imagination and ideas. Being able to go beyond our current knowledge and dig deeper to reach the knowledge, is necessary to sustain a good society. Wolf Indirectly states that using those same reading skills can also be used in real life to create a better proximo not only for literature but also our society.As the future moves society into a more digitized world, members are becoming unable to comprehend information accurately. Cognitive impatience the inability to take time and read, is leading readers to be unable to properly comprehend the information accurately because skimming has become a norm. This causes a prejudiced outlook due to readers being misinformed. It is no doubt that Wolfs article is a warning towards individuals in every age group to stress the point, how we are slowly diminishing in utilizing our basic reading skills such as critical thinking, analyzing, and deep reading. As Wolf presents real-life factors that are essential to our growth, we as members of society also have a duty to go beyond the knowledge that we already acquire and sustain a good society.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
Grignard Reagents were discovered by Victor Grignard in 1900.They be classically formed by reacting magnesium turnings with alkyl halide in ether or THF solvents, to form solutions of alkylmagnesium halide. The atmosphere must be moisture free and inert and magnesium must be of high purity.Magnesium is usually covered with a coating of magnesium oxide, so an activation agent like Iodine or Dibromoethane is added.They can as well as be formed from by when an organolithium compound reacts with a magnesium halideIn organic chemistry C-C bond is one of the nearly important bonds. To make these C-C bonds organometallics such(prenominal) as organolithiums, Grignard reagents and carbonyl compounds are used. Grignard reagents are our first source of carbanions (anions of carbon).The polarity of a covalent bond between two different elements is determined by electronegativity. The more electronegative an element is, the more it attracts the electron density in the bond. Hence, the greate r the difference in electronegativity, the more polarized a bond becomes. In the organic case of complete polarization, the covalent bond ceases to exit and is replaced by electrostatic attractions between ions of gelid charge.The reactivity of the carbonyl groups is due to the polarization of the carbon-oxygen bond toward the more electronegative oxygen.For e.g. Polarity inside a Formaldehyde moleculeThus organometallic reagents act as nucleophiles towards the electrophilic carbonyl group. In organolithium compounds and Grignard reagents, the key bond is polarized in the opposite direction, towards the carbon making carbon a nucleophilic centre. This is true for most organometallics because, metals like Li, Na, K, Mg, ca, Al, Cu, Zn etc. all have lower electronegativity than carbon. Also, the alkali metals (Li, Na, K etc.) and the alkaline earth metals (Mg and Ca, together with Zn) are good reducing agents, the former being stronger than the latter. Hence, these can be used to make organometallic reagents with carbon.The alkyl magnesium halides are called Grignard Reagents after the French chemist, Victor Grignard, who discovered them. The other metals mentioned above react in a similar manner, but the Li & Mg are the most widely used.Feature Article Relative RatesFree-Radical BrominationThese reactions are substitution reactions, but they cannot be classified as nucleophilic substitutions, as in the reactions above. Because the structural carbon atom has been reduced, the polarity of the resulting functional group is inverted (the original electrophilic carbon becomes nucleophilic). This change, shown below, makes alkyl lithium and Grignard reagents unique and useful reactants in synthesis.Reactions of organolithium and Grignard reagents reflect the nucleophilic character of the functional carbon in these compounds. The nucleophilic carbon of these reagents also bonds readily with electrophiles such as iodine and carbon dioxide (fifth equation). The pol arity of the carbon-oxygen double bonds of CO2 makes the carbon atom electrophilic, shown by the formula in the shaded box, so the nucleophilic carbon of the Grignard reagent bonds to this site.Carbon has in consequence an unshared electron pair. Such a carbon would be a real strong base, much stronger than needed to take an H+ from water to generate the weaker base OH-. A practical consequence of this is that Grignard reagents must be kept dry, away(predicate) from even the slightest traces of moisture, lest they be destroyed by reaction with water.Works CitedClayden, greeves, Warden and Wothers, Organic Chemistry, Oxford University press, 2001, ISBN 0-19-850346-6http//www.chemguide.co.uk/organicprops/haloalkanes/grignard.html
Monday, May 20, 2019
The passage above comes from the article, chaste Behavior in the Hu art object Female, by Jean Robertson (2003, p. 24). Robertson (2003) argued that female artists define and interpret female gender in diverse and conflicting ways, and by using varied artistic strategies. Robertson fills assumptions about the cleaning ladys body as a contested terrain, wherein existence a adult female continues to be a champaign of heated debate. For him, how female artists view themselves as women, and as artists, shape their depiction of femininity and female sex activity in their artworks.One of the quotes that Robertson menti stard in his text comes from Simon de Beauvoir. In her seminal book, The Second Sex, she worried that One is not born a charr, but, quite an, becomes one. I want to reflect on de Beauvoirs statement and Robertsons view about the womans body. I agree with de Beauvoir that social experiences and political conditions impact the construction of organism a woman. S ociety shapes how women and men see femininity and gender roles through establishing gender roles and expectations.An example is when a girl is conditioned by her mother to be a woman, by telling her how she should act as a woman. This includes educating her about the toys she can and cannot use, and the games she can and cannot play. The girl learns that she should act and think a certain way, in order to be feminine. She learns that she cannot be boisterous or get involved in sports, because that would be in like manner manly for her. This girl is the perfect example of becoming a woman. On the other hand, I similarly agree that being a woman is a biological and individual construct.A woman is a product of her biology, whether she likes it or not. This is why women are too defined by their sexual organs. Their biology also determines their sex, as well as their gender. Furthermore, being a woman is a product of individual desires and needs. whatever woman can define her woma nhood the way she also wants it to. Robertson indicated the existence of the pluralities of femininity. It is true that a womans body is a contested terrain, and for me, what is wrong with that? Is it not also possible to draw ternary femininities, instead of having only one start to define and to interpret what it means to be a woman?There is nothing wrong, in my opinion, of having different ways of being a woman, because to deny one approach to womanhood undermines the very essence of being a free woman. Journal entry 2 In A conversation about zip and class, Childers and Hooks (1990) argued that gender should be expanded to include issues of race and class. They said that we should begin by talking about how we go through the struggle to challenge and expand the kinfolk of gender (pp. 61-62). For them, people cannot understand gender in its whole sense, if racial and class issues are overlook in gender analysis.This reading challenged my view of gender, by asking me to see gender through a much broader lens. I have not considered that gender issues also intersect racial and class issues. On the other hand, Childers and Hooks (1990) compelled me to think about the politics of gender. This is related to our discussions about gender as a political object. The politics of gender demonstrate that there are hierarchies to the feminine gender that are experienced by many women. Power is also affected by ones class and race.If uninfected female women feel that there is a glass ceiling at the workplace, set about-class black and Latino women face a greater and heavier glass ceiling in society. Because of their class and race, they feel and experience twofold glass ceilings- the ceiling of racial discrimination, the ceiling of class discrimination, and the ceiling of gender discrimination. These ceilings, on top of one another, represent something more than just a hindrance to economic development, but resemble ceilings that are like a shot pressed on thes e womens bodies.They could hardly breathe, because there are just too many ceilings that make it difficult for them to even survive. Now, I look gender as an amalgam of issues that women bring to gender discourse. As a result, race and issue not only expand gender discourse, but considering them has also broadened my understanding of gender and its diverse conflicts. Journal entry 3 When womens liberationists speak about feminism, they mostly see the impedance between the feminine and the masculine- the yin and the yang.We also discussed the binary opposition in class, which heightened my knowledge of how women are reduced to the lower spectrum of the opposition. The binary opposition also exists in differentiating mothers from fathers. Mothers are put in pedestals, while fathers are forgotten and scorned. Laqueur (1990) complained about this binary opposition in The Facts of Fatherhood. This is an interesting article that argued about the repression of the history of fatherhood. Laqueur (1990) posited that while women enjoyed being the natural parent, fathers were regarded as mere providers, or even as a backdrop to the family.He stressed that it is time for fathers to reclaim their expert to be share of the parenting history, wherein their contributions to the formation of society are recognized and respected. This controversial article amuses and interests me significantly. It amuses me because at the back of my mind, I felt gender discrimination in reverse. I consider that mothers have specials bonds with their children, but this belief, however, is marked by sexism. Do not fathers also share special bonds with their children? Laqueur (1990) challenged the notion of motherhood, because it undermined the importance of fatherhood.In my mind, it is better to not differentiate mothers from fathers, which is the same as stopping ourselves from differentiating women and men. Women and men have their own strengths and weaknesses and none is more superior. I n the same line of thought, mothers and fathers are also equal. Let us just call motherhood and fatherhood as parenthood and give fathers their rightful place in the history and the practice of nurturing valet de chambre society. Furthermore, this is also an interesting article, because it challenged me to talk about being a woman in relation to being a man.Being a woman has its multiplicities, and now, being a man has its pluralism too. For me, these multiplicities, acknowledged as part of gender analysis, render two steps forward for true gender equality. Journal entry 4 In Criticizing Feminist Criticism, Gallop, Hirsch, and Miller (1990) debated on the purposes and development of feminine criticism. Their of import point is that feminist criticism writers have gone to the extreme, by pulverizing each others feminist views. They suppose that this process is futile in understanding and improving the development of gender discourse and feminism.They assert that feminism can be cr iticized in a more comprehensive manner, wherein there is no right or wrong feminism. I chose this article because it threads on sensitive issues, wherein the personal versus the collective estimate of feminism clashes. Feminists have different worldviews about gender roles, sexuality, and femininity, and they criticize each other in different ways. I have never thought that feminist criticism has become too unconstructive. This is not my head of criticism at all.I think about my own criticism of feminist criticism and I cannot help but agree that criticism is not about thrashing feminist theories (p. 350). Criticism is also about adding something to existing theories, in ways that can benefit the understanding of what it means to be a woman and how different understandings contribute to a wide range of feminism discourse. I earnestly believe also that feminists cannot define feminism in one way or several ways alone. womens lib should be viewed as a huge mess of ideas and values , different and special to women and groups, who fight for and because of different issues.Yes, it is a mess alright, because being a woman is a dynamic process that is also a part of being an individual and being a member of ones race, class, and so on. Being a woman cannot ever be a tidy place, wherein women think the same and act the same. I would rather have it as a mess- wherein women are free to think and re-think feminism, in relation to their personal experiences and values.ReferencesChilders, M. & Hooks, B. (1990). A conversation about race and class. In M. Hirsch & E. F. Keller (Eds. ), Conflicts in feminism (pp. 60-81). New York, NY Routledge. Gallop, J. , Hirsch, M. , & Miller, N. K. (1990). Criticizing feminist criticism. In M. Hirsch & E. F. Keller (Eds. ), Conflicts in feminism (pp. 349-369). New York, NY Routledge. Laqueur, T. W. (1990). The facts of fatherhood. In M. Hirsch & E. F. Keller (Eds. ), Conflicts in feminism (pp. 205-221). New York, NY Routledge. Robertso n, J. (2003). Artistic behavior in the human female. In B. Stirratt & C. Johnson (Eds. ), Feminine persuasion art and essays on sexuality (pp. 23-38). Bloomington, IN Indiana University Press.
Sunday, May 19, 2019
AbstractThis purpose of this maths classroom- base enquiry survey is to answer the following drumhead pass on pull up stakesing bookmans to counterfeit in assemblages improve their rationality, or will on the job(p) apiece lead to greater understanding? I grant been at a crossroads trying to check if and when to allow students to work unitedly or to make them work alone because students do non always sway the sociable aspects of radical work so that it will be advantageous to them. Half of the class was instructed that they would complete their work by working in hosts the opposite half of the class would complete their work by themselves. I comp atomic number 18d students pretest results to their post-test results. In both categories in that respect was non much wobble in understanding from the beginning of the unit to the obliterate of the unit, making it difficult to conclude which student category signaled purify improvements in understanding. Finally, co nclusions to the highest degree further query atomic number 18 discussed. authorisation of reconciling nurture 3 Background This study investigates students understandings about mathematics. The purpose of the look for is to answer the following question Will allowing students to work in groups improve their understanding, or will working distributively lead to greater understanding? This idea of group dynamics has been studied and researched, but in my experience, I kick in had mixed results. In close to situations, students help each other, their quantify is spent on task and they benefit from peer funda cordial interactions. At other times, students spend their time chatting aboutthings that atomic number 18 not relevant to the topic at hand, and do not get much work done at all. When students in my class do their work independently, most students tend to complete their work, or they will shine ask for help if they cannot continue.I have been at a crossroads trying to determine if and when to allow students to work together or to make them work alone because students do not always manage the social aspects of group work so that it will be advantageous to them. I know wherefore group work is not always a positive experience in my classroom. A study member that must be considered is the difficulty of the work that students are expected to complete. Often times, it may be too difficult for students to complete without guidance from the trainer, leading to group and individual frustration. This is a realistic maintenance despite the fact this mathematics program is mandated by our district for all students at this grade level.Students are expected to complete the descentwork with a certain level of independence and success, however, this issue is debatable, as some educators who teach this mathematics program readily express that they dislike it and/or that their students have difficulty doing the work alone. another(prenominal) valid conce rn that can affect group work is management of student behavior. Making students perplex foc employ can be check maintained in my classroom if in that location was more(prenominal) social structure and guidelines about the norms and expectations of group work from the onset of the give instruction year as well as regular monitoring of group dynamics and progress.The participants in this study are from one of the 7th grade math class that I teach. The study was conducted during the 75-minute math periods. There are 28 students, and I am the completely teacher in the class. The classroom has 5 king-sized tables where up to six students can sit. Most often, on that point are usually four or five people at a table and the other students will sit at other places around the perimeter of the room. For example, students will sit at the calculating machine table, two smaller tables, and on a rug. The seating arrangement is important to this study since they were authorisation of accommodating Learning 4 assigned to work independently, and would need to sit alone, and others worked in groups and sat at the large tables. entirely classes in the tutor are organized by our schools principal with the conception to have the students as equally balanced as possible,considering race, gender, academic skill, and behavior as the criterion. The socio-economic status of the school is mainly affection class about 30% of the school qualifies for a free or cut down lunch. The tables and graphs below charge the number and piece of students in each category.Literature Review There is an abundance of research regarding grouping of students as an educational practice. Grouping can be classified into two study types homogenous- or heterogeneous-ability groups. In either situation, students can work independently or concertedly. There have been many studies regarding each of these areas that favor heterogeneous-ability groups and conjunctive training groups. Homogen ous grouping, or tracking, has been widely utilize in Americas educational history, and continues to be used today, but studies show that this type of grouping does not benefit students any more than heterogeneous groups (Esposito, 1973 Mills, 1999 Slavin, 1993 Slavin & Karweit, 1985). Kuliks (1992) analysis of the research noted that when positive gains are made, they should be attributed to adjustments in instruction and curriculum, not because of the grouping arrangement. When the top, middle and bottom groups use the same curriculum, potential of Cooperative Learning 6 despite their differing ability, thither are no academic gains. When students are dictated in homogenous classes, the top students show a slight drop in their confidence levels, firearm the bottom students show a slight increase. When classes used different curricula, there were some positive changes in acquirement. The greatest increase noted is when students are put into enrichment or accelerated classes, mai nly because of the supererogatory resources and change in curricula offered. A variation of homogenous grouping by class is homogeneous semi-groups within a heterogeneous class. Slavin & Karweit (1985) cited that many researchers found that the latter has more positive academic results than traditional unanimous-class instruction.Cooperative learning has been a popular alternative method of grouping students instead of tracking. There is semiempirical evidence that co-op learning is utile for students (Gokhale, 1995 Slavin, 1995 Yackel, Cobb & Wood, 1991) but Johnson and Johnson (as cited in nothwest Regional Educational Laboratory, 2005) find that, the successful exertion of cooperative grouping in classrooms still eludes many educators. Therefore, researchers continue to investigate this topic, specifically trying to spot the different variables thatmake cooperative learning successful and effective (Cohen, 1994 Slavin, 1995 Yackel, Cobb & Wood, 1991). Without certain elem ents, cooperative learning is no more effective than traditional methods of instruction and learning (Cohen, 1994 Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, 2005). One element that has been under research is the effectiveness of cooperative learning based on the type of task the group has to complete (Cohen, 1994).Many tasks can be done individually and do not really posit cooperation for understanding. Other tasks, like those that are ill-structured and those where process is more important than outcome, should be used as cooperative learning tasks. Another element that can affect how beneficial cooperative learning can be is the type of interactions that occur between the group members. Cohen (1994) cited many studies that conclude that students discussions in groups are good indicators of the achievement that the group will have. In addition, the groups that ask specific questions while working proved to show more gains. Slavin (1995) identified other elements that make cooperat ive learning beneficial, and those elements are present because of certain supposed perspectives. The motivational perspective includes group goals and awards as a cornerstone of cooperative learning. This authorisation of Cooperative Learning 7 theory acknowledges that the objective of group work is for individuals to achieve as a result of being a part of a group.Therefore, in practice, the group can only benefit when the individuals of the group are successful. outside rewards are given to groups when the individuals in the group are successful. This is a key element in this theory, and empirical evidence shows that this is a key factor in the effectiveness of all group work. Cohen (1994) acknowledges a agree of sorts, stating that adventitious motivational tactics should be used under certain circumstances where group interaction is not enough, for example, when group work is not challenging and could be completed without the group. Other evidence shows that when conservati vely structured interactions are implemented therefore cooperative learning can be effective until now if there are no extrinsic rewards (Slavin, 1995). Another perspective of cooperative learning labeled social cohesion is more rooted in the interpersonal influence that cooperative learning entails (Slavin, 1995).Under this lens,an extrinsic reward for the groups achievement is not necessary because it is believed that the interactions that occur within the group are rewarding enough. This theory is strong in establishing group norms and roles for the members of the group as to enhance group interactions. Slavins studies did not find any evidence to support that this perspective on group work produces high academic gains than traditional instruction, unless it was combined with extrinsic rewards. Other perspectives are also identified that account for mental processing of information that takes place in a cooperative learning setting.The developmental perspective is based on Vyg otskys and Piagets work (as cited in Slavin, 1995) believing that students learn when they interact with others, as tenacious as they are within each others zone of proximal development. Large gaps in students ability within a group did not yield academic growth. These beliefs alone have not been shown to increase learning, but they do provide the rational behind why cooperative learning is effective. An reference of this belief is the cognitive elaboration perspective which is based on students either providing or listening to fine explanations of subject. ODonnell & Dansereau and Webb (as cited in Slavin, 1995) found that students who provide elaborate explanations increase the most academically.Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning 8 Methodology The purpose of my research was to determine whether my students gain a better understanding of the mathematics content when they work in groups or when they work individually. I used pretests and posttests as the instrument to determi ne which situation would be more successful (see Appendix). Questions on the tests were selected from the Mathematics in Context serial publication, which is the mathematics series that my school district has mandated that we use, and from the Philadelphia Math Benchmark, a bi-monthly citywide test. The assessment questions chosen aligned to the objectives and goals of the topic taught during the time frame of this study. They are open-ended questions in which students are told to provide an answer as well as an explanation. I normally use the assessments at the end of a section or unit of study. All participants had to give written parental consent to participate in the study. All students were requested to participate in this study, therefore, before the research was conducted, forms were distributed to the students(see Appendix).I verbally explained to them that I was a student at a university, and unavoidable to use their work in a project that I had to complete for my courses . Their work would be used to help me determine what teaching strategies worked well. I informed them that their names and other personal information would not be used, just their answers from regular classroom tests and assignments. I went on to say that I needed their and their parents consent to use their work in my reports, and it was fine if they did not want to give their permission. If I did not have their permission to use their results, they still had to do all the assignments and assessments, except their answers would not be used in my reports. I asked the students to let their parents know what my intentions were, and for them to return their consent forms promptly.The study began at the same time as a new mathematics topic. I had never taught the math content before, but students had been exposed to the content in previous grades. Before I did any instruction, I administered a pretest with two open-ended questions (see Appendix). The students were certified that this was a test to see what they were able to do before I taught them anything, and that this would not count toward their grade. I also told them that at the end of the lessons, they would take another test to see if they had progressed (the post-test, see Appendix). Over the course of the lessons (which lasted about 2 weeks), I followed the Madeline Hunter model of lesson design. Each day the lesson was structured to include standards,Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning 9 objectives, anticipatory set, teaching, guided practice, closure, and independent practice (Allen, 1998). It was during the guided practice fate of the lesson that half of the students either worked independently or in ergodic groups (explained below). Half of the class was instructed that they would complete their work for this unit by working in groups the other half of the class would complete their work by themselves. The students were randomly assigned to work either individually or in groups using Random ep och Figure 1 Random Sequence sourceGenerator, a program that allows you to generate a random list of a sequence of numbers without repeating any numbers (Haahr, 1998). At the beginning ofthe school year, each of my students was given a number (the number has no academic correlation) from 1 to 28 since there are 28 students in the class. The images show how the program lets you choose your sequence of numbers (Figures 1), and will then put those numbers in a random order (Figure 2) I chose from 1 to 28 to intend the 28 students in my class. The first 13 students to appear on the list were assigned to work individually the other 15 students would work in groups of 3 Figure 2 Random Sequence Generator Listfor the duration of the unit. In cases of absence, groups would work as dyads. To eliminate any concerns about ability, gender,social grouping, which are variables that were not included in this study, students who worked in groups were shifted daily into different groups througho ut the duration of the lessons. I managed that by putting each of the 15 students numbers on slips of paper and pulling three students at a time to form groups for that day.Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning 10 At the end of the unit, students were given a post-test as a means to measure their progress. The post-test included the same two questions that were on the pretest and one additional open-ended question (see Appendix). All questions were chosen from the Mathematics in Context series and the Philadelphia Math Benchmark, as explained above. The objective was to determine what students could do before instruction on the pretest, and compare the results to those on the post-test. Findings Investigating if there is a difference in understanding when students work alone or if they work in groups by nature led to comparing students work. There were several comparisons that are made below, for example, pretest to post-tests, and individuals grades to groups grades.My expectation s before I conducted any research were that most of the students would show some type of growth from the pretest to the post-test whether they worked individually or in groups. I expect that those students who worked in groups would be better able to explain their answers than students who worked alone. My conclusions about the cause of change in student understanding from the beginning of the unit to the end isbased on analyzing the change from the pre-test results to the post-testFigure 3 AveragesEffectiveness of Cooperative Learning 11 results (see Figure 3). The pretest had two questions, while the post-test repeated those same two questions improver one additional question. I compared the pretest results to the post-test results according to the averages for each question. It is difficult to conclude which student category showed better improvements in understanding because everyone started out with such high pretest averages. I expected much lower pretest haemorrhoid so thi s was surprising and very much unexpected. In both categories, the students results for the first two questions show that there was not much change in understanding from the beginning of the unit to the end of the unit, although, those who worked in groups did show a slight increase in their understanding for question 1.Question 3 of the post-test reveals the most fire and mayhap confusing results. This question was not included on the pretest. The average grade for those who worked individually is high than those who worked in groups (see Figure 3), but neither category of students showed a proficient level of understanding. Again, this was surprising and unexpected. A closer look at this question reveals that students results varied whether they worked in groups or individually (see Figure 4). uncomplete group showed a strong tendency to score in any specific grading category. However, the students who worked individually did have a greaterEffectiveness of Cooperative Learning 12 percentage that got the question coiffure by showing and/or explaining their work, and therefore received an advanced grade. Furthermore, those who worked in groups had a higher percentage that got the question wrong, receiving a below basic grade. Based on this data, the students who worked individually did have a better understanding of how to solve this problem than those who worked in groups.Conclusions Based on the results of my research, it is difficult for me toconclude whether having students work in groups or individually helped improve students understanding in my classroom. The data I collected did not show that there was a strong improvement in understanding for either group dynamic. One question did favor those who worked individually, but that conclusion cannot be extended to the other questions. There are a some statistical factors that caused my results to be inconclusive. The students pretest scores were high, showing that they understood those particular objec tives before any instruction took place. In order for the data to show some type of conclusions, one or both of the following things would have had to happen. There would have to be growth from the pretest to the post-test, or the post-test results would have to consistently favor the group workers or the individual workers.My data did not do this. In retrospect there are several things that I would do differently. The first thing would be to vary the pretest and post-test questions. Gokhale (1995) did a similar research study and used different questions in order to prevent students from becoming test-wise. I would also extend the length of the study so that I could repeat the study over several units. I do not prize that I had enough data to draw sound conclusions. Both of these changes would make me feel more sluttish and more confident about the results of this study however they would not necessarily alter my findings.The research about cooperative learning offers suggestions that might yield different results. look for shows that my question about the effectiveness of cooperative learning needs to be modified to investigate whether certain factors of cooperative learning are effective. The research shows that certain elements can or cannot exist which will probably affect whether cooperative learning is working. authentic things like external rewards, group interactions, abilityEffectiveness of Cooperative Learning 13 levels within the group, group tasks, group structure and norms, and elaboration/explanation are influential variables that can be studied. Based on the research about cooperative learning and on my results from my study, I conclude that group work in my classroom is not beneficial to my students achievement. I am one of those educators that was eluded as to how to make cooperative learning work.My class falls into the category where group work is no more effective than traditional methods. I am not satisfied with this position, and man yteachers may be in this same situation. To further my practice, and perhaps other teachers as well, I would make adjustments to the way I structure cooperative learning in my classroom to include elements suggested from the current research. A good place to begin would be to analyze the theoretical perspectives suggested by Slavin (1995) to see what perspectives best match my own philosophy of teaching. I would then apply some of the fundamental elements that are associated with that belief and repeat my study. Instead of comparing individuals to students that worked in groups, I would investigate which elements of cooperative learning were more effective in my classroom.ReferencesAllen, T. (1998). Some basic lesson presentation elements. Retrieved January 2007, from Humboldt State University http//www.humboldt.edu/tha1/hunter-eei.html Cohen, E. G. (1994). Restructuring the classroom Conditions for productive small groups. Review of Educational query. 64, 1-35. Retrieved January, 2007 from http//links.jstor.org/sici?sici=00346543(198723)57%3A3%3C293%3AAGASAI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-5Davidson, N., & Kroll, D.L. (1991). An overview of research on cooperative learning related to mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 22, 362-365. Retrieved January, 2007 from http//links.jstor.org/sici?sici=00218251%28199111%2922%3A5%3C362%3AAOOROC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-PEsposito, D. (1973). Homogeneous and heterogeneous ability grouping Principal findings and implications for evaluating and designing more effective educational environments. Review of Educational Research. 43, 163-179. Retrieved January, 2007 from http//links.jstor.org/sici?sici=00346543(197321)43%3A2%3C163%3AHAHAGP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-%23Gokhale, A.A. (1995). Collaborative learning enhances critical thinking.Journal of Technology Education, 7, No.1, Retrieved January 2007, from http//scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/v7n1/pdf/gokhale.pdfHaahr, M. (1998). randomized sequences. Retrieved February 2007 from http//www.ran dom.org/sform.htmlEffectiveness of Cooperative Learning 15 Kulik, J. A. (1992). An analysis of the research on ability grouping historic and contemporary perspectives. National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, CT. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED350777). Retrieved January 2007, from http//edres.org/eric/ED350777.htmMills, R. (1997). Grouping Students for Instruction in Middle Schools. ERIC Digest, Retrieved January 2007, from http//www.ericdigests.org/1999-1/grouping.htmlNorthwest Regional Educational Laboratory, Portland, Oregon., (2005). Research based strategies Cooperative grouping. Retrieved January 20, 2007, from Focus on Effectiveness Web site http//www.netc.org/focus/strategies/coop.phpSlavin, R. E. (1993). Ability grouping in the middle grades Achievement effects and alternatives. The Elementary School Journal. 93, No. 5, 535-552. Retrieved January, 2007 from http//links.jstor.org/sici?sici=00135984%28199305%2993%3A5%3C535%3AAGITMG%3E2.0.CO%3B2-OSlavin, R.E. (1995). Research on cooperative learning and achievement What we know, what we need to know. Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk, Retrieved January 2007, from http//www.aegean.gr/culturaltec/c_karagiannidis/20032004/collaborative/slavin1996.pdfSlavin, R. E. , & Karweit, N. L. (1985). Effects of whole class, ability grouped, and individualized instruction on mathematics achievement. AmericanEducational Research Journal. 22, No. 3, 351-367. Retrieved January, 2007 from http//links.jstor.org/sici?sici=00028312%281985232%2922%3A3%3C351%3AEOWCAG%3E2.0.CO%3B2-KWood, T. (1993). Chapter 2 Creating an Environment for learning mathematics Social interaction perspective. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 6, 15-20. Retrieved January,Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning 16 2007 from http//links.jstor.org/sici?sici=08839530%281993%296%3C15%3AC2CAEF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-AYackel, E., Cobb, P., & Wood, T. (1991). Small-group interactions as a source of learnin g opportunities in second-grade mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 22, 390-408. Retrieved January, 2007 from http//links.jstor.org/sici?sici=00218251%28199111%2922%3A5%3C390%3ASIAASO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-6&origin=JSTORpdf
Saturday, May 18, 2019
cursed was the headline on the front page of the United Kingdom newspaper, the Daily Mirror, in 1961. The article explained how rhinocerosceroscerosceroscerosceross were goddam to disappear from the face of the earth due to mans folly, greed, and neglect. Rhinos once roamed more places throughout Eurasia and Africa and were cognise to early Europeans who depicted them in cave paintings. Long ago they were widespread across Africas savannahs and Asias tropical forests, but today very few rhinos survive outside national parks and reserves. 52 years after the article we find that the diceros bicornis or the gruesome rhino is indeed doomed. This rhino has been named critically endanger with a universe of discourse today of only 4,848. These rhinos are found throughout grey and eastern Africa including Kenya, Tanzania, Cameroon, Namibia, Zimbabwe and Angola. My knowledge of the black rhino has increased dramatically due to my interest in menace species. I became interested in endanger species when an advocate from the human beings Wildlife Foundation came to my school in eighth grade. Ever since, I have kept up with their website and read articles on what this incredible organization is doing for the packaging of endangered species. The St. Louis zoo is home to three black rhinos named Ruka, Kati Rain, and Ajabu. Ruka was born on January 14th, 2011 and was the first black rhino born in the St. Louis zoo in twenty years. In 38 zoos across the nation in that respect are a total of 60 black rhinos. Although humans pose numerous threats to this critically endangered species of rhino, there are many conservation efforts being started to help increase the amount of rhinos in the future. wherefore do rhinos matter? In almost all rhino conservation areas, there are former(a) valuable plants and animals. The protection of rhinos helps protect other species including elephants, buffalo, and small game. Rhinos contribute to sparing growth and sustainable discipline through the tourism industry, which creates job opportunities and provides tangible benefits to local communities living alongside rhinos. Rhinos are one of the unfit 5 animals popular on African safaris and they are a popular tourism draw in places like the Eastern Himalayas. The black rhino weighs around 1 to 1 tons and the height of this rhino is relative to a 6 foot tall man. The rhino has two horns made of a nitty-gritty similar to that of human fingernails. Sometimes the horns will fall off but they will eventually regenerate. The preliminary horn near the front of the head is the larger of the two ranging in size from 3 inches to 5 feet.The shape of the horn also differs between sexes with males tending to have thicker horns, and the pistillates often longer and thinner ones. The female black rhino characters her horn to protect her young from predators such as lions, crocodiles, and hyenas. The men black rhino uses his horn to battle attackers. Humans are the only real threat to adult black rhinos. No other animal is a find out for a full-grown rhino and its heavily armored personate of very thick skin and lethal horns. Even though no animal is a match for a black rhino, humans are a major threat their population. Humans jeopardize the natural selection of the black rhino in many ways. Habitat changes have contributed to population declines. In southern Zimbabwe, in camera owned rhino conservancies have been invaded by landless people. This reduces the amount of safe habitat for black rhinos and increases the endangerment of hunt down. Poaching is the illegal practice of trespassing on anothers property to hunt or steal game without the landowners permission. Poaching is the leading threat against the critically endangered black rhinos. Poaching statistics released by the South African goernment reveal 668 rhinos were slaughtereda 50% increase over 2011 and a staggering 5000% increase since 2007. Already, an additional five rhi nos have been killed since the beginning of this year. Matthew Lewis, an African species expert, believes poaching is a scourge that could wipe out decades of conservation gains made for black rhinos. A recent demand for the rhino horn has driven poaching to a record high level. In South Africa in 2010, a total of 333 rhinos were killed- almost one a day. In several Asian cultures, people believe that a rhino horn provides powerful medicine for a variety of ailments. Others, mainly those in northern Africa, use the rhino horns to make handles for special daggers. Since these rhino horns are usually very high in price, many poachers are willing to break the law and kill these endangered animals. Poaching increases during times of political and economic instability. The social and economic conditions prevalent across much of the African continent include human population growth, poverty, instability, corruption and greed. During times of political instability and war outbreak it makes it hard to work on rhino conservation. The natives are worried more about the country as a whole than on helping conserve the rhino population. Despite the many threats against the black rhino, recent efforts have been made to increase the population.The World Wildlife Foundation has been involved in rhino conservation for nearly 50 years. The conservation efforts will magnify existing protected areas and remediate their management as well as establishing new protected areas, improve security monitor lizarding to protect rhinos from poaching, and improve local and international law enforcement to stop the flow of rhino horn and other illegal wildlife trade items from Africa to other regions of the valet de chambre. In October 2011, The World Wildlife Foundation successfully naturalised a spacious and safe environment for black rhinos in an effort called The Flying Rhinos. Nineteen critically endangered black rhinos were transported via helicopter to a land vehicle. They spent less than 10 minutes in the air and the sedated animals woke up in a new home. This provided new territory where the rhinos have a great opportunity to increase in number and live safe from poachers. Tracking the illegal wildlife trade and poaching will help the rhinos live safely in the wild. The World WildLife Foundation is setting up a rhino horn DNA analysis (RHODIS) that helps contribute to forensic investigations at the scene of poaching crimes and also serves as evidence to strengthen prosecution cases. TRAFFIC, the worlds largest wildlife trade monitoring network has vie a vital role in helping develop innovative new transmitters to track rhino movements and protect them from poaching. They also helped set up an anonymous hotline that allows people to inform the authorities about poaching. To monitor and protect black rhinos the focus is on anti poaching patrols and more equipped law enforcement officers. hopefully these valiant and strategic efforts will benefit the blac k rhino population in the future. Dr. Barney Long, an Asian species expert, show that Rhinos have been an integral part of the natural world for tens of millions of years, and humankind is causing dramatic declines in however a few decades. We can change the outcome. The black rhino is an incredible animal with many benefits to the world around us. Humans have been causing harm to species through poaching to use the rhinos horn, political instability and war, and habitat loss. Although humans over the years have caused a decline in the rhino population, there are many conservation efforts in place to help increase the number of rhinos in the future. Tracking illegal wildlife trade and poaching, monitoring and protecting the areas where rhinos live, and creating new and innovative endeavors such as the Flying Rhinos are helping the rhinos tremendously already. The World Wildlife Foundation along withother organizations are place in time and effort to save this amazing species of r hino, but they need your help Push governments to protect threatened animal populations by increasing law enforcement, imposing strict deterrents, and reducing the demand for endangered species products. Hopefully, one day we will see the black rhino roam freely across the savanna once again.
Friday, May 17, 2019
INTRODUCTIONCulture is a shargond, learned, symbolic system of values, beliefs and attitudes that shapes and exercises perception and air(). Culture influences lot and it shapes mint in app arnting a peculiar(prenominal) identity. Every individual is gr work throughly influence by his culture. When people see a man and the re layation he is living his life, he domiciliate easily be identified as part of a particular culture. People from a particular place ar always intertwined with a particular culture as seen in their pattern of actions and beliefs and way of life in superior general.It is of an inevitable reality that cultures differ around the introduction. Every place and context has their possess unique set of norms, beliefs and practices. These set of norms, beliefs and practices make up the identity of a culture. These make up the full-length of their system. A particular culture produces a pattern of actions that a group of people bequeath manifest as they live in this world. Because of the diversity of cultures of people from different places around the world, there exist conflicts overdue to differences if one culture is imposing its ordain to the other.In this paper, we will dwell on two rich cultures- the Dinkas and Amhara People. We will try to show their similarities and as well as differences. The two cultures that argon the subject of this paper will be thoroughly examined. Therefore, without further delay, let us begin our discussion.THE DINKA CULTURE IN SOUTHERN SUDANThe Dinkas are found In Southern Sudan. It is the largest ethnic group region in the Nile Basin. The Dinkas have the population of 3-4 million people that comprises approximately 45% of the population of the whole country. The Dinkas are cognise to have beautiful women in their tribe and known to even grow up to seven feet tall. One of their famous tribe members is the designer National basketball Association (NBA) player Manute Bol who stood for 77. This tribe at the Nile River is in addition known to maintain a culture of marrying people within their communities and even families.Most of Dinkas beliefs that keeping cultures in our ultramodern societies is beneficial enough to keep multiplications move successfully. The Dinkas believed that maintaining their culture amidst the changing world is the road to the next generations success(http//www.madingbor.com/p soak up on with/page/2064097.htm). This is the reason why even in the influences of many several(a) cultures, the Dinkas still maintained and treasured the splendor of their culture.Men in having their own families in the Dinka tribe, they must at to the lowest degree be eighteen years old and above. This age bracket is perceived by Dinkas as an age that can already be capable of providing for a family and considered as persons who can live with their own. The Dinkas live a pastoral life, relying mainly on livestock. In a Dinka family, the husband is the provider in the famil y. He brings something to eat for the family. The wife is the one who cooks for the family, the one in charge for preparing food for the whole house and in pickings care of the children in the family. The wives in the Dinka communities are obedient and respectful women for their husbands. Despite the growing influences of other cultures in women empowerment, they remain in this family devotion of women.In cases of the death of the husband or absence for a unyielding time, the wife is asked to remarry. Remarrying for the wife would mean marrying the brothers of his husband. If there is no brother available, the first cousins of her husband are the second option. This remarrying stratagem is for the purpose of bearing a child that would be named after the deceased person. The culture believes that in doing much(prenominal) practice, they are maintaining the self-respect of their generations from their fore-fathers to the grand children. The act is called lahot or entering the hut . The Dinkas give emphasis on the probity of their culture that is manifested in their practices of remarriages.THE AMHARA CULTURE OF ETHIOPIAThe Amhara people of Ethiopia are one o the most dominant pagan and political group in Africa. Their population is at 15,000,000. These people live in the highlands of Ethiopia. The Amhara people are mostly farmers. The tribe can be traced back from Menelik I who is a child born of the tabby Solomon and Queen Sheba. The Amhara appear to be descended from the same people group as the Tigray-Tigrinya people. Their Sabaean ancestors came to the highlands of what is now Eritrea and Ethiopia from the Arabian Peninsula(http//endor.hsutx.edu/obiwan/profiles/amhara.html).The general situation in the Amhara farming society is very toughened. They live in terrains and mountains because of wanting their place to be easily defended but at the same time making it hard for them to travel and move. They have the improvement in defense but as well have the disadvantage in mobility. The location of their community is hard to reach by foreigners because of rugged mountain terrains.The people in Amhara believe that children must be summit feed in two years. No hard discipline is imposed to the children until the age of four. On the fortieth day after birth, the boys in the family will be baptized and the girls are on the eightieth day. As early as the age of five and six, the children are trained to watch their family fleshlys such as sheep and goats. The boys are in charge in watching over the animals and the girls are in charge in attach to their mother in gathering firewood to use in cooking. Girls of the tribe are allowed to get married in an average age of 14. The boys to be grooms are normally 3-5 years older of the bride.Most marriages are negotiated by the two families, with a civil ceremony sealing the coerce. A priest may be present. separate is allowed and must also be negotiated. There is also a temporary marriage, b y oral contract before witnesses. The woman is paid housekeepers wages, and is non eligible for inheritance, but children of the marriage are legally accept and qualify for inheritance. Priests may marry but not eligible for divorce or remarriage (http//www.africaguide.com/culture/tribes/amhara.htm). Women also banner the attitude of respect and to their husbands. Priests are only allowed to get married once. There is variety of religions present in the Amhara culture but the most dominant religion is the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.The Amhara people are not fond of trusting people coming from other places. They are people who are on the lookout in their relation to foreign people and things.COMPARISON AND CONTRASTThe two cultures highlighted in this paper (Dinka and Amhara) are two grand cultures who have rich traditions. In looking at the two cultures, there are noticeable similarities and as well as differences.The Dinkas lived in the Basin of the Nile while the Amhara people a re from high terrains and mountains. It is harder for the Amhara people to be accessed by foreign people and even for them to travel. The two cultures rely more on farming and animal raising as the source of their subsistence but it was harder for the Amhara people to farm because of the location of their inhabited places while it is also harder for the Dinkas to defend themselves from foreign enemies because also of the location of their homes.The Dinkas however, are more conservative in their view of marriage. though in both cultures, remarrying is allowed, the Dinkas only allow remarrying if the husband has already died or absent for a long time. In Amhara tribe, divorce is allowed and is done by negotiation. In the Dinka tribe, they are more giving emphasis to family dignity that is why they only allow women to get married again if she marries the brother or the cousin of the agent husband. The Amhara tribe on the other hand, allows their priests to get married.The two tribes h ave the same view on the women in their families. Women are there to prepare food for the whole family and to take care of their children. Women have respect for their husbands in both of the tribes. The marrying age for men however differs for the two tribes. The Amhara tribe allows a lower marrying age at approximately at least 16 years old while the Dinka tribe allows men to get married at 18 years old.CONCLUSIONThere are a lot of different cultures around the world. No culture is exactly the same with another. It is of great reality that culture is different coming from different contexts. In the case of the two cultures examined and discussed I this paper, there are differences found and as well as similarities. This presupposes the richness of ones culture. We cannot really limit the innovativeness of peoples minds. The only certain in this world is the constant development of cultures in their beliefs and practices and there is a constant change in it. The conception of peopl e regarding families also evolves through time and differs in different cultures.May this paper remind us how rich peoples cultures and how they evolve and grow over time. Cultures are true manifestations of mans richness in his mind and in his being because cultures are created from peoples discovery and thinking. The cultures of today may not be present tomorrow but it is of great significance in building tomorrows cultures.BIBLIOGRAPHYJenkins, Orville Boyd & Lundquist Robert. The Amhara People of Ethiopia. 2006. 10 Mar. 2007 Kuol, William. Dinka Religion and Culture. 10 Mar. 2007Dinka Background. 10 Mar. 2007African People & Culture. 10 Mar. 2007http//www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/arts/anthropology/courses/122/module1/symbolic.html