Saturday, June 1, 2019
Basics of Psychology :: essays research papers
I.Biological bases of behaviorStudents should recognize biological psychology as a perspective of psychology. Specifically, students should recognize1.The organization of the anxious(p) transcription into the CNS and PNS The Central Nervous System-CNS- Brain and Spinal Cord. The Peripheral Nervous System-PNS- are the Nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord.2.The structure and functions of neurons Neurons are the canonic building blocks of the nervous system. The human central nervous system contains about 100 billion neurons. Neurons have a communicative role in the nervous system. Neurons can receive, integrate, and transmit information. 3. How neurotransmitters are related to behavior Acetylcholine (Ach) - Activates motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles. Contributes to the regulation of attention, arousal, and memory. Some Ach receptors stimulated by nicotine (the nicotine acts like Ach itself and binds to receptor sites for Ach).dopamine (DA) Contributes to control o f voluntary movement, pleasurable emotions. Decreased levels associated with Parkinsons disease. Over activity at DA synapses with schizophrenia. Cocaine and amphetamine elevate activity at DA synapses. Norephinephrine (NE) Contributes to modulation of mood and arousal. Cocaine and amphetamines elevate activity at NE synapses. Serotonin (SHT) Involved in regulation of sleep and wakefulness, eating, and aggression. Abnormal levels may pass to depression and OCD. Prozac and Zoloft are antidepressant drugs that affect serotonin. GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid) Most common inhibitory NT. Valium and Xanex (also alcohol) are anti-anxiety drugs that work at GABA synapses. GABA appears to be responsible for much of the inhibition in the CNS. GABA contributes to the regulation of anxiety. 4.The specialized functions of the brains hemisphere The Hindbrain consists of the medulla, oblongata, pons, and the cerebellum. The medulla contains 3 full of life centersCardiac center- This controls rate and force of the heart beatVasomotor center-adjust blood vessel diameter to regulate blood pressure and reroute blood from one neighborhood of the body to another.Respirator centers- control the rate and depth of breathing. Pons contains nuclei that relay signals from the cerebrum to the cerebellum. It is implicated with sleep, hearing, equilibrium, taste, eye movement, facial expressions, facial sensations, respirations, swallowing, bladder control and posture.Cerebellum- mostly concerned with muscular coordination. Midbrain- Short segment of the brainstem that connects the hindbrain and forebrain.Reticular Formation- runs vertically through the core of the midbrain, pons, and medulla, it functions modulations of muscle reflexes, breathing, and pain perception it has an equal role in the regulation of sleep and arousal.