Wednesday, July 31, 2019
The person that inspires me most turns out to be a fictional character, Barney Stinson from the famous series How I Met Your Mother. He exudes a uniquely vibrant and joyous energy in every single episode. Inspired by him, I have learnt many positive and useful traits. First of all, he is a positive person, even in the face of adversity. His well-known favorite quote:Ã¢â¬ When I get sad, I stop being sad and be awesome insteadÃ¢â¬ depicts his notion clearly. It always reminds me of being sanguine no matter what happen and what I will come across. I believe by being positive as he is, I would have more self-control and therefore be able to achieve amazing feats in life. Secondly, Barney is a steadfast character as well. His never-give-up attitude proves to be one of most valuable lessons in life. Whenever he comes across a challenge, he is determined to see it done. That is also the reason why he is able to win the hearts of the large audience. His resolute has influenced me in making many important decisions in real life: when problems arise, no matter how daunting it seems, I must continue on and solve it at all cost. Step by step, I find myself more determined, more persistent in whichever path I tread upon. Last but not least, I am also impressed by his lightheartedness Ã¢â¬â to Ã¢â¬Å"live every moment to the fullestÃ¢â¬ . Yet he sometimes behaves in idiosyncratic nature as being unworried about many encumbrances; many desire to have such personality: being untroubled by pressing concerns and stressful life like him. Every moment, every second is to be treasured, because you never know what may happen to you tomorrow. Therefore I too believe: life is to be enjoyed, not to be detested.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
School Counselor Analysis Siobhan (Sam) Garrett PSY/435 April 17, 2013 Healey Irked Title of Paper In order to do a proper analysis on a school counselor one must know what he or she does on a daily basis. This is to conduct a job analysis for a school counselor and discuss how it will be used within the school system. Next to determine the reliability and validity of the school counselor analysis. Then the performance and appraisal methods that apply to being a counselor will be evaluated. Finally the benefits and vulnerabilities of each performance appraisal method will be explained.This will provide a full job analysis of a school counselor and what their job entails. Job Analysis For this job one would conduct a job oriented analysis. This is the analysis type that provides the nature of the tasks done on the job (Spector, 2012). The school counselor is there to provide the services that the children need. He or she will provide assessment and screenings, group and individual cou nseling with school staff, parents, outside agencies, and design remedial education programs (National Association of School Psychologist,Ã 2012).The counselor is part of the team that decides what the students eligible for appropriate programming, special services, and ad on-going progress. Some of the responsibilities of the school counselor are as follows. Evaluate and screen children and selecting appropriate instruments, writing reports that show the evaluation findings, and administering tests (National Association of School Psychologist,Ã 2012). This helps the funding for the programs. Have a conference or meeting with the staff, parents, or child about the progress he or she is making and say hat kind of material is needed for the betterment of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s learning experience. The counselor should always be available to students who really need to speak with her for private matters concerning the welfare of the home and school environment. Provide direct services such as in general education settings, classroom presentations, and adapting materials needed for the student in the classroom (National Association of School Psychologist,Ã 2012). Documents studentÃ¢â¬â¢s levels of performance and reevaluate as needed to see where the student has gained and where the student still needs work.Supervise the assigned Para-educators (National Association of School Psychologist,Ã 2012). The counselor must deal with constraints and obstacles positively. He or she must learn to use new performance and approaches in his or her duties. This is just a portion of the requirements of the student counselor. Reliability and Validity The reliability of this information is good because not only did it come from a woman who works as a school counselor it was backed up by information found online and cited so that the information could be looked up and referred to if needed.The validity of this is also good because it has been documented on many webpages inclu ding the N. A. S. P. Therefore it is a valid and reliable source and information from the source. The source has been a school counselor for many years although she will not disclose exactly how many. Performance appraisal methods Some of the objective measures that a school counselor can be appraised with are simple measures. These include showing up for work every day on time with no excuses.This will result in less missed days which should be rewarded because the less they are absent the more they are able to be there for the students that need them that day. If they are there for the student then the student may not end up missing any days which is also a plus so it has like a snowball effect. Another way is avoiding accidents. By avoiding accidents the school does not have to turn in accidents to insurance companies and has less bills and debts owed out at the end of the year therefore not just helping the counselor know what he or she is dong but also the school itself would b enefit from this.Finally productivity or the number of people the counselor sees and helps on a daily basis. The more students the counselor sees the more of them can get back to their everyday lives and living happy and everyone will leave them alone. This could even result in less bullying in the halls and after school. The ways that the subjective measures of job performance can evaluate ones job performance is in the graphic rating form which assesses individuals on several dimensions of performance. This is like rating your job performance on a scale of one to ten.The boss may make a performance rating on your job to tell the person how he or she is doing that week. The behavior focused rating scale can be used to focus on ones behavior on the job. If a person has a good attitude then they may get a good behavior score. If he or she has a bad attitude he or she may get a bad rating on the behavior score. This depends on the way the person acts and behaves while doing his or her job. Other members of the staff may also rate ones behavior on the job.This will help the boss determine if they are getting along with you or if he or she is causing trouble or are not well liked among your fellow employees. They may make observations on ones performance as well. If he or she is doing a good job a terrible job or just a good enough jobs then he or she can be rated on that performance. Benefits and Vulnerabilities. The benefits and vulnerabilities of these can be simple or even drastic. These are more beneficial if one is doing his or her job correctly.If he or she is doing the job correctly then he or she will get good ratings and be able to have a good score and then job will continue to strive from that person doing it. On the other hand if he or she is not doing a good job the he or she could get bad marks and the job could even suffer from the lack of effort that person is putting into the job. The children could even suffer in this particular job if the job i s not done correctly. Another way this could be a bad thing is if a person was to get bad marks but was actually doing a good job.The people he or she is working with may just have a problem with him or her and could give bad marks because of that. Conclusion In conclusion, a school counselorÃ¢â¬â¢s job duties include making sure all of the children who her help and assistance need get it in every aspect of school. This is a reliable and valid source and information because not only did the information come from the subject it also came from several other sources. This person is judged on her performance from day to day not on showing up, looking nice, and being courteous but also on the actual performance itself.If he or she does her job, looks nice, and keeps the people she works with happy hoe or she should be able to keep the job and make a good living at it. Level three heading. Replace the level three heading with the words for your heading. The heading must be in bold font. References National Association of School Psychologist. (2012). what is a School Psychologist. Retrieved from http://www. nasponline. org/about_sp/whatis. aspx Spector, P. E. (2012). Industrial and organizational psychology: Research and practice (6th Ed. ). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Personal Development Plan - Essay Example It has to comprise job assignments that build leadership skills. And it has to be hold up by the organization and incorporated into a development philosophy that views planning documents as the commencement of the development expedition, not the end (Ametrano, I. M., 2003, 190-193). During the research of this network based assignment I have equally focus upon my personal development and look for to become accustomed the worldwide assessment of performance more especially to the personal development in networking. It is based mainly on WAN based networking for Nokia Incorporation The primary four part scores seek to gauge Personal grooming as a professional figure when I was capturing data, the aptitude to create a living in a dynamic-based company like Nokia. To design and implement a network model for an international organisation to get connections between two branches. To also examine the network model to make sure it met the performance and compatibility requirements. No doubt, the objective of this network based project is a development plan for multier national company is an important part of any effectual leadership-development system at two levels. At the organizational level, these plans make sure that the next age group of leaders will have the skills and skills required to define and implement the corporation's strategies. According to this research work at the personal level, it forces me as future leader to focus on what needs to be done in order to grow. When done right, the individual development plan becomes a contract future leaders make with themselves and the organization about the things they want to do or to become. The plan creates discipline and a good plan creates motivation. If we analyzed then we come to know about basic object of this research based project: 1. Research into different area networks (LAN, WAN, MAN, etc) 2. Research into few network modelling and simulation software. (OPNET guru etc) 3. Critical evaluation on the chosen area network (WAN) 4. Critical evaluation on the chosen network modelling and simulation software(OPNET guru) 5. To illustrate the issues to produce a better performance of a WAN 6. Using network modelling and simulation software(OPNET guru) to create a simulation for the designed network model 7. Implement a prototype to demonstrate the simulation of the network. 8. Testing the prototype to ensure it performs and its performance of the network met the requirements. No doubt, the worth network systems of Nokia is a ground of hypercompetitive and personal development spirited individuals were look at in an example of successful people. As predictable, people higher in hypercompetitiveness and in personal development competitiveness were together further possible to support values connected to self-contained uniqueness such as attainment, hedonism, and a determined for an exciting and demanding life, but merely hypercompetitives authorized the worth of power and control over others. Furthermore, the data point to that people higher in personal development competitiveness were extra prone to support values linked to ensembled uniqueness. In exacting, they powerfully endorsed values linked with social concern, that is, with caring regarding the well-being of others and by treating them
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Small business management - Essay Example Similarly, Clippy was a small venture, so utilizing media, which is effective yet cost effective was the motto of the owner. This is what exactly what Calypso Rose did. She utilized the power of social media channels and online marketing for not only advertising her products but selling them too. Clippy generate majority of its sales through its website or e-store (Clippykit Ltd., 2013). The website of the store has been built on Web 2.0 platform, which is quite interactive and allows the customers to browse through different products that the company is offering. The website gives a casual feel to the customers, so that customers can not only shop online, but also express their feedback through blogs, read about the ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s journey to set up Clippy and know about the products that are offering available on discount (IOWA State University, 2013). Apart from this, Clippy has utilised Facebook, Instagram, Pinterest, twitter and other social media channels to inspire people to cu stomise their own Clippy bags and get to use personalised products (Clippykit Ltd., 2013). The traditional media was all about delivering message to the customers, which were accomplished through radio, print or television. However, traditional media marketing was one-sided communication. If ClippyKit availed the traditional media vehicles, then it would have to spare extra funds for promotion of its products. Moreover, knowing the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demand and their feedback regarding different products would not be known because the communication would be one-way. However, ClippyKit has utilised Facebook, Instagram to post the photos of its products, welcome otherÃ¢â¬â¢s designs and interact with customers. This has assisted ClippyKit to venture into the sales of other products such as, Christmas cakes, gifts, accessories, school stuffs for kids, etc apart from see through bags (Hirschkorn, 2009). After analysing ClippyÃ¢â¬â¢s experience of utilising new media for its promotion , the focus of this essay would shift towards discussing whether the media strategies used by ClippyKit is typically what small businesses utilise or was it different from that. The suggestion that every marketing consulting firm have to offer for the rising entrepreneurs and small businesses is that the most cost effective way to promote their business, increase profitability and gather customersÃ¢â¬â¢ feedback is social media channels. The new media is the ultimate channel, which utilised by not only small businesses, but bigger companies too. For a small business firm, it is difficult to bring out a handsome sum of fund for extensive promotion in audio visual or print media. They see social media to be the most cost effective mode of promotion. Secondly, the reach of social media and other web-based media channel is higher to the customers nowadays, than even print or audio video media, so it is typically the first choice for almost every start-up business firms irrespective of country (Hirschkorn, 2009). The entrepreneurs can simply click the picture of their products themselves and post it on Facebook or other social media channel for branding. Posting photos on social media sites makes it easier for customers to know about the products and the process of sales becomes a lot easier. This is one of the key reasons behind the success of small start-up firms. The major function of media is
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Apple Company - Research Paper Example The Company is also engaged in a variety of stock exchange portfolios such as financial securities; Company shares, debentures and traded bonds. The ticker tape, AAPL: NASDAQ GS drives the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial and exchange markets with the highest stock price noted on February 18th, 2014 at 555.19 billion dollars. The CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s trading period ends every September 28th with the September 2013 net income hitting 37.04 billion dollars as 225.18 dollars noted as 2013 assets value. The paper will focus on iPhone products with respects to its demand and supply. With respect to the demand of the iPhone products, the paper will showcase how iPhone products have an ever-increasing demand based on the sales of the products ranging from iPhone 5, iPhone 4 and iPhone 4S. The focus will be based on iPhone 5 that was ushered and launched September 21, 2012. During the same day, it is noted that over 2 million purchase was attached to first pre-ordering. This in comparison to iPhone 4 launched in October 2010, 1. 4 million purchase was recorded as the increase in first pre-ordering. On the other hand, iPhone 4S attracted over 4 million purchases in the first three days following its launch. In a snapshot, a robust demand for iPhone products is looming based on the promising purchases indicated. Surprisingly, an opening-weekend sale of iPhone 5 has dealt the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s image and reputation a blow based on the demand and supply of this product despite its massive upgraded features. Shortage in supply of iPhone 5 opened avenues for companyÃ¢â¬â¢s critiques leading to its downgrading. This is supported by Apple chief Tim Cook on his apology as quoted, Ã¢â¬ËWhile we have sold out of our initial supply, stores continue to receive iPhone 5 shipments regularly and customers can continue to order online and receive an estimated delivery date.Ã
Information for proposal - Essay Example Note that the question on this matter but the results will differ because something has affected the respondents' knowledge and awareness. There might be some possible changes on the answer of the respondents but there are cases that their perceptions are not affected at all. For a case study on child's rights, a survey can be done on the spot with the kids. This serves as the pre-test. Later on, after letting them watch a video clipping about child's rights, a post-test survey can be done to determine if their awareness has been changed. Non- equivalent comparison this simply refers to the data obtained from different period or time interval without the specific limits or lapses. The data can be obtained whether in a three-year, four- year or five- year intervals instead of taking it in a specific 100-year interval. Time series analysis is the comparison of data represented in a time series. It includes almost all classes of statistical approaches and problems: data description, hypothesis testing , parameter estimation , regression , etc. The practical importance of time series analysis stems from the fact that time series data - economic, social, sport, physical, etc. - are quite common. Experimental is a kind ... This serves as the pre-test. Later on, after letting them watch a video clipping about child's rights, a post-test survey can be done to determine if their awareness has been changed. Time series data are measurements of a variable taken at regular intervals over time. Time series are represented as sequences of values like x(1), x(2), ... . The time line of invention and innovation for modern transport may be as follows: Stage coach Train Car Plane Rocket Space ship ____________________________________________________ 1800 1900 2000 Non- equivalent comparison this simply refers to the data obtained from different period or time interval without the specific limits or lapses. The data can be obtained whether in a three-year, four- year or five- year intervals instead of taking it in a specific 100-year interval. Time series analysis is the comparison of data represented in a time series. It includes almost all classes of statistical approaches and problems: data description, hypothesis testing , parameter estimation , regression , etc. The practical importance of time series analysis stems from the fact that time series data - economic, social, sport, physical, etc. - are quite common. Experimental is a kind of research design conducted to answer questions about causes and effects. The basic requirements are; a) random assignment, b) treatment and no-treatment groups, c) observations after the treatment. The following notations are used in describing the different experimental designs: X=stands for an experimental treatment, or an independent variable or a cause O=stands for observation, or a dependent variable, or an effect R=means that the respondents have been randomly assigned to the different treatment or non-
Friday, July 26, 2019
LLB FAMILY LAW (Coursework) - Essay Example In this case the property in question is the house, which though held in PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s name, Lauren has an interest in because of their shared history in it and the fact that she did make a contribution of some sort to PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s acquisition of it. A constructive trust is implied in law in both a domestic and a commercial context. In this instance it is in the domestic context. The main features of the constructive trust are that it relies upon three basic components, the first of which is common intention. There was indeed common intention in the coming together of Lauren and Paul in their living together. There has not been up to now not been any agreement among the two parties, Lauren and Paul either directly or in an implied manner, been an agreement that they would be sharing the house out for the purpose of benefiting from it separately. The common intention was that they live together in the house, even though its title was under PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s name, Lauren was able to play her part in the common interest by paying for the utility bills and assisting with household expenses and thus freed up PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s income for use in servicing the mortgage of the property or paying for its acquisition. By contributing towards the household expenses and the utility bills she therefore can claim to have made a material contribution towards PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s acquisition of the said property. She thus has rights under constructive trust, to the use of the property. The common intention is both implied and actual even in the absence of any written agreement. The absence of a written or structured agreement cannot therefore negate LaurenÃ¢â¬â¢s right to the use of the property in question and therefore she is entitled to stay there together with the children that resulted from and during their cohabitation.1 The fact that they have lived together for such a long time anchors the argument of common intentions to live together even though they are not married. The second c omponent of constructive trust is the detrimental reliance by the claimant. By detriment here is included the things that Lauren had to give up or make do without in order to ensure that Paul was able to acquire the property Ã¢â¬â the fact that she had to forego her job and chose to be a stay at home mother and take care of the children and also the fact that she gave up her State benefits to be used in the common household expenses and also the fact that she paid some of the utility bills. These are all factors to be considered in looking at the common intention constructive trust that protects the contribution that Lauren put into this enterprise. Lauren continued to live with Paul in the house even when the relationship became strained and even when she was treated to continued verbal abuse. She had every right to continue staying there and even now she has the right to stay there since the agreement that was in place that they would live together in the house is still in effe ct. And she has every right to go back there, together with her children, as long as she is assured that there will not be a return to the abusive and violent behaviour. Lauren, by virtue of her contribution to the acquisition of the property in question, would therefore suffer if the court or law determined that she was not entitled to its fair use and occupation. She should therefore have her constructive tr
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Element of Literature (theme, character, setting, conflicts, etc - Essay Example This paper examines all the similarities between these three works and establishes the commonality between the characters and their presentations. Tragedy has been a theme for playwrights since the beginning of literature, well explored by Greek poets like Sophocles, medieval English writers, and Elizabethan playwrights, of which Shakespeare is prominent. The most prominent cause of the tragedy in these plays would be the tragic hero fighting against his/her impending doom. Ã¢â¬ËThe tragic hero is divided "between imperative and impulse, between moral ordinance and unruly passion . . . between law and lust" (Heilman 207).Ã¢â¬â¢ (Brown, 2009). If we explore the similarities between the two Elizabethan dramas, Macbeth, Hamlet and the ancient Greek tragedy, Oedipus, we find that the protagonists have that fatal flaw which draws them to their downfall and all other elements that make a tragedy. When these protagonists live, they teach us many lessons with the mistakes that they commit in their life. They seem to exist to attain the ultimate goal of death.Ã¢â¬ We admire the daring, uncompromising spirit of the tragic hero wh ile recognizing that what he gains in intensity of life, he often pays for with its brevity.Ã¢â¬ (Brown, 2009). ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragedies Ã¢â¬Å"follow a basic pattern of complication, crisis, and conclusion but with multiple variations.Ã¢â¬ (Brown, 2009). If we compare and seek similarities between the characters of the three works, we find that as mentioned above, all protagonists unconsciously seek their own fall. Hamlet muses far too much over his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death and even when his father has shown him the path of revenge, he fails to kill Claudius when he has the chance. Macbeth on the other hand, blinded easily by ambition and avarice, kills Duncan in haste without pondering over the consequences. OedipusÃ¢â¬â¢s flaw is his colossal ego or Hubris. It does not bring about his misery directly but does lead to
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Analysis of a play - Essay Example Loman is portrayed as a representative of a middle class American who suffered with insecure material existence and isolation. Analyzing the theme, plot, structure, characterization and style of MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s Death of a Salesman, one can observe the plight of middle-class people in a capitalist society. Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s Death of a Salesman describes the trials and tribulations of modern American middle-class people. . Themes like isolation, reality versus illusion, and failure of American success myth, insecure family relations and the evilness of capitalism are successfully depicted in MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s play Death of a Salesman. Miller portrays the real life of a typical American middleclass man Willy Loman and his family, who bestows the most part of his life in a private company. Loman tries to drive the family with his maximum facility. Unfortunately, he cannot satisfy his wife Linda and his two sons Biff and Happy. Literary critics have identified the fact that the themes of failure of American success myth and reality versus illusion play a vital role in MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s Death of a salesman. The central character in the play, Willy Loman, fails to comprehend the real pulse of the society. Dramatist succeeds to direct the readers to think that Loman is a total failure in his personal life and the same failure leads to his disastrous death at the end of the play. As Harold Bloom comments; Ã¢â¬Å"This tragedy, according to Miller, is the crisis and the reality of American lifeÃ¢â¬ (Bloom 44). As a follower of socialist ideologies Arthur Miller harshly criticizes the evilness of capitalism through the pathetic end of his hero Willy Loman. At the end of the play Willy Loman commits suicide in the expectation that his death will be really helpful for his family. He was aware of the fact that after his death Biff will get his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s insurance money, twenty five thousand pound by which he can enrich his business. Miller reminds the reader horribl e reality of the modern competing capitalist world that offers the value of twenty five thousand pound for a human life and his lifelong service. Loman believes in capitalist ideologies and material existence so that he acts as self-centered. In a conscious effort, Loman forces others to admit that he is an ideal family man. Loman is highly conscious about his sonÃ¢â¬â¢s misbehavior and his failure as a businessman. It is significant for a reader to comprehend the fact that Loman always fails to advice his son Biff because, he is responsible for his sonÃ¢â¬â¢s fall. It is merely accidental that Biff became the victim of his FatherÃ¢â¬â¢s illegal relationship with a prostitute. Therefore, BiffÃ¢â¬â¢s unhealthy behavior haunts Loman like horrible nightmare. MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s characters are powerful and reader can see a true personality and soul in these characters. Author exposes the protagonist Willy Loman as a symbol of American middle-class people who fail to maintain a struc tured life during the depression era. One can see that MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s personal experiences during the depression period have a great influence on his hero Willy Loman. Capitalist ideologies make Willy a man of self possessive and self-centered nature. This self- possessive nature always prevents him to admit his faults. As such, he would scold his sons for trifles in an attempt to hide his own faults. His wife Linda
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Experiemntal Video Art - Research Paper Example There is debate surrounding the importance of audience understanding the message of the video art. The genre, style and intent of the filmmaker is the major factor here. Some films are deliberately made in an abstract fashion, whose beauty lies in its ambiguity. This is the modernist direction in film and cinema where narrative forms have undergone experimentation. A discussion of French cinema is relevant here, as it offers a rich repository of filmmaking for over a hundred years. French directors, screenwriters and cinematographers have influenced or initiated various Ã¢â¬ËwavesÃ¢â¬â¢ of cinematic style over this period. French New Wave cinema is especially influential in this regard, which gave rise to truly modernist interpretations of cinematic art. Auteurs like Jean-Luc Godard, Francois Truffaut, Jacques Rivette, Alain Resnais, etc have pushed the boundaries of narrative form and content. In the case of Godard, the break from conventional cinema or cinema du qualite is so c omplete that his works have eschewed narrative story-telling altogether. Instead, in the highly experimental Ã¢â¬Ëattempts at cinemaÃ¢â¬â¢ (as Godard refers to his works) the emphasis is on constructing essays. This is a sharp deviation from the traditional preoccupation with storytelling. Godard can be credited with pioneering the Ã¢â¬Ëvideo essayÃ¢â¬â¢ format, an experimental genre that is marked by its artistic, theoretical, and political perspectives. It is a format that is not easily accessible to the lay audience. The video essay marks Ã¢â¬Å"a distinct aesthetic strategy, one that is premised on a mode of relationality. According to Ursula Biemann, the video essay as a genre, situates itself between documentary film and video art. Considered too experimental, self-reflexive and subjective for
Monday, July 22, 2019
Why Am I an Atheist Essay It is a matter of debate whether my lack of belief in the existence of an Omnipresent, Omniscient God is due to my arrogant pride and vanity. It never occurred to me that sometime in the future I would be involved in polemics of this kind. As a result of some discussions with my friends, (if my claim to friendship is not uncalled for) I have realised that after having known me for a little time only, some of them have reached a kind of hasty conclusion about me that my atheism is my foolishness and that it is the outcome of my vanity. Even then it is a serious problem. I do not boast of being above these human follies. I am, after all, a human being and nothing more. And no one can claim to be more than that. I have a weakness in my personality, for pride is one of the human traits that I do possess. I am known as a dictator among my friends. Sometimes I am called a boaster. Some have always been complaining that I am bossy and I force others to accept my opinion. Yes, it is true to some extent. I do not deny this charge. We can use the word Ã¢â¬ËvaingloryÃ¢â¬â¢ for it. As far as the contemptible, obsolete, rotten values of our society are concerned, I am an extreme sceptic. But this question does not concern my person alone. It is being proud of my ideas, my thoughts. It cannot be called empty pride. Pride, or you may use the word, vanity, both mean an exaggerated assessment of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personality. Is my atheism because of unnecessary pride, or have I ceased believing in God after thinking long and deep on the matter? I wish to put my ideas before you. First of all, let us differentiate between pride and vanity as these are two different things. I have never been able to understand how unfounded, baseless pride or empty vanity can hinder a person from believing in God. I may refuse to acknowledge the greatness of a really great person only when I have got fame without doing any serious efforts or when I lack the superior mental powers necessary to become great. It is easy to understand but how is it possible that a believer can turn into a non-believer because of his vanity? Only two things are possible: either a man deems himself to be in possession of Godly qualities, or he goes a step further and declares himself to be a god. In both these states of mind he cannot be an atheist in the true sense of the word. In the first case, it is not an outright rejection of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence; in the other, he is affirming the existence of some kind of supernatural power responsible for the working of universe. It does not harm our argument whether he claims to be a god or considers God to be a reality in existence above his own b eing. The real point, however, is that in both cases he is a theist, a believer. He is not an atheist. I want to bring home this point to you. I am not one of these two creeds. I totally reject the existence of an Omnipresent, all powerful, all knowing God. Why so? I will discuss it later in the essay. Here I wish to emphasise that I am not an atheist for the reason that I am arrogant or proud or vain; nor am I a demi-god, nor a prophet; no, nor am I God myself. At least one thing is true that I have not evolved this thought because of vanity or pride. In order to answer this question I relate the truth. My friends say that after Delhi bombing and Lahore Conspiracy Case, I rocketed to fame and that this fact has turned my head. Let us discuss why this allegation is incorrect. I did not give up my belief in God after these incidents. I was an atheist even when I was an unknown figure. At least a college student cannot cherish any sort of exaggerated notion of himself that may lead him to at heism. It is true that I was a favourite with some college teachers, but others did not like me. I was never a hardworking or studious boy. I never got an opportunity to be proud. I was very careful in my behaviour and somewhat pessimistic about my future career. I was not completely atheistic in my beliefs. I was brought up under the care and protection of my father. He was a staunch Arya Samaji. An Arya Samaji can be anything but never an atheist. After my elementary education, I was sent to D. A. V College, Lahore. I lived in the boarding house for one year. Besides prayers early in the morning and at dusk time, I sat for hours and chanted religious Mantras. At that time, I was a staunch believer. Then I lived with my father. He was a tolerant man in his religious views. It is due to his teachings that I devoted my life for the cause of liberating my country. But he was not an atheist. His God was an all-pervading Entity. He advised me to offer my prayers every day. In this way I was brought up. In the Non-cooperation days, I got admission to the National College. During my stay in this college, I began thinking over all the religious polemics such that I grew sceptical about the existence of God. In spite of this fact I can say that my belief in God was firm and strong. I grew a beard and Ã¢â¬ËKaisÃ¢â¬â¢ (long head of hair as a Sikh religious custom). In spite of this I could not convince myself of the efficacy of Sikh religion or any religion at all, for that matter. But I had an unswerving, unwavering belief in God. Then I joined the Revolutionary Party. The first leader I met had not the courage to openly declare himself an atheist. He was unable to reach any conclusion on this point. Whenever I asked him about the existence of God, he gave me this reply: Ã¢â¬Å"You may believe in him when you feel like it.Ã¢â¬ The second leader with whom I came in contact was a firm believer. I should mention his name. It was our respected Comrade Sachindara Nath Sanyal. He was sentenced to life imprisonment in connection with Karachi conspiracy case. Right from the first page of his only book, Ã¢â¬ËBandi JivanÃ¢â¬â¢ (Incarnated Life) he sings praises to the Glory of God. See the last page of the second part of this book and you find praises showered upon God in the way of a mystic. It is a clear reflection of his thoughts. According to the prosecution, the Ã¢â¬ËRevolutionary LeafletÃ¢â¬â¢ which was distributed throughout India was the outcome of Sachindara Nath SanyalÃ¢â¬â¢s intellectual labour. So often it happens that in revolutionary activities a leader expresses his own ideas which may be very dear to him, but in spite of having differences, the other workers have to acquiesce in them. In that leaflet, one full paragraph was devoted to the praises of God and His doings which we, human beings, cannot understand. This is sheer mysticism. What I want to point out is that the idea of denying the existence of God did not even occur to the Revolutionary Party. The famous Kakory martyrs, all four of them, passed their last day in prayers. Ram Parshad Bismal was a staunch Arya Samaji. In spite of his vast studies in Socialism and Communism, Rajan Lahiri could not suppress his desire to recite hymns from Upanishads and Gita. There was but only one person among them who did not indulge in such activities. He used to say, Ã¢â¬Å"Religion is the outcome of human weakness or the limitation of human knowledge.Ã¢â¬ He is also in prison for life. But he also never dared to deny the existence of God. Till that time I was only a romantic revolutionary, just a follower of our leaders. Then came the time to shoulder the whole responsibility. For some time, a strong opposition put the very existence of the party into danger. Many leaders as well as many enthusiastic comrades began to uphold the party to ridicule. They jeered at us. I had an apprehension that some day I will also consider it a futile and hopeless task. It was a turning point in my revolutionary career. An incessant desire to study filled my heart. Ã¢â¬ËStudy more and moreÃ¢â¬â¢, said I to myself so that I might be able to face the arguments of my opponents. Ã¢â¬ËStudyÃ¢â¬â¢ to support your point of view with convincing arguments. And I began to study in a serious manner. My previous beliefs and convictions underwent a radical change. The romance of militancy dominated our predecessors; now serious ideas ousted this way of thinking. No more mysticism! No more blind faith! Now realism was our mode of thinking. A t times of terrible necessity, we can resort to extreme methods, but violence produces opposite results in mass movements. I have talked much about our methods. The most important thing was a clear conception of our ideology for which we were waging a long struggle. As there was no election activity going on, I got ample opportunity to study various ideas propounded by various writers. I studied Bakunin, the anarchist leader. I read a few books of Marx, the father of Communism. I also read Lenin and Trotsky and many other writers who successfully carried out revolutions in their countries. All of them were atheists. The ideas contained in BakuninÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËGod and StateÃ¢â¬â¢ seem inconclusive, but it is an interesting book. After that I came across a book Ã¢â¬ËCommon SenseÃ¢â¬â¢ by Nirlamba Swami. His point of view was a sort of mystical atheism. I developed more interest in this subject. By the end of 1926, I was convinced that the belief in an Almighty, Supreme Being who created, guided and controlled the universe had no sound foundations. I began discussions on this subject with my friends. I had openly declared myself an atheist. What it meant will be discussed in the following lines. In May 1927, I was arrested in Lahore. This arrest came as a big surprise for me. I had not the least idea that I was wanted by the police. I was passing through a garden and all of a sudden the police surrounded me. To my own surprise, I was very calm at that time. I was in full control of myself. I was taken into police custody. The next day I was taken to the Railway Police lockup where I spent a whole month. After many daysÃ¢â¬â¢ conversation with police personnel, I guessed that they had some information about my connection with the Kakori Party. I felt they had some intelligence of my other activities in the revolutionary movement. They told me that I was in Lucknow during the Kakori Party Trial so that I might devise a scheme to rescue the culprits. They also said that after the plan had been approved, we procured some bombs and by way of test, one of those bombs was thrown into a crowd on the occasion of Dussehra in 1926. They offered to release me on condition that I gave a statement on the activities of the Revolutionary Party. In this way I would be set free and even rewarded and I would not be produced as an approver in the court. I could not help laughing at their proposals. It was all humbug. People who have ideas like ours do not throw bombs at their own innocent people. One day, Mr. Newman, the then senior Superintendent of CID, came to me. After a long talk which was full of sympathetic words, he imparted to me what he considered to be sad news, that if I did not give any statement as demanded by them, they would be forced to send me up for trial for conspiracy to wage war in connection with Kakori Case and also for brutal killings in Dussehra gathering. After that he said that he had sufficient evidence to get me convicted and hanged. I was completely innocent, but I believed that the police had sufficient power to do it if they desired it to be so. The same day some police officers persuaded me to offer my prayers to God two times regularly. I was an atheist. I thought that I would settle it to myself whether I could brag only in days of peace and happiness that I was an atheist, or in those hard times I could be steadfast in my convictions. After a long debate with myself, I reached the conclusion that I could not even pretend to be a believer nor could I offer my prayers to God. No, I never did it. It was time of trial and I would come out of it successful. These were my thoughts. Never for a moment did I desire to save my life. So I was a true atheist then and I am an atheist now. It was not an easy task to face that ordeal. Beliefs make it easier to go through hardships, even make them pleasant. Man can find a strong support in God and an encouraging consolation in His Name. If you have no belief in Him, then there is no alternative but to depend upon yourself. It is not childÃ¢â¬â¢s play to stand firm on your feet amid storms and strong winds. In difficult times, vanity, if it remains, evaporates and man cannot find the courage to defy beliefs held in common esteem by the people. If he really revolts against such beliefs, we must conclude that it is not sheer vanity; he has some kind of extraordinary strength. This is exactly the situation now. First of all we all know what the judgement will be. It is to be pronounced in a week or so. I am going to sacrifice my life for a cause. What more consolation can there be! A God-believing Hindu may expect to be reborn a king; a Muslim or a Christian might dream of the luxuries he hopes to enjoy in paradise as a reward for his sufferings and sacrifices. What hope should I entertain? I know that will be the end when the rope is tightened round my neck and the rafters move from under my feet. To use more precise religious terminology, that will be the moment of utter annihilation. My soul will come to nothing. If I take the courage to take the matter in the light of Ã¢â¬ËRewardÃ¢â¬â¢, I see that a short life of struggle with no such magnificent end shall itself be my Ã¢â¬ËReward.Ã¢â¬â¢ That is all. Without any selfish motive of getting any reward here or in the hereafter, quite disinterestedly have I devoted my life to the cause of freedom. I could not act otherwise. The day shall usher in a new era of liberty when a large number of men and women, taking courage from the idea of serving humanity and liberating them from sufferings and distress, decide that there is no alternative before them except devoting their lives for this cause. They will wage a war against their oppressors, tyrants or exploiters, not to become kings, or to gain any reward here or in the next birth or after death in paradise; but to cast off the yoke of slavery, to establish liberty and peace they will tread this perilous, but glorious path. Can the pride they take in their noble cause be called vanity? Who is there rash enough to call it so? To him I say either he is foolish or wicked. Leave such a fellow alone for he cannot realise the depth, the emotions, the sentiment and the noble feelings that surge in that heart. His heart is dead, a mere lump of flesh, devoid of feelings. His convictions are infirm, his emotions feeble. His selfish interests have made him incapable of seeing the truth. The epithet Ã¢â¬ËvanityÃ¢â¬â¢ is always hurled at the strength we get from our convictions. You go against popular feelings; you criticise a hero, a great man who is generally believed to be above criticism. What happens? No one will answer your arguments in a rational way; rather you will be considered vainglorious. Its reason is mental insipidity. Merciless criticism and independent thinking are the two necessary traits of revolutionary thinking. As Mahatmaji is great, he is above criticism; as he has risen above, all that he says in the field of politics, religion, Ethics is right. You agree or not, it is binding upon you to take it as truth. This is not constructive thinking. We do not take a leap forward; we go many steps back. Our forefathers evolved faith in some kind of Supreme Being, therefore, one who ventures to challenge the validity of that faith or denies the existence of God, shall be called a Kafir (infidel), or a renegade. Even if his arguments are so strong that it is impossible to refute them, if his spirit is so strong that he cannot be bowed down by the threats of misfortune that may befall him through the wrath of the Almighty, he shall be decried as vainglorious. Then why should we waste our time in such discussions? This question has come before the people for the first time, hence the necessity and usefulness of such long discussions. As far as the first question is concerned, I think I have made it clear that I did not turn atheist because of vanity. Only my readers, not I, can decide whether my arguments carry weight. If I were a believer, I know in the present circumstances my life would have been easier; the burden lighter. My disbelief in God has turned all the circumstances too harsh and this situation can deteriorate further. Being a little mystical can give the circumstances a poetic turn. But I need no opiate to meet my end. I am a realistic man. I want to overpower this tendency in me with the help of Reason. I am not always successful in such attempts. But it is manÃ¢â¬â¢s duty to try and make efforts. Success depends on chance and circumstances. Now we come to the second question: if it is not vanity, there ought to be some sound reason for rejection of age-old belief in God. Yes, I come to this question. I think that any man who has some reasoning power always tries to understand the life and people around him with the help of this faculty. Where concrete proofs are lacking, [mystical] philosophy creeps in. As I have indicated, one of my revolutionary friends used to say that Ã¢â¬Å"philosophy is the outcome of human weakness.Ã¢â¬ Our ancestors had the leisure to solve the mysteries of the world, its past, its present and its future, its whys and its wherefores, but having been terribly short of direct proofs, every one of them tried to solve the problem in his own way. Hence we find wide differences in the fundamentals of various religious creeds. Sometimes they take very antagonistic and conflicting forms. We find differences in Oriental and Occidental philosophies. There are differences even amongst various schools of thoughts in each hemisphere. In Asian religions, the Muslim religion is completely incompatible with the Hindu faith. In India itself, Buddhism and Jainism are sometimes quite separate from Brahmanism. Then in Brahmanism itself, we find two conflicting sects: Aarya Samaj and Snatan Dheram. Charwak is yet another independent thinker of the past ages. He challenged the Authority of God. All these faiths differ on many fundamental questions, but each of them claims to be the only true religion. This is the root of the evil. Instead of developing the ideas and experiments of ancient thinkers, thus providing ourselves with the ideological weapon for the future struggle, Ã¢â¬â lethargic, idle, fanatical as we are Ã¢â¬â we cling to orthodox religion and in this way reduce human awakening to a stagnant pool. It is necessary for every person who stands for progress to criticise every tenet of old beliefs. Item by item he has to challenge the efficacy of old faith. He has to analyse and understand all the details. If after rigorous reasoning, one is led to believe in any theory of philosophy, his faith is appreciated. His reasoning may be mistaken and even fallacious. But there is chance that he will be corrected because Reason is the guiding principle of his life. But belief, I should say blind belief is disastrous. It deprives a man of his understanding power and makes him reactionary. Any person who claims to be a realist has to challenge the truth of old beliefs. If faith cannot withstand the onslaught of reason, it collapses. After that his task should be to do the groundwork for new philosophy. This is the negative side. After that comes in the positive work in which some material of the olden times can be used to construct the pillars of new philosophy. As far as I am concerned, I admit that I lack sufficient study in this field. I had a great desire to study the Oriental Philosophy, but I could get ample opportunity or sufficient time to do so. But so far as I reject the old time beliefs, it is not a matter of countering belief with belief, rather I can challenge the efficacy of old beliefs with sound arguments. We believe in nature and that human progress depends on the domination of man over nature. There is no conscious power behind it. This is our philosophy. Being atheist, I ask a few questions from theists: 1. If, as you believe there is an Almighty, Omnipresent, Omniscient God, who created the earth or universe, please let me know, first of all, as to why he created this world. This world which is full of woe and grief, and countless miseries, where not even one person lives in peace. 2. Pray, donÃ¢â¬â¢t say it is His law. If He is bound by any law, He is not Omnipotent. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t say it is His pleasure. Nero burnt one Rome. He killed a very limited number of people. He caused only a few tragedies, all for his morbid enjoyment. But what is his place in history? By what names do we remember him? All the disparaging epithets are hurled at him. Pages are blackened with invective diatribes condemning Nero: the tyrant, the heartless, the wicked. One Genghis Khan killed a few thousand people to seek pleasure in it and we hate the very name. Now, how will you justify your all powerful, eternal Nero, who every day, every moment continues his pastime of killing people? How can you support his doings which surpass those of Genghis Khan in cruelty and in misery inflicted upon people? I ask why the Almighty created this world which is nothing but a living hell, a place of constant and bitter unrest. Why did he create man when he had the power not to do so? Have you any answer to these questions? You will say that it is to reward the sufferer and punish the evildoer in the hereafter. Well, well, how far will you justify a man who first of all inflicts injuries on your body and then applies soft and soothing ointment on them? How far the supporters and organizers of Gladiator bouts were justified in throwing men before half starved lions, later to be cared for and looked after well if they escaped this horrible death. That is why I ask: Was the creation of man intended to derive this kind of pleasure? Open your eyes and see millions of people dying of hunger in slums and huts dirtier than the grim dungeons of prisons; just see the labourers patiently or say apathetically while the rich vampires suck their blood; bring to mind the wastage of human energy that will make a man with a little common sense shiver in horror. Just observe rich nations throwing their surplus produce into the sea instead of distributing it among the needy and deprived. There are palaces of kings built upon the foundations laid with human bones. Let them see all this and say Ã¢â¬Å"All is well in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Kingdom.Ã¢â¬ Why so? This is my question. You are silent. All right. I proceed to my next point. You, the Hindus, would say: Whosoever undergoes sufferings in this life, must have been a sinner in his previous birth. It is tantamount to saying that those who are oppressors now were Godly people then, in their previous births. For this reason alone they hold power in their hands. Let me say it plainly that your ancestors were shrewd people. They were always in search of petty hoaxes to play upon people and snatch from them the power of Reason. Let us analyse how much this argument carries weight! Those who are well versed in the philosophy of Jurisprudence relate three of four justifications for the punishment that is to be inflicted upon a wrong-doer. These are: revenge, reform, and deterrence. The Retribution Theory is now condemned by all the thinkers. Deterrent theory is on the anvil for its flaws. Reformative theory is now widely accepted and considered to be necessary for human progress. It aims at reforming the culprit and converting him into a peace-loving citizen. But what in essence is GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Punishment even if it is inflicted on a person who has really done some harm? For the sake of argument we agree for a moment that a person committed some crime in his previous birth and God punished him by changing his shape into a cow, cat, tree, or any other animal. You may enumerate the number of these variations in Godly Punishment to be at least eighty-four lack. Tell me, has this tomfoolery, perpetrated in the name of punishment, any reformative effect on human man? How many of them have you met who were donkeys in their previous births for having committed any sin? Absolutely no one of this sort! The so called theory of Ã¢â¬ËPuranasÃ¢â¬â¢ (transmigration) is nothing but a fairy-tale. I do not have any intention to bring this unutterable trash under discussion. Do you really know the most cursed sin in this world is to be poor? Yes, poverty is a sin; it is a punishment! Cursed be the theoretician, jurist or legislator who proposes such measures as push man into the quagmire of more heinous sins. Did it not occur to your All Knowing God or he could learn the truth only after millions had undergone untold sufferings and hardships? What, according to your theory, is the fate of a person who, by no sin of his own, has been born into a family of low caste people? He is poor so he cannot go to a school. It is his fate to be shunned and hated by those who are born into a high caste. His ignorance, his poverty, and the contempt he receives from others will harden his heart towards society. Supposing that he commits a sin, who shall bear the consequences? God, or he, or the learned people of that society? What is your view about those punishments inflicted on the people who were deliberately kept ignorant by selfish and proud Brahmans? If by chance these poor creatures heard a few words of your sacred books, Vedas, these Brahmans poured melted lead into their ears. If they committed any sin, who was to be held responsible? Who was to bear the brunt? My dear friends, these theories have been coined by the privileged classes. They try to justify the power they have usurped and the riches they have robbed with the help of such theories. Perhaps it was the writer Upton Sinclair who wrote (Bhagat Singh is referring to SinclairÃ¢â¬â¢s pamphlet Ã¢â¬ËProfits of ReligionÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â MIA transcriber) somewhere Ã¢â¬Å"only make a man firm believer in the immortality of soul, then rob him of all that he possesses. He will willingly help you in the process.Ã¢â¬ The dirty alliance between religious preachers and possessors of power brought the boon of prisons, gallows, knouts and above all such theories for the mankind. I ask why your Omnipotent God does not hold a man back when he is about to commit a sin or offence. It is childÃ¢â¬â¢s play for God. Why did He not kill war lords? Why did He not obliterate the fury of war from their minds? In this way He could have saved humanity of many a great calamity and horror. Why does He not infuse humanistic sentiments into the minds of the Britishers so that they may willingly leave India? I ask why He does not fill the hearts of all capitalist classes with altruistic humanism that prompts them to give up personal possession of the means of production and this will free the whole labouring humanity from the shackles of money. You want to argue the practicability of Socialist theory, I leave it to your Almighty God to enforce it. Common people understand the merits of Socialist theory as far as general welfare is concerned but they oppose it under the pretext that it cannot be implemented. Let the Almighty step in and arrange things in a proper way. No more logic chopping! I tell you that the British rule is not there because God willed it but for the reason that we lack the will and courage to oppose it. Not that they are keeping us under subjugation with the consent of God, but it is with the force of guns and rifles, bombs and bullets, police and militia, and above all because of our apathy that they are successfully committing the most deplorable sin, that is, the exploitation of one nation by another. Where is God? What is He doing? Is He getting a diseased pleasure out of it? A Nero! A Genghis Khan! Down with Him! Now another piece of manufactured logic! You ask me how I will explain the origin of this world and origin of man. Charles Darwin has tried to throw some light on this subject. Study his book. Also, have a look at Sohan SwamiÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Commonsense.Ã¢â¬ You will get a satisfactory answer. This topic is concerned with Biology and Natural History. This is a phenomenon of nature. The accidental mixture of different substances in the form of Nebulae gave birth to this earth. When? Study history to know this. The same process caused the evolution of animals and in the long run that of man. Read DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËOrigin of Species.Ã¢â¬â¢ All the later progress is due to manÃ¢â¬â¢s constant conflict with nature and his efforts to utilise nature for his own benefit. This is the briefest sketch of this phenomenon. Your next question will be why a child is born blind or lame even if he was not a sinner in his previous birth. This problem has been explained in a satisfactory manner by biologists as a mere biological phenomenon. According to them the whole burden rests upon the shoulders of parents whose conscious or unconscious deeds caused mutilation of the child prior to his birth. You may thrust yet another question at me, though it is merely childish. The question is: If God does not really exist, why do people come to believe in Him? Brief and concise my answer will be. As they come to believe in ghosts, and evil spirits, so they also evolve a kind of belief in God: the only difference being that God is almost a universal phenomenon and well developed theological philosophy. However, I do disagree with radical philosophy. It attributes His origin to the ingenuity of exploiters who wanted to keep the people under their subjugation by preaching the existence of a Supreme Being; thus claimed an authority and sanction from Him for their privileged position. I do not differ on the essential point that all religions, faiths, theological philosophies, and religious creeds and all other such institutions in the long run become supporters of the tyrannical and exploiting institutions, men and classes. Rebellion against any king has always been a sin in every religion . As regard the origin of God, my thought is that man created God in his imagination when he realized his weaknesses, limitations and shortcomings. In this way he got the courage to face all the trying circumstances and to meet all dangers that might occur in his life and also to restrain his outbursts in prosperity and affluence. God, with his whimsical laws and parental generosity was painted with variegated colours of imagination. He was used as a deterrent factor when his fury and his laws were repeatedly propagated so that man might not become a danger to society. He was the cry of the distressed soul for he was believed to stand as father and mother, sister and brother, brother and friend when in time of distress a man was left alone and helpless. He was Almighty and could do anything. The idea of God is helpful to a man in distress. Society must fight against this belief in God as it fought against idol worship and other narrow conceptions of religion. In this way man will try to stand on his feet. Being realistic, he will have to throw his faith aside and face all adversaries with courage and valour. That is exactly my state of mind. My friends, it is not my vanity; it is my mode of thinking that has made me an atheist. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think that by strengthening my belief in God and by offering prayers to Him every day, (this I consider to be the most degraded act on the part of man) I can bring improvement in my situation, nor can I further deteriorate it. I have read of many atheists facing all troubles boldly, so I am trying to stand like a man with the head high and erect to the last; even on the gallows. Let us see how steadfast I am. One of my friends asked me to pray. When informed of my atheism, he said, Ã¢â¬Å"When your last days come, you will begin to believe.Ã¢â¬ I said, Ã¢â¬Å"No, dear sir, Never shall it happen. I consider it to be an act of degradation and demoralisation. For such petty selfish motives, I shall never pray.Ã¢â¬ Reader and friends, is it vanity? If it is, I stand for it.
Learning Team Assignment Hardware and Software Essay This pack of NTC 362 Week 4 Learning Team Assignment Hardware and Software Paper comprises: Time Division Multiple Access, Frequency Division, Multiple Access, and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Computer Science General Computer Science Write a 3- to 5-page paper comparing the advantages of Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, as used in wireless mobile communications. Define the technical details of each access method, then compare their strengths and weaknesses in system use. Address the following: Explain radio frequency (RF) transmission characteristics. Identify common frequency bands used in current RF communications. Analyze the necessity for different protocols in wireless communications. Compare the challenges of using satellites in end-to-end communications links. There are a lot of things you can do to prepare for college, but it will still hold many surprises for you! This article will offer you some sound advice on how to get through classes, campus life and all the other obstacles that you will encounter in your efforts to reach graduation. This pack of NTC 362 Week 4 Learning Team Assignment Hardware and Software Paper comprises: Time Division Multiple Access, Frequency Division, Multiple Access, and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Computer Science General Computer Science Write a 3- to 5-page paper comparing the advantages of Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), CodeÃ Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, as used in wireless mobile communications. Define the technical details of each access method, then compare their strengths and weaknesses in system use. For downloading more tutorials visit https://bitly.com/12BtkCD There are a lot of things you can do to prepare for college, but it will still hold many surprises for you! This article will offer you some sound advice on how to get through classes, campus life and all the other obstacles that you will encounter in your efforts to reach graduation. Computer Science General Computer Science Write a 3- to 5-page paper comparing the advantages of Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, as used in wireless mobile communications. Define the technical details of each access method, then compare their strengths and weaknesses in system use. Address the following: Explain radio frequency (RF) transmission characteristics. Identify common frequency bands used in current RF communications.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Database System Development Exam Adam Warsame Course: FDSc Computing Module Title: Database Systems Assignment Title: Database Systems Assessment Introduction The task for this assignment is to develop a database for a local garden centre. To understand the system better and what way it should operate; it was a good idea to review other examples of databases online. From these reviewed examples, was able to gather a rough understanding of what the database should withhold. Analysis The following tables were chosen for this database: Customers:- Customers table is used to hold all the vital information about a customer, such as: full name, address, email and feedback/reviews. Delivery:- Delivery table is used to withhold all the necessary information needed such as shipping date, order information, arrival date and delivery company. Plants:- Plants table is used to store all the information about plants such as popular name, type, features, description etc. Orders:- Orders table is used to hold all the information needed such as order date, delivery information, plant quantities and total price. The following tables (including attributes) were required as a minimum: Customers table; Full Name Address Email Feedback Deliveries table; Order information Shipping date Arrival date Delivery company Plant table; Garden Plant case Latin name Popular name Colour of foliage Colour of flowers Flowering period Height Spread Type of plant Full description and more Orders table; Order date Delivery information Plants quantities Plant prices The database will let staff/admins have a range of rights over the system and will be able to do things such as, edit plant list, create plant list, delete plant list, oversee customer details, monitor orders and check delivery information. Customers will also be able to do a range of things such as, register, make orders, check available plants and choose plants according to its type, attributes or position. Basic commands like edit, delete or save will allow the customer and staff members to quickly accustom to the database and discover things while doing so. As this is an SQL database, we can automatically assume that it will be constantly in development; both in expanding and editing form; which are the simplest of objectives for this type of database. A backup option is implemented to reduce and in due course; stop data loss. Simple password protection will also safeguard customers and staff from identity theft. The requirements are to create a database for a local garden centre called Ã¢â¬Å"Lincoln Garden CentreÃ¢â¬ . The system should provide the selling facilities, oversee and keep track of customer, plants, orders and staff. Below there is a data flow diagram which displays how the system will allow the customers/users to make orders and what type of processes are included until they have their order. Once the user has registered in the database, they will have the opportunity to scroll through the list of plants and/or select the exact features in which they are interested in most. When they finally decide about their order, they will be able to place an order which in turn will then be seen by a staff member who can store the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s order and shipping details and allocate them in the order table. Customers will be able track their orders and identify the estimate dispatch/delivery dates. When the orders are released, the staff can update the plants list if necessary. The whole system is built for this and will easily be able to trace orders, most popular plants, inventory and all related operations. Entity-Relational Model Normalisation 1NF 1NF is the most basic of all the normalisation processes but 1NF can only work if all tables have different entity types. Meaning, no relationships between 2 or more can be developed; otherwise it would break the rules for 1NF. The other rule is that all tables need a primary key, or else that would also go against the rules. 2NF One of the rules within 2NF process is that, only 1 row can have the same details stored. For example, when searching for a postcode, it would also show the town, county etc. To get around this then postcode will need to be created in its own table (postcode being the primary key also a foreign key in other tables) thus completing the need for relations in 2NF. 3NF Values that have the potential to be changed, in a 3NF database, need to be within a table, as a single order may alter the stock levels by creating an order. If not removed, the normalisation rules cannot be met. Within a 3NF system there shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be any rows/columns that have the exact same information; this is because it should go into a new table. SQL statements for implementation and manipulating database 1) Database: `199209-garden` 2) CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS `Customers` ( `Customer_ID` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, `Full Name` varchar(25) NOT NULL, `Address` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `Email` varchar(50) NOT NULL, `Feedback ` varchar(255) DEFAULT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (`Customer_ID`) ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1 AUTO_INCREMENT=13 ; data for table `Customers` 3) INSERT INTO `Customers` (`Customer_ID`, `Full Name`, `Address`, `Email`, `Feedback/Reviews`) VALUES (1, Jo Millan, 7 Windsor Road, CHESEFIELD, FH1 9LA, [emailprotected], NULL), (2, Harry Hugo, 4 Colywn Bay Road, WANEKE, BA91 8FS , [emailprotected], NULL), (3, Alice Payton, 2 Moor Way, PRESTATYN, NF44 1GB, [emailprotected], NULL), (4, Paul Hudson, 19 Johnno Rd, POSSING, PV33 0FLL, [emailprotected], NULL), (5, Tessa Godknock, 79 Butler Lane, HAHISON, DC10 5LF, [emailprotected], NULL), (6, Abdi Armed, 41 Wool Rd, GONZAGAE, BF35 64S, [emailprotected], Nice website!), (7, Masteran Katrina, 3 Bopping Rd, BEALUMONT, FP3 8TE, [emailprotected], NULL), (8, Ryan Starr, 99 Trevor Lane, LOUIS, ZX25 4GL, [emailprotected], NULL), (9, Ben Augustine, 61 Llaneli Street, BALLYMENA, OA38 8FB, [emailprotected], NULL); ); CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS `Delivery` ( `Delivery_ID` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, `Shipping Date` datetime NOT NULL, `Delivery Information` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `Arrival Date` datetime NOT NULL, `Delivery Company` varchar(255) NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (`Delivery_ID`) ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1 AUTO_INCREMENT=5 ; data for table `Delivery` INSERT INTO `Delivery` (`Delivery_ID`, `Shipping Date`, `Delivery Information`, `Arrival Date`, `Delivery Company`) VALUES (1, 2011-04-16 15:00:00, Order_ID 1, 2011-04-22 12:00:00, Royal mail. 1st class), (2, 2012-10-21 14:00:00, Order Number 2, 2012-11-07 14:00:00, Ups), (3, 2012-01-11 11:00:00, Order Number 2, 2012-01-22 13:00:00, Royal mail. 2nd class), (4, 2013-11-09 13:00:00, Order Number 3, 2013-11-30 12:00:00, Ups); ); CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS `Orders` ( `Order_ID` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, `Order date` datetime NOT NULL, `Order information` text NOT NULL, `Plant quantities` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `Price` varchar(255) NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (`Order_ID`) ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1 AUTO_INCREMENT=5 ; data for table `Orders` INSERT INTO `Orders` (`Order_ID`, `Order date`, `Order information`, `Plant quantities`, `Price`) VALUES (1, 2013-01-10 00:00:00, Rosa Falstaff, Balkan cranesbill., 1, 21.98), (2, 2012-12-28 13:00:00, Abyssinian gladiolus,Ginger lily,Striped bloody cranesbill, 1, 31.89), (3, 2013-01-07 00:00:00, Skyscraper lily, 2, 7.98), (4, 2013-01-07 18:00:00, Striped bloody cranesbill, 10, 79.90); Table structure for table `Plants` CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS `Plants` ( `Plant_ID` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, `Name` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `Latin Name` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `Type` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `Colour` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `Features` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `Flowering Season` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `Scented/Unscented` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `Groundcover` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `Sun Level` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `Soil Type` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `Orientation` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `Special conditions` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `Position` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `Description` varchar(5000) NOT NULL, `Price` varchar(255) NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (`Plant_ID`) ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1 COMMENT=Plants Table AUTO_INCREMENT=11 ; data for table `Plants` INSERT INTO `Plants` (`Plant_ID`, `Name`, `Latin Name`, `Type`, `Colour`, `Features`, `Flowering Season`, `Scented/Unscented`, `Groundcover`, `Sun Level`, `Soil Type`, `Orientation`, `Special conditions`, `Position`, `Description`, `Price`) VALUES (1, Rosa Falstaff, Ausverse, Rose, Purple, Excellent cut-flowers, Summer, Scented, No, Full sun, Fertile, humus-rich, moist, well-drained soil, North, No special conditions, Front of border, One of the best crimson/purple roses bred to date. The large, cupped, double flowers have a powerful old rose fragrance. The rich, dark crimson flowers eventually turn to a lovely rich purple colour., 13.99), (2, Narcissus , Canaliculatus, Bulbs, White petals with a yellow cup, Low maintenance, Spring, Scented, Yes, Full sun or partial shade, Well-drained soil, South, No special conditions, Next to an entrance, windowboxes, front of border, in a pot, Plant this at the front of your border, in a pot or in your windowboxes where you can enjoy the small, scented flowers up close. This variety produces several flowers on each stem so they are really colourful. The flowers have white petals with a small yellow cup and they look best in bold clumps., 3.49), (3, Balkan cranesbill, Geranium macrorrhizum, Perennials, Pink, Non poisonous, May to September, Aromatic foliage, Yes, Full sun or partial shade, Fertile, well-drained soil, West, Dry shade, Front of border, Clusters of small, saucer shaped, purplish pink flowers are held on slender stems above strong aromatic, light green leaves from May to September. This is one of the most versatile and useful geraniums, as it will thrive even in dry shade. The deeply cut, semi-evergreen foliage also spreads quickly to form low hummocks that suppress weeds for most of the year. It looks lovely with strongly shaped perennials, such as bergenia, or polemonium, or planted en masse under trees, and is also valuable for hiding the foliage of spring bulbs as they die down. The leaves often turn red in the autumn too., 7.99), (4, Sulphurea, Oenothera stricta, Evening primrose, Creamy yellow, Non poisonous, May to September, Evening, No, Sun, Acid, South, Coastal, Middle of border, Reliably flowering for many months, this showy evening primrose may be short-lived, but it usually self-seeds very freely. It produces large, pale yellow, almost cream flowers that will open in the evening and fill the air with their incredible, heady scent. It is very tolerant of poor soils and is generally very easy to grow., 1.59), (5, Clematis, Clematis cirrhosa var. purpurascens, Climbers, Cream, Winter colour, All year round, Scented, No, Sun, Light sandy, West, No special conditions, Walls and fences, Scented, bell-like, cream winter flowers heavily speckled inside with reddish-brown freckles and glossy, dark-green leaves. This evergreen clematis is ideal for training over a sunny pergola or arch. This is the best way to appreciate the distinctive freckle-like markings, which are less visible when the plant is grown against a wall., 14.69), (6, Skyscraper lily, Lilium Bonbini, Bulbs, Cream, Non poisonous, July, Scented, No, Full sun with light dappled shade at its base, Fertile, reliably moist soil, South, No special conditions, Middle of border, full sun with light dappled shade at its base, 3.99), (7, Ginger lily, Hedychium densiflorum, Bulbs, Orange-red, Architectural foliage, July and August, Scented, No, Full sun or partial shade, Rich, moist soil, South, No special conditions, Middle of border, Forming a slowly spreading clump of lustrous foliage, this compact ginger lily is one of the hardier forms. The slender spikes of fragrant, orange-red flowers appear early in the season and tend to open in one impressive flush., 5.99), (8, Abyssinian gladiolus, Gladiolus murielae, Bulbs, White, Non poisonous, Augsut to October, Scented, No, Full sun, Moist, well-drained soil, South, No special conditions, Middle of border, Delightlful spikes of nodding, funnel-shaped, highly fragrant white flowers, with a prominent burgundy blotch at the base of each petal, seem to dance on the breeze at the ends of their slender stems from late summer. It is a delightfully elegant plant that is ideal for adding movement to a sunny border. Plant it in clumps throughout the beds, or pot them up and keep them on the patio next to a seating area or often-used pathway, where you will be sure to make the most of the heady scent. , 4.99), (9, Lily, Lilium Dimension, Bulbs, Deepest red, Non poisonous, July to August, Scented, No, Partial shade, Moist, acidic soil, South, No special conditions, Middle of border, Branching, near-black stems carry clusters of upward-facing, dark claret-coloured flowers from midsummer. An asiatic hybrid, the tepals that make up the trumpet-shaped flowers, become more re-curved as the flower ages., 5.99), (10, Striped bloody cranesbill, Geranium sanguineum var. striatum, Mediterranean, Light purple, Non poisonous, June to August, Unscented, No, Full sun or partial shade, Fertile, well-drained soil, West, Dry shade, In a rock garden, fertile, well-drained soil, 7.99); ); CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS `Staff` ( `Staff_ID` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, `Full Name` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `Address` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `Phone number` varchar(255) NOT NULL, `DOB` date NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (`Staff_ID`) ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1 AUTO_INCREMENT=8 ; data for table `Staff` INSERT INTO `Staff` (`Staff_ID`, `Full Name`, `Address`, `Phone number`, `DOB`) VALUES (1, Dean Beale, 3 Crennop Road, CRENSHAW, C52 4ND, 077 8192 8493, 1973-11-19), (2, Isabell Edwards, 29 Beddie Road, PORTERS, CA1 0AS, 079 1028 9487, 1965-01-01), (3, Coutinho, 8 Hohlong Street, TREVENDALEIO, KL41 1LE, 070 5878 0006, 1966-02-17), (4, Mirak Klose, 81 Trollige Road, MAGGIE, DG7 2AH, 075 4832 1123, 1988-10-08), (5, Ã¢â¬ËToni KroosÃ¢â¬â¢, 4 Menaos Lane, PORT TRAK, PA4 1FD, 078 5466 6665, 1956-05-31), (6, El AhmadiÃ¢â¬â¢, 49 Kosovo Street, YEOVILSON, NG1 2HG, 077 5477 7908, 1985-09-13), (7, Gary Hooper, 53 Johnsonia Road, PITIFALL, PF15 3VB, 079 2122 5767, 1990-11-02); 4) DELETE FROM Ã¢â¬ËGARDEN-CENTERÃ¢â¬â¢,Ã¢â¬â¢CUSTOMERSÃ¢â¬â¢ WHERE Ã¢â¬ËCustomerÃ¢â¬â¢,Ã¢â¬â¢Customer_IDÃ¢â¬â¢=1 UPDATE `GARDEN-CENTER`.`Customers` SET `Address` = 7 Windsor Road, CHESEFIELD, FH1 9LA WHERE `Customers`.`Customer_ID` = 1; 5) CREATE USER Staff@localhost IDENTIFIED BY GardenCenter; GRANT INSERT, DELETE, GRANT OPTION ON PLANTS TO USER STAFF 6) CREATE USER Staff2@localhost IDENTIFIED BY GardenCenter; GRANT INSERT ON Customers TO USER STAFF2 7) REVOKE INSERT ON PLANTS FROM user STAFF
Saturday, July 20, 2019
CellphoneÃ¢â¬â¢s use by students at school has become a controversial issue for the educational system in today's society. Most teachers and school administrators believe that cellphones are disruptive. Although school officials ruled policies to prohibit using the cellphones during class time, students carry them all the time in class. The text messaging, calling and even browsing the net during class time caused them to be distracted and be uninterested in learning. In other word, students who pay too much attention to their cellphones become uninterested in learning during class lectures and they would like socializing more than listening to the lectures . This behavior can also affect others in class and distract them. Many school boards have been worried that cellphones can impede education, therefore they banned using it. Students should have a controlled environment to be able to learn successfully. Cellphones should be banned in schools because they create distraction in cl ass, they can be used for cheating on the tests and privacy invasion issue. In many schools cellphones are banned because it is known as a disruption and distraction tool in classes. Allowing cellphones in classes is not a simple controversial issue as long as most teens have one of them and wherever we turn we cut them through text messaging and calling. Although, cellphones made our life convenient, they are disruptive in some parts. It happens all the time that someone makes a loud conversation in a bus or store and annoys other people. At schools the distraction may even be greater than public places. Students that carry phones with them in classes can cause distraction among the other students because sometimes they forget to turn off their phones... ...safety and they can cause the privacy be taken away. Lately, cellphones have become a big issue for schools and they have a big role on learning process. Teachers argue that cellphones are distraction in classrooms and they should be banned. Cellphones make students to text, play games and act irresponsibly during the time when they should study. This causes them to be distracted and not to pay full attention to the class. Cellphones can be also used as a cheating device as long as it makes possible for students to accesses to the internet or by taking pictures of the exams charge other students. Camera phones can invade privacy and safety in schools since some students take and spread inappropriate pictures of other students in locker rooms and restrooms. Cell phones impact education and schools, therefore they should not be allowed to use in schools.
Friday, July 19, 2019
fulfillment is what people live for, without it how can a person live? A failed search for self-fulfillment often leads to death. Demonstrated in A Tale of Two Cites, Hamlet, and A Death of a Salesman, each novel includes one character that struggles to fulfill his life, which results in death. Self-fulfillment can include being loved, wealthy, happiness, remembered, respected, or even a being hero. Sadly if none of these objectives is met, the character seems to think death is the only way option. Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing great will ever be achieved without great men, and men are great only if they are determined to be soÃ¢â¬ as said by Charles DeGaulle, relates to each character in the three novels that they were never determined to improve their life. The first example of failed self-fulfillment resulting in death is Willy LomanÃ¢â¬â¢s from the novel A Death of a Salesman. Loman fails to be Ã¢â¬Å"well-likedÃ¢â¬ and also fails to provide for his family and decides that the only way to provide for them is to commit suicide so they can collect the insurance money. Loman spent most of his life trying to convince his family that he is the best in the business and he wants his sons, Biff and Happy to be the same. Willy tells his sons that with his success heÃ¢â¬â¢ll be Ã¢â¬Å"Bigger than Uncle Charley! Because Charley is not -- liked. He's liked, but he's not -- well liked.Ã¢â¬ (Miller, I.iii) Little do Biff and Happy know, that their father isnÃ¢â¬â¢t liked at all, heÃ¢â¬â¢s just trying to fulfill one of his goals in life, being Ã¢â¬Å"well-likedÃ¢â¬ . Later when Loman is fired from his job he starts to think about all the hard work heÃ¢â¬â¢s contributed to wanting to become successful and then concludes that, Ã¢â¬Å" Funny, y'know? After all the highways, and the trains, and the appointments, and the years, you end up worth more dead than alive.Ã¢â¬ (Miller, II.iv) Now Willy starts to see death as the only way to provide for his family, but he also believes that with his death, heÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to prove to others that he was Ã¢â¬Å"well likedÃ¢â¬ because his funeral will be massive. Ã¢â¬ Oh, Ben, that's the whole beauty of it! I see it like a diamond, shining in the dark, hard and rough, that I can pick up and touch in my hand. Not like -- like an appointment! This would not be another damned-fool appointment, Ben, and it changes all the aspects.
When a child is diagnosed with autism, one thing that is noted is the lack of eye contact. Music therapy works to help this in numerous ways. When the therapist starts at the childÃ¢â¬â¢s level, according to the British Colombian Music therapy association, they can base what needs to be done and how to do it off of where the child is and after many sessions, where they are now (M-7). According to a report in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Ã¢â¬Å"Eye contact Ã¢â¬â this refers to an event where child looks at therapist while playing, manipulatingÃ¢â¬ (E-7). A way that in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders is using music therapy instead of play therapy as it increases turn taking and eye contact more than when play therapy is used (E-4). Eye Contact was even proved to be held longer during this study when the child was participating in music therapy activities than when they were in regular play activities(E-1). When a mother was quoted on the British Columbian Music Therapy website, she stated that the Ã¢â¬Å"skills and abilities acquired in the music therapy setting generalize widely across situations. VII. Turn Taking The music therapist has to reach the child to be able to interact with them and help them. When the child feels free and unthreatened, the British Colombian Music Therapy association says that they get more out of the session. When they are not being told donÃ¢â¬â¢t this, donÃ¢â¬â¢t do that, and NO for everything they do to express themselves. Music therapy gives them that way to express themselves without being yelled at and told NO (M-8). The Tympo and Rhythm of the instruments is not just a way for the children express themselves, it even stops reminding them of when they were in the womb. The British Colombia MTA states that the tympo and Rhythm gets the child to progress from the rocking motion when they were in the womb and as a baby. It gives them a new independent feel (M-6). As music therapy is one of the cutting edge therapies according to Ken Siri and Tony Lyons, this helps develop motor skills for the child to interact with the instruments (A-2). According to an article in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Ã¢â¬Å"Turn Taking Ã¢â¬â This refers to an event involving a sequence of turns to play alternating between the child and Therapist.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Gallery's Barbarians The alma of Susan Van Canteen Gallagher article, Ã¢â¬Å"Torture and the Novel: J. M. Cotter's Ã¢â¬ËWalling for the Barbarians'Ã¢â¬ Is to untangle further what the book Walling for the Barbarians is saying about the human psyche and how the novel analyzes imperialism. By finding its fear on the issues about ethics and violence and discovering the bounds of human brutality, Waiting for the Barbarians tests humankind and imperialism in several ways. Offering a psychoanalytic debate of Waiting for the Barbarians, this reading concentrates on the Influence of fear in unman psyche and Imperialism self-destructive Influence.How far-offer and anxiety can go and how far affiliates of society can follow a blind power Is the mall fear of this essay. As Cotter's Waiting for the Barbarians is a figurative novel, this essay will try to understand the symbols created in relative to the pressures raised in the novel. The analysis of the accounts raised in the book, may be b roken down into the following mall modules. After gang brief evidence about the writer and the book In the overview, the essay will carry on with observing the characters as targets of theEmpire, which symbolizes the imperialist system. The first object is the barbarian girl, one in which will be studied in relation to her individualism as an outsider and as an enemy of the Empire. The Magistrate as the second victim and his self-journey will be perceived in relative to his calculation to come to be the other. Then in the next section, the Empire as the prey of itself and its self-destructive power will be recognized. At the conclusion, the knack to challenge Issues will be discussed.J_M_ Cottage Is a South African writer born In Cape Town In 1940. In relative to the writers experience, it is important to note that, this essay takes in thought Cotter's objection against imperialism and makes an examination of Waiting for the Barbarians depending on his defiance towards it. I think i n his novel Cottage disapproves of the imaginary unknown Empire and by doing this actually he takes away from Imperialist systems. Waiting for the Barbarians Is a novel about the impression of the torture chamber on the life of a man of principles.The man of principles Is the main hero of the novel who Is an elderly Magistrate living In a two order township which is remote from other words, of an indeterminate Empire. He has accountability and authority of keeping the outpost for the provision of the Empire but then loses his authority when the Empire sent armed forces to defend the town from the barbarians. The protagonist disputes the unjust conduct of the barbarians even though the Empire perceives them as a hazardous tribe getting ready to attack the base and clash against the Empire.When he returns an arrested barbarian woman, he expresses sympathy and cares to her people, but is blamed for reason and imprisoned like the barbarians. He becomes the subject of cruelty, shame and suffering. What is stimulating in the novel is that, the leading protagonist, at the end of his story, also turns out to be the other likewise the barbarian girl he cherished and aided In the beginning of his story. The Magistrate questions the power of the Empire's in which by this action, his process of otherness begins.To unite the girl with her tribe he reaches a decision to make an excursion and pass through the remote desert to the barbarians which is thought to attack the outpost. Through the journey in the desert his limits to the Empire comes loose and when he enters the realm of the other lots of things change in his mind. Similar to this subconsciously hard Journey, he also concludes a complex psychological Journey of unraveling himself from the Empire and from its ethical understanding.After his return, his otherness is completed while he is now viewed as a traitor and he is look upon as guilt-ridden as the barbarians without any doubts since the other is always the guil ty one. The Magistrate is essentially comfortable with his arrest while his otherness plaits his destiny and responsibility to the Empire and as the other and as the focus of torture and humiliation, the purification of his soul starts which he longs for. The Magistrate not once closes his eyes to the ferocity the Empire is expressing on the barbarians like the other members of the society.Although he knows that he will receive misfortune, he never acts as if he is assisting the act of torture. Therefore because of his ethics, he is corrected to be the other in his society. Nobody but the Magistrate is sore to the violence exemplified by the man of the Empire, Colonel Joel, UT Magistrate makes his ethical standpoint. As a consequence it can be said that, the system drives every character, individual and idea different than its prejudice, to its limits and penalizes every struggle to its self. Even if the struggle is against violence.I think by displaying how a group of people, with the authority to put fear in people's souls, can direct what is right and wrong, Cottage critiques the submissive and sightless members of the civilization. In the novel, how people can Just go with the crowd without even thinking once, is demonstrated very clearly. Even though people of the town knew for years that the barbarians were kind and mild people and even though Just like the Magistrate they know that truly they would not attack the town while it is not their style, they all watched the viciousness of the Empire's army embodying on them.More amazingly, although the crowd appreciated and liked the Magistrate when he was in the power and although he is one of them, they overlooked the agony he experienced. Furthermore they watch his suffering; the hanging, like observing a theatrical performance. Moreover they laugh. This clearly wows that fear from the other, results in carelessness and blindness. The novel in fact portrays the psychological self-journey of a man. His mind is like the antiquity of the town. The Magistrate's pastime is to excavate the skeletons of ancient houses and remains.He tries to comprehend the characters on wooden slips he found. Throughout the book, the pre-symbolic figures are always a mystery for him the same way his unconscious state of mind is a mystery. I think his diggings and findings of some ancient origins which he does not understand their meanings of, is symbol of self-discovery through his own past and mind. The ancient civilized society can signify his unconsciousness and the external; yet the reality he is living can symbolize his consciousness.Similarly, in the old characters, he believes he finds some hints about himself in his dreams. The olden writings are not available to his conscious as well as his unconscious. Through his dreams and his relationship with the barbarian girl. The Magistrate attempts to track the altered and tortured figure of the barbarian girl both in his dreams and in his washing ritual. I n accord to the Magistrate, the barbarian girl's body is a script to be deciphered in the same way the characters on the wooden slips he had excavated had been deciphered.Through her body and the ancient script he found, he actually touches on himself and his own longings, uncertainties and suppressed feelings. The matters observed and the pressures raised in Waiting for the Barbarians, cannot be cast off so effortlessly. Throughout this paper, I did my best to focus on how Cottage tests imperialism without even declaring its name through describing the self-journey and the inner self of a man of ethics.I reason that Cotter's use of torture chamber and his complete account of viciousness, agony and terror is the rebellious side of the book. The effect of terror and viciousness, both portrayed psychically and mentally in the story by the tortured figure of the barbarian girl and the account of the Magistrates mental state. Expressing torture to the narrator of the book is the way, wh ich makes the reader to observe the cruelty of the system. Cottage in reality creates a satirical comment about imperialism at the end of the novel by exposing the Empire's self-destruction.I would like to end my essay by giving the message that the Magistrate gives to Colonel Joel at the end of the book, in which I believe sums up the books missive which the author is giving to all societies and civilizations. I am saying all societies because in the book the location, the period or values of the Empire and the outpost is not stated. Likewise, excluding Colonel Joel, the characters in the book do not have names. Even the Magistrate, the main protagonist, is without name. He is the Magistrate. I reflect that by not centralizing and not naming the characters, theEmpire gives the reader a casual look to recognize with that culture and with the characters of the story more effortlessly. This vagueness styles the book to expose to all kind of imaginings and creates an accessibility to a ll civilizations. Correspondingly, as Cottage makes the story of fear and distress, he calls on every individual one by one, and therefore calls out to every society and culture. The Magistrate: Ã¢â¬Å"The crime that is latent in us we must inflict on ourselves,Ã¢â¬ I say. I nod and nod, driving the message at home. Ã¢â¬Å"Not on others, Ã¢â¬Å"l say: I repeat the words, pointing my chest, pointing at his. Daniel Defoe Gallery's Barbarians The alma of Susan Van Canteen Gallagher article, Ã¢â¬Å"Torture and the Novel: J. M. Cotter's Ã¢â¬ËWalling for the Barbarians'Ã¢â¬ Is to untangle further what the book Walling for the Barbarians is saying about the human psyche and how the novel analyzes imperialism. By finding its fear on the issues about ethics and violence and discovering the bounds of human brutality, Waiting for the Barbarians tests humankind and imperialism in several ways. Offering a psychoanalytic debate of Waiting for the Barbarians, this reading concentrates on the Influence of fear in unman psyche and Imperialism self-destructive Influence.How far-offer and anxiety can go and how far affiliates of society can follow a blind power Is the mall fear of this essay. As Cotter's Waiting for the Barbarians is a figurative novel, this essay will try to understand the symbols created in relative to the pressures raised in the novel. The analysis of the accounts raised in the book, may be b roken down into the following mall modules. After gang brief evidence about the writer and the book In the overview, the essay will carry on with observing the characters as targets of theEmpire, which symbolizes the imperialist system. The first object is the barbarian girl, one in which will be studied in relation to her individualism as an outsider and as an enemy of the Empire. The Magistrate as the second victim and his self-journey will be perceived in relative to his calculation to come to be the other. Then in the next section, the Empire as the prey of itself and its self-destructive power will be recognized. At the conclusion, the knack to challenge Issues will be discussed.J_M_ Cottage Is a South African writer born In Cape Town In 1940. In relative to the writers experience, it is important to note that, this essay takes in thought Cotter's objection against imperialism and makes an examination of Waiting for the Barbarians depending on his defiance towards it. I think i n his novel Cottage disapproves of the imaginary unknown Empire and by doing this actually he takes away from Imperialist systems. Waiting for the Barbarians Is a novel about the impression of the torture chamber on the life of a man of principles.The man of principles Is the main hero of the novel who Is an elderly Magistrate living In a two order township which is remote from other words, of an indeterminate Empire. He has accountability and authority of keeping the outpost for the provision of the Empire but then loses his authority when the Empire sent armed forces to defend the town from the barbarians. The protagonist disputes the unjust conduct of the barbarians even though the Empire perceives them as a hazardous tribe getting ready to attack the base and clash against the Empire.When he returns an arrested barbarian woman, he expresses sympathy and cares to her people, but is blamed for reason and imprisoned like the barbarians. He becomes the subject of cruelty, shame and suffering. What is stimulating in the novel is that, the leading protagonist, at the end of his story, also turns out to be the other likewise the barbarian girl he cherished and aided In the beginning of his story. The Magistrate questions the power of the Empire's in which by this action, his process of otherness begins.To unite the girl with her tribe he reaches a decision to make an excursion and pass through the remote desert to the barbarians which is thought to attack the outpost. Through the journey in the desert his limits to the Empire comes loose and when he enters the realm of the other lots of things change in his mind. Similar to this subconsciously hard Journey, he also concludes a complex psychological Journey of unraveling himself from the Empire and from its ethical understanding.After his return, his otherness is completed while he is now viewed as a traitor and he is look upon as guilt-ridden as the barbarians without any doubts since the other is always the guil ty one. The Magistrate is essentially comfortable with his arrest while his otherness plaits his destiny and responsibility to the Empire and as the other and as the focus of torture and humiliation, the purification of his soul starts which he longs for. The Magistrate not once closes his eyes to the ferocity the Empire is expressing on the barbarians like the other members of the society.Although he knows that he will receive misfortune, he never acts as if he is assisting the act of torture. Therefore because of his ethics, he is corrected to be the other in his society. Nobody but the Magistrate is sore to the violence exemplified by the man of the Empire, Colonel Joel, UT Magistrate makes his ethical standpoint. As a consequence it can be said that, the system drives every character, individual and idea different than its prejudice, to its limits and penalizes every struggle to its self. Even if the struggle is against violence.I think by displaying how a group of people, with the authority to put fear in people's souls, can direct what is right and wrong, Cottage critiques the submissive and sightless members of the civilization. In the novel, how people can Just go with the crowd without even thinking once, is demonstrated very clearly. Even though people of the town knew for years that the barbarians were kind and mild people and even though Just like the Magistrate they know that truly they would not attack the town while it is not their style, they all watched the viciousness of the Empire's army embodying on them.More amazingly, although the crowd appreciated and liked the Magistrate when he was in the power and although he is one of them, they overlooked the agony he experienced. Furthermore they watch his suffering; the hanging, like observing a theatrical performance. Moreover they laugh. This clearly wows that fear from the other, results in carelessness and blindness. The novel in fact portrays the psychological self-journey of a man. His mind is like the antiquity of the town. The Magistrate's pastime is to excavate the skeletons of ancient houses and remains.He tries to comprehend the characters on wooden slips he found. Throughout the book, the pre-symbolic figures are always a mystery for him the same way his unconscious state of mind is a mystery. I think his diggings and findings of some ancient origins which he does not understand their meanings of, is symbol of self-discovery through his own past and mind. The ancient civilized society can signify his unconsciousness and the external; yet the reality he is living can symbolize his consciousness.Similarly, in the old characters, he believes he finds some hints about himself in his dreams. The olden writings are not available to his conscious as well as his unconscious. Through his dreams and his relationship with the barbarian girl. The Magistrate attempts to track the altered and tortured figure of the barbarian girl both in his dreams and in his washing ritual. I n accord to the Magistrate, the barbarian girl's body is a script to be deciphered in the same way the characters on the wooden slips he had excavated had been deciphered.Through her body and the ancient script he found, he actually touches on himself and his own longings, uncertainties and suppressed feelings. The matters observed and the pressures raised in Waiting for the Barbarians, cannot be cast off so effortlessly. Throughout this paper, I did my best to focus on how Cottage tests imperialism without even declaring its name through describing the self-journey and the inner self of a man of ethics.I reason that Cotter's use of torture chamber and his complete account of viciousness, agony and terror is the rebellious side of the book. The effect of terror and viciousness, both portrayed psychically and mentally in the story by the tortured figure of the barbarian girl and the account of the Magistrates mental state. Expressing torture to the narrator of the book is the way, wh ich makes the reader to observe the cruelty of the system. Cottage in reality creates a satirical comment about imperialism at the end of the novel by exposing the Empire's self-destruction.I would like to end my essay by giving the message that the Magistrate gives to Colonel Joel at the end of the book, in which I believe sums up the books missive which the author is giving to all societies and civilizations. I am saying all societies because in the book the location, the period or values of the Empire and the outpost is not stated. Likewise, excluding Colonel Joel, the characters in the book do not have names. Even the Magistrate, the main protagonist, is without name. He is the Magistrate. I reflect that by not centralizing and not naming the characters, theEmpire gives the reader a casual look to recognize with that culture and with the characters of the story more effortlessly. This vagueness styles the book to expose to all kind of imaginings and creates an accessibility to a ll civilizations. Correspondingly, as Cottage makes the story of fear and distress, he calls on every individual one by one, and therefore calls out to every society and culture. The Magistrate: Ã¢â¬Å"The crime that is latent in us we must inflict on ourselves,Ã¢â¬ I say. I nod and nod, driving the message at home. Ã¢â¬Å"Not on others, Ã¢â¬Å"l say: I repeat the words, pointing my chest, pointing at his.