Saturday, August 31, 2019
Robin Matter's was an extraordinary young person; a young woman who is physically short and nuggets, but graceful and well balanced, who is normally calm and quiet but loves to win and who is at her best in the toughest of situations . She saves Lee's life when he is shot and keeps Elli going when they strike to rescue Lee. She is a leader, and not Just when the going is tough. When Elli or Homer are active, she will let them run the show, but when leadership is needed, she will provide, even in Ã¢â¬Ënormal' situations.She is also compassionate and caring, sometimes in a big way. But often Just little things that make a big difference. At the beginning of the novel we are introduced to Robin as a responsible, reliable teenager who wasn't able to commit to the camp out without the conformation and permission from her strict parents. Elli finds Robin's parents' trust issues in their daughter quite amusing, Ã¢â¬Å"The funny thing about it was that if parents ever had a daughter they c ould trust it was the Matter's and Robin, but they didn't seem to have worked it out yet.The biggest problem she was ever likely to give them was being late to church. And that'd probably be because she was helping a boy scout across the road. Robin was fairly quiet and serious. She got effort certificates at school every year, and she was heavily religious. Though underneath the coax of this surface, Robin was an extremely determined, strong minded person, who could be highly competitive at times. Throughout the novel we see Robin progress and slowly, bit by bit; and she cracks the shell of the quiet obedient good girl she used to be, before the invasion.Robin's major character traits stay pretty much the same and she is still content to keep her morality throughout the war but we do notice small changes and impacts the war has ad on Robin. For one, Robin emerges as a leader. She was able to rise above the others when they were all having emotional breakdowns as their world was cru mbling around them, trying to comprehend the idea of an invasion on their own soil. She was no longer the small quiet girl who always carried out good deeds and lived a typical Wireman life.The invasion had created a certain strength within Robin that only really shed light in her past life when she was intently competing in sport. This strength allowed her to undertake tasks without a moment's hesitation in times of life or death situations. Robin skipped over the next bit pretty quickly but it's one of the reasons for writing all this down, because I want people to know stuff like this, how brave Robin was that night.She picked up the photocopier that sits on a stand near the lottery desk and chucked the whole thing through the door. Then she ran to Lee, heaved him onto her back, across her shoulders, and carried him through the shattered door, kicking out bits of glass as she went. Ã¢â¬ Robin's bravery saved Lee that night of the patrol raid. She turned into a heroin over the course of a night and as well as her commendable bravery and strength in arraying Lee to safety, Robin was able to overcome her fitful fear of blood and needles. I've given him two injections today. It was cool fun. Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬ËRobin! Ã¢â¬Ë I nearly passed out myself, in amazement. Ã¢â¬ËYou faint when people even mention injections! Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬ËYes, I know,' she said, with her head on one side as though she were a botanist studying herself. Ã¢â¬ËIt's funny, isn't it? Ã¢â¬ Overall, I think the drastic effects of the war had flicked a newly found switch within Robin's kind heart. The changes within had shaped her to be resilient in tough situations and had consequently saved the lives of friends.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Colonialism as the colonization of consciousness': using at least two case-studies from different periods, discuss how an interest in religion may contribute to understandings of colonial and imperial encounters. David Bliss 1 May, 2013 university of Leister Word count: 2,984 Introduction An Interest In religion may contribute to understanding of colonial and Imperial encounters by providing a window into the daily lives at colonies that can augment other sources or stand on its own.Both historical and archaeological evidence is available from periods of colonialism and this evidence can help us understand how effective these efforts were at impacting the lives of both the colonizers and colonized, and the relations between colonial and Imperial forces. Colonial history Is by no means homogeneous and each case needs to be looked at In Its own light Ã¢â¬â taking Into account the motives of all players, the geography, and pre-existing systems.Indeed, even at a certain location, the results varied. This paper examines how religion interplay with colonialism and what was the impact on certain cases to colonizers and the colonized in terms of the Ã¢â¬Ëcolonization f consciousness'. It will attempt to define this term, and then provide examples with varying degrees of relevance on understanding the colonial/lamellar Interplay. Defining the question What is studied? Religion is one area of study in understanding colonial and imperial encounters.It has been identified as one of the three Ã¢â¬Å"MÃ¢â¬ s of imperial encounters: merchants, missionaries, and military (Choppy 2002:45). It provides a more-rounded understanding of colonial and Imperial encounters than as disparate observations. Through religious buildings and Iconography, burials, and the physical trappings of elisions orders and their representatives that are Important material expressions of religion, we have physical remains that, along with historical documents, give us insight into the lives of th e colonized and colonizers.Religious historical and material remains of past societies provide a source of information for the workings of the sacred In social life and, for the purposes of this paper, the workings of how colonial life altered natives and colonists. There has been ritual practices and symbolic systems. This continual interest in religious life has contributed to important theoretical innovations, such as the Comforts colonization f consciousness framework (ROB 2011). What is meant by Ã¢â¬Ëan interest in religion?Archaeologists often assume that ritual is a form of human action that leaves material traces, whereas religion is a more abstract symbolic system consisting of beliefs, myths, and doctrines (Insole 2004). This perception began to change with the advent of more practice-oriented approaches to the anthropology of religion (Boggling 2007). In this paper, I view an Ã¢â¬Ëinterest in religion' as the historical documents and material evidence created by relig ious agents.It can certainly be argued that many of those are secular in nature rather than religious, UT the purpose of this paper is not to define religion, but to look at a broader Ã¢â¬Ëinterest in religion'. In the cases of colonial encounters, the evidence we have is heavily related to missionaries and their mission of conversion in the form of direct historical documents and direct material evidence. Colonialism has been one of the most significant phenomena in the history of humankind in the last three hundred years or so.Religious evidence shows us that Christian missionaries were associated with imperialist expansion and can shed light on the understanding of these encounters. It seems probable, then, that missionaries were significant intermediaries in the construction of global Imperialism in its universalistic dimension. Ã¢â¬Å"Colonization of consciousnessÃ¢â¬ is a process termed by Comfort & Comfort in their study of South Africa (Comfort and Comfort 1991). It is a merging of two words that are, in themselves, broad in interpretation and combined are more-so.As George Miller wrote in 1962, Ã¢â¬Å"Consciousness is a word worn smooth by a million tongues. Ã¢â¬ It is used in many contexts and many interpretations of those contexts. Colonization is broad concept that is not a simple process to define either. For the purposes of this paper, I will use the definition by Lane: Colonization of consciousness is Ã¢â¬Å"the adoption of and adherence to a particular set of beliefs that come to be manifested in the daily workings of a society and the everyday practice of its membersÃ¢â¬ (Lane 2001).This does not mean a complete replacement of pre-existing beliefs and way of life (Williams and Chairman). Colonization of consciousness involves a changing of the daily life. Colonialism and imperialism Ã¢â¬Å"colonize consciousnessÃ¢â¬ by shaping everyday life at a global level, influencing language spoken, the clothes worn, food eaten, and over tim e, arts and culture (Blatant and Burton 2005:1). Answering the Question In some instances, military actions were lock-step with imperial interests, but in many this is not the case. Studying religion will not provide a full understanding of the colonial/imperial interplay.Historian Andrew Porter identifies three separate literatures within which the role of religion has conventionally been considered: imperial historiography, imperial histories of religious/ecclesiastical developments, and, finally, regional or colonial histories (Porter 2004). He sees a need to bridge the historiography gulfs' arising from their relative discreteness. By viewing these missions and empire was more variable and complex than is commonly acknowledged (Keenan 2004: xii-iii). The writings of missionaries often provide an alternative reading to narratives written by colonial employees and military.By studying mission texts, physical evidence, and ritual evidence, we can see how the daily lives of the colo nized and colonizers changed through their interactions. Religious texts shed light on the relationship between colonial and imperial encounters either as agents of those encounters, such as missionaries in China or as hire-parties such as in the colonizing of the Yucatan; at times, in a foreign environment, with foreign languages, laws, and customs to navigate Ã¢â¬â those both of the colonizer and the colonized Ã¢â¬â missionaries' writings provide an insight into the frameworks of the colonial governments amongst which they worked.Evidence needs to be viewed critically when looking to religion to understand colonialism. Large churches housing many native members does not mean their beliefs or daily lives were any different than before. Detailed textual accounts of conversions and missionary successes may not reflect the true consciousness of the datives as that may not have been the goal of the texts or that they written with bias. In many cases, such as Africa and the Yucata n, the number of missionaries was extremely small and the entire operation relied on the perception of success back home.It stands to reason that narratives and official documents idealized the missionary mission and success. We simply cannot be sure how successful the impact of conversion as an act had on changing the consciousness of the population in any significant way or how large a role missionaries actually played in colonization, or that the role was as an agent of empire. To add to the ambiguity, direct texts from native population are often not available to balance these accounts.Historical archaeologists have made major contributions to the understanding of the religion and ritual of peoples who have remained underrepresented (or misrepresented) in the historical record, such as colonized peoples (Hanks 2010). What we also do have evidence of in some cases, such as the Yucatan or China, is the impact Western religion had on contemporary residents. Case Study: Tsarina Sout h Africa: 19th Century In Southern Tsarina Ã¢â¬â chiefly the Dilating and Erelong, Christian missions have laded a role in shaping African consciousness.Although the Christian missionary activity exercised over the South Africans presented itself in purely religious terms, the impact it had and the way it substantially changed the everyday life of the subjects of colonization shows how it was in fact tightly bound with the discourse of modern imperialism itself and how it stepped across the religious sphere and affected other spheres of life. The European colonization of Africa was often less a directly coercive conquest than a persuasive attempt to colonize consciousness, to make people by redefining the taken-for-granted surfaces of their everyday worlds.This is evident in the colonial evangelism among the Southern Tsarina (Comfort and Comfort 1991 : 29). On the one hand, the missionaries openly used all the resources and techniques at their disposal to make an impact on the Af ricans; that is, to convert people through reasoned argument and bend chiefs to their wills, to affect the power embedded in the practices of their culture, practices that were gradually inculcated into the natives even as they refused to hear the gospel and struggled to MIT the impact of colonization on their communities.The material record from missions can be examined as a reflection of the idea of changing cultural imagination and reordering of a conceptual universe. Religion again places a central role here, suggesting Ã¢â¬Å"of the many aspects of the material record that might reflect native conceptual gains, the most revealing are in the record of Christianization processÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦ But again stressing Ã¢â¬Å"archaeologists must be careful not to adopt the simplistic approach of colonial Catholic priests and interpret the material culture of mission ties as manifestations of wither acceptance or rejection of Christianity' (Comfort and Comfort 1991 : 29).Although resistanc e to this mission existed, expressions of resistance do not preclude the colonization of consciousness. A complete replacement of the daily life and beliefs of a host society is not required to bring about a colonization of consciousness. In fact, new forms of defiance to imperial rule could be argued as well to be a change in daily life brought on by the missionaries and imperial agents. The missionaries played a political role in colonizing the natives ND serving as agents for the crown through which the Tsarina were reworked to the measure of capitalist civilization.However, what has to be kept in mind is that primarily the missionaries' side is heard and they have every reason to exclaim their success in converting the consciousness of the Tsarina. In the historical evidence, the Tsarina have little voice to share their side of the story (Comfort 1986). Studying religion in this case alone would not offer a complete picture. Imperial history tells another story of bringing repre sentative government to chiefdoms that, over time, exulted in coercion by British force.The colonial wars stemming from imperial ambitions on trade-routes to India and mineral deposits would not be seen through solely a religious lens. Imperial ideas of the time that pitted European countries against each other who all felt a right to own Ã¢â¬Ënew territories' is an aspect of the colonial/imperial relationship that an interest in religion alone would not evidence. Still, an interest in religion contributes to the study of colonization in South Africa and helps our understanding of the dynamics between colonial and imperial forces.Case Study: 19th and 20th Century Missions to China There are fundamental differences between Tsarina society and a large-scale bureaucratic state like China in the nineteenth century. Many of the elements identified by the Comforts as part of the package of capitalist modernity introduced by the missionariesÃ¢â¬âthe plow, money, a sense of property, a nd taxation had already existed in China. Moreover, while it certainly felt the impact of Imperialism, China was never colonized.Also, unlike the British missionaries who played a decisive role (according to the Comforts) in mediating modernity to the Tsarina, the influence of he missionary body in China can seldom be separated from other avenues Ã¢â¬â commerce, publishing, officialdom, and contacts with Japan-by which foreign imperial ideas and institutions were being filtered into the empire (Dunce 2002). Nevertheless, the changes undergone by Chinese society between the mid-nineteenth century and mid-twentieth century can be seen as a transition from Ã¢â¬Å"tradition Ã¢â¬Å"to Ã¢â¬Å"modernityÃ¢â¬ and attributed a decisive role in the process, for good or ill, to the Western impact.This history. In the first half of the twentieth century, works written by missionaries and heir supporters claimed for the missions a great deal of the Ã¢â¬Å"creditÃ¢â¬ for bringing China in to the modern world. Chinese nationalist critiques from the asses, charged missionaries with imperialism or Ã¢â¬Å"cultural invasion,Ã¢â¬ usually meaning that Christian conversion and missionary education were intended to facilitate imperialist economic and political control by making the Chinese people docile.In contract to this, Wang Liking argues that American missionaries, rather than being tools of cultural or other imperialism, were actually engaged in Ã¢â¬Å"cultural exchange,Ã¢â¬ making a significant nutrition to China's modernization in the late King period (Dunce 2002). Changes in China parallel to those identified by the Comforts as part of the colonization of consciousness, such as the introduction of aspects of a Western imperial way of life.A study in these mission efforts reveals the attempted imposition of western imperial beliefs in the form of campaigns against foot binding, opium consumption, and views toward gender relations Ã¢â¬âall of which involved mi ssionaries to some degree and show Western imperialistic attitudes at the time that the West has a right to impose TTS way of life on another culture. We can see that these transformations so closely associated with the emergence of the Western nation-state can be viewed in terms of a Ã¢â¬Å"colonization of consciousnessÃ¢â¬ .Missionaries were the field-agents of the change in Chinese life. In the end, missionaries' role as agents of imperialism or as agents of cultural exchange depends on the observer. What can be stated is that in this instance of more passive introduction of foreign culture and ideals, missionaries maybe greater agents of change than in more aggressive imperial efforts. Case Study: Yucatan: 16th Century Missionaries at times found themselves openly at odds with imperial interests.In the Yucatan, the church and imperial interests frequently clashed. Studying religion gives us a window into this relationship and the nature of colonization in this case. Missionari es had to walk a fine line between looking out for the souls of the Ã¢â¬Ëconverted' and the imperial desire for conquest of resources and the native labor needed to exploit those resources. Church documents and diaries point to a separation in motives between church and state where the state clearly sought to regulate life' and the church sought to protect the natives.In this case, the limited number of friars and the promise of wealth that the colonies brought meant that the friars had little say in the regulation of life enacted by the crown's agents (Cascaras 1961). In the case of the Yucatan, it was not the missionaries who altered daily life for the Ã¢â¬Ëconverts' as much as it was the crown. An interest in religion can point to heavy handedness of the crown and the ultimate subjugation that followed. While this process is evidenced in non-religious sources, details of the encounters are filled-in by religious evidence.Amman-Spanish interaction was a mixing of traditions an d practices. We see in the architecture of missions that they were influenced by the local materials and techniques. We also see in evidence for food and drink at missions that local everyday lives of the Mayans influenced the Spanish as they used native ceramics and reported to have native women cooking (Cascaras 1961). Undoubtedly Spanish and imperial society is evidenced today through religion and the quotidian. Interactions between the Spanish and natives have ultimately created a shared culture.In the Yucatan, that is evident through the religion of the region today. Religion came packaged with foreign imperial domination and its acceptance in modern day Yucatan points to the impact of cultural change as a result of colonialism. Conclusion Colonialism has been one of the most significant phenomena in the history of humankind in the last three hundred years or so. Religious evidence shows us that Christian missionaries were associated with imperialist expansion and can shed ligh t on the understanding of these encounters.It seems probable, then, that missionaries were significant intermediaries in the construction of global Imperialism in its anniversaries dimension. Colonization of consciousness is Ã¢â¬Å"the adoption of and adherence to a particular set of beliefs that come to be manifested in the daily workings of a society and the everyday practice of its membersÃ¢â¬ (Lane 2001). The study of religious amounts to more than Just an analysis of religious change. It gives us a view into the broader consciousness. To varying degrees, in all case studies here Christian missions have played a role in shaping consciousness.Evidence needs to be viewed critically when looking to religion to understand colonialism. Large hurries housing many native members does not mean their beliefs or daily lives were any different than before. Detailed textual accounts of conversions and missionary successes may not reflect the true consciousness of the natives as that may not have been the goal of the texts or that they written with bias. The historiography examined here demonstrates how inseparable the assessment of the missionary impact is from broader questions of how to historicist nationalism and modernity.The case studies presented show how a study of religion can shed light onto the interplay between colonial and imperial encounters. While in some cases, such as Southern Tsarina, the religious agents in the field were representing imperial interests. In other cases, such as Colonial Yucatan, they were at odds with the imperial powers. These different cases result in a different light they shed on an understanding of colonial encounters. In both, the religious information needs to be treated as part of a portfolio of sources for analysis.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Mathematical problem-solving study on developing mixed-ability students' interest in learning mathematics - Essay Example My study will be carried out using classroom observation techniques, interviews with teachers and mixed-ability students and questionnaires to both students and teachers, to gather data on learning outcomes in actual/real Maths classrooms in the United Kingdom. Mixed-ability students can be divided into three categories: (i) students with low performance in maths (ii) students who can perform well in maths and (iii) mathematically promising students. The phrase, Ã¢â¬Ëpromising studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ here means Ã¢â¬Ëgifted or talented studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ who, by virtue of their outstanding abilities, are capable of high performance. These are students who require differentiated educational programs and services beyond those normally provided by the regular school program in order to realize their contribution to self and society.1 According to some researchers, these students will have the potential to become the leaders and problem-solvers of the future. Mathematically promising students have needs that differ in nature from those of other students. According to Tomlinson (1995), these students require some differentiated instruction by consistently using a variety of instructional approaches to modify content, process, and /or products in resp onse to learning readiness and interest of academically diverse students. No matter what categories they fall, loss of interest in learning Mathematic especially on certain topic can lead to poor exam result or performance. During my eight years of teaching Mathematics at SOAS College and currently Sayyidina Hasan Secondary School, where I started teaching from lower secondary and currently upper secondary for almost 5 years, I have encountered different types of students. Their characters reflect their ability and performance in learning Mathematics. Some find mathematics education theoretical and
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
The Evolution of Trade Unions in the 1870s to 1880s - Research Paper Example This period was marked by economic growth, and there were many job opportunities for both skilled workers in the many industries that were being set up. Chicago and Philadelphia were a favorite with the immigrants, and during these times, there was an influx of unskilled workers in the regions hoping to get employment (Reynolds, 2009). However, the economy gains did not extend to the unskilled workers, and this was a rough time as there were no systems to cater to their needs. Laborers were exploited and survived on low wages and poor working conditions (Skurzynski, 2008). Most of them lived in slums and had to work for long hours in dangerous conditions and ended up having miserable lives in the United States. There were many unskilled workers looking for employment, and the industry managers took advantage of the large pool of workers. In the early 1870s, the idea of trade unions was not popular yet. Workers did realize there was a need to join them, but most memberships stayed bel ow one percent of those employed. In this period, there had been no successful trade union and most of them collapsed even before they had made any major improvements. Most of them were known for their extreme antics to gain what they wanted, and they did not have a good status with employers and consumers. Some even went to the extent of crime, violence or even threatening and intimidating workers to join or employers to meet their demands (Skurzynski, 2008). By the end of the 1870s things began to look up. The civil war era was coming to an end, and the American economy was on its way to a revival. With the economy showing signs of recovery, there was hope for trade unionists to pick up the pieces and revive the laborers movement. The environment was conducive, and there was an influx of immigrants seeking employment in America who were willing to join the trade unions. With improved memberships, there were more voices to push their agenda, and this led to political ambitions. Thi s saw the rise of the WorkingmenÃ¢â¬â¢s party of the United States, which later changed its name to the Socialist Labor party due to its success and popularity among immigrants (Richard, 1998). The late 1870s through to 1880s is the period when trade unions began to thrive. Though it was a period characterized by failing unions due to opportunism and lack of cohesiveness, they found their foothold. By holding peaceful boycotts laborers were able to push for better wages. It was a start that had many obstacles, but it as a dawn of a new era, a progressive era and change was inevitable. Laborers were becoming increasingly aware of their rights and trade unions were their refuge. However, It was a trying time too since most trade unions were not popular. Trade unions in the 1870s and 1880s were mainly craft unions. These are unions where people with similar skills such as carpentry, construction and rail workers came together to form a union. These were representation of workers in a single occupation who found it much easier to demand for better wages as a united front (Skurzynski, 2008). A trade unionÃ¢â¬â¢s main aim is to ensure fair working conditions for its members. It seeks to address membersÃ¢â¬â¢ problems by negotiating with employers on their behalf. This was an era of change and widespread awareness that there was the need to come together and put up a strong face to push for
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Law course ( ) - Case Study Example This puts Renault in a safe albeit embarrassing position. Nonetheless, Lyon's decision to sue Sherman for breach of contract may have some merit. On his part, Sherman could use the argument that he is not under any legal obligation to sell his business only to Lyon. He could strengthen his case if he has included the clause that the counteroffer is subject to cancellation by the present owner of Adgraphics without assigning any reason whatsoever. In this case the role of Robert Renault of V.R. Brokers is crucial in bringing about an amicable, out-of-court settlement. A court proceeding could prove to be messy for Sherman and question his personal integrity. The case is tilted in favor of Lane, manufacturer of Zeus bran butane. It is just as good as any open-and-shut case. The tragic end of the victim, Stephen Pavlik's life is the result of his own desire to "get high" by inhaling the dangerous substance which the manufacturer has already cautioned against in bold capitals on the fuel's can. The victim was 20 years of age when the accident occurred. As such, he was quite mature and fully aware of the dangerous consequences of his debilitating addiction.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Morgan stanly - Essay Example The headquarters is located in New York City, Manhattan, and the representatives of the company, as well as subsidiaries can be found in 42 countries. Total assets that company manages or supervises, reported by the company, total $ 304 billion. The company was established in September 1935 by Henry Morgan, Harold Stanley, and others. The establishment was stipulated by the Glass-Steagall Act, that required the proper division of the banking and investment activity of the financial organizations. As Chiou and Larson (2005) emphasize the first operational year appeared rather successful, as the company managed to gain the 24% of the market share (which involved up to $ 1 billion) in managing the public offerings (up to 70% of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s assets) as well as private placements. In the end of 1930s the company participated in the industrial development of the USA by offering $ 100 million debentures for the US Steel Corporation, as well as obtaining the rail syndicate in 1939. T he 1950s period is considered as quite notorious for the financial structure of the company, since the company was involved into the banking activity by co-managing the World BankÃ¢â¬â¢s bonds. ... in the same year, and entered the real estate business by this merger. In 1990s, the company added another financial management approach, and started serving like the underwriter for most technical and scientific initiatives. Therefore, Morgan Stanley served as the key underwriter for Netscape, Cisco, Compaq, Dolby Laboratories, Brocade, Google and others. The core products that the company offers for the financial services market involve Global Wealth Management, Investment Management and Consulting, as well as working out proper and relevant management strategies for the institutional financial securities. Industry Analysis Financial services that are offered by the Morgan Stanley and competitors are generally intended to regulate the financial flow, stabilize the economic and financial global situation, as well as secure the managed financial reserves, debts, and investments from financial catastrophes and crises. Therefore, the financial services industry involves such spheres as banking, financial insurance, managing security, investment fund controlling, retail, payment systems development. Considering the circumstances of the 2008 financial crisis, stabilization, and reformation of the global economic system is regarded as the priority for most experienced economists. They make emphasis on developing effective financial management tools, that financial companies possess. (Horrigan, 2004) In accordance with the estimates, offered by Halah Touryalai (2013), Forbes observer, the Morgan Stanley controlled up to 40% assets of the retail clients in 2012, and the forecasts for the years 2013-2014 expect that this share will suffer 16% decrease. RBC Wealth ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢s (regional assets broker) market share, in its turn is
Sunday, August 25, 2019
The Electronic Policy Network - Research Paper Example The users access the policy network through the subject lists; for instance, democracy, globalization, trade, and gender. Each topic has links to other appropriate and relevant websites. The users can access information from their preferred organizations through signing-up. The information is periodically sent to their e-mail. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is one organization that is represented in the online consortium. The ACLU entails a non-partisan and also a non-profit organization. The mission of the organization involves defending the individual rights and also the liberties of individuals, which are guaranteed in the United States constitution and other applicable laws1. The ACLU works through various approaches, for instance, community education, litigation and lobbying. The organization was started in 1920 by the initiatives of Roger Baldwin, Walter Nelles, and Crystal Eastman. The organization has more than 500,000 members, and its annual budget estimates is approximately $100 million. The organization has affiliates in all the states in America and also Puerto Rico. The ACLU gives legal assistance during cases that put at risk the civil liberties. The legal support provided include; direct legal representation, and the preparation of amicus curiae briefs that illustrate legal argum ents. The amicus curiae briefs are prepared, when another legal firm is adequately providing legal representation. At the initial formation stages, the main focus of the ACLU was the freedom of speech. This was majorly applicable to the anti-war protestors2. In the 1920s, the organization increased its activities to encompass safeguarding the free speech rights of striking employees and also artists. The enhanced activities also entailed the collaboration with the national Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The collaboration was aimed at preventing discrimination and also racism. In the 1930s, the organizations began to
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Our family pet - Essay Example For that reason, I would recommend anyone to consider having a pet, especially a dog since it also serves a protective purpose (Bonham 4). One of the pros of having a pet is that one never gets bored. A pet also makes one responsible for remembering when to feed it, wash it, and do other things to keep it healthy (Bonham 12). However, if one gets so much involved in the affairs of the pet, they may become irresponsible in doing other things that are of life importance. One ought to balance between being with the pet and doing other activities. For instance, if one carries a pet dog to the workplace, it may end up being a disgrace when it attacks other people. However, having a pet has made me more responsible by learning how to take care of the animal. Anyone considering having a pet must ensure that they love the pet of their choice. For instance, one must not own a dog as a pet if he or she does not like
Effects of tourism on economic growth in China - Research Paper Example A huge increase in the amount of expenditure from foreign tourists with an average of average of 19.7% in each year was recorded between 1978 and 2001. For this reason, the World Tourism Organization had expected that China would have been the primary tourist destination in the world by 2010 (Yan & Wall 260). Currently, it is speculated that, by the year 2015, China will become the second largest travel and tourism economy in the world after the United States. The main factors influencing the tremendous growth in ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy include its flourishing and widely considered growth in the tourism industry. This is also because of the open policy established by the Chinese, and an increased number of flights between China and other countries in the world. Moreover, various great improvements such as the transport infrastructure in China, accommodation in hotels and the increased tourist attractions have significantly contributed to this growth. One of the major theories in macro economics is the economic growth theory. Through the use of quantitative analysis, it has been shown that the effect of tourism on the developing economy of China bearing in mind the undeveloped levels of their tourism industry, tourism plays a significant role in the development of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. In the conclusion of their 1992 study, Yan and Wall (270) noted that both domestic and international tourism only had a slight impact on the national level. This is with regards to the diversity and size of the economy in China. Using the traditional Type I Input-output model, they did not include the impacts of domestic tourism. Contrary to the use of outdated data in this case, the World Travel and Tourism council has recently projected the indirect and direct effects of domestic and...In this paper, the effect of tourism on the economic growth in China will be thoroughly evaluated, as the impact of tourism in China has not been sufficiently analyzed, prior to the time of the conducted analysis. The size of tourism in China has significantly increased. A significant and sustainable growth has been experienced in China consequent to both domestic and international tourism for the past 20 years. With this, the ratio of tourism to the GDP in the country has been shown to increase every year. Through the creation of the social accounting matrix, the type II input-output model was developed. This model contends that high percentage of total household income, GDP, and total Chinese employment depends on the expenditures of international tourism. The variation displayed by the percentages is clearly explained by the sectoral make up of tourist expenditures, as well as the sectoral variations in ratios between capital and labor, backward linkages and labor productivity. The designation of an account as either endogenous or exogenous is the most fundamental step towards movement from SAM to a model structure. According to Bulmer-Thomas, the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) plays an essential role in making accounting records for different economies An investigation was performed on the dependence of Chinese economy on the expenditure by tourists. It was necessary to integrate the IO impact Model with the demand for endogenous consumption that is based on the SAM model. These instruments were used to estimate the Ã¢â¬Å"direct, indirect and induced dependenceÃ¢â¬ that the Chinese economy has on the international tourism. The impact of international tourism in China displays a lot of prospects for Chinese economy
Friday, August 23, 2019
Impacts of Rising Production of Biofuels on Economy - Essay Example Agricultural development would make BiofuelÃ¢â¬â¢ s production little higher. However, farmers would be in a position to produce higher amount of corps. Biofuel demand would also be increased as it is better oil direct alternative of oil & gasoline. Oil market is direct competitor of Biofuel renewable energy. However, lower oil prices would put significant influence on biofuel price. In other case, if oil prices set at higher level. However, demand for biofuel would definitely get improved. Vehicle fuel consumption is increasing on daily basis. People therefore give importance to cheap energy sources. Today, farmers have been with improved agricultural and conversion productivity. Eventually, higher energy prices in the 2000s combined with subsidies and low food prices made biofuel profitable. Corn price is recently increased. Thereby, it lead to big losses to corn biofuel processors. Task B Consumer behavior has significant orientation with changing fuel preferences and corps pric es. Vehicle technology hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t improved yet. However, natural oil is on large scale made base point for fuel consumption in engines. Consumer behavior has significant association with price fundamental concept. Income is inversely proportional to food prices. Whenever, food prices go up then one has to pay off little more for same things. Biofuel consumption would make people uneasy as food prices would be increased in the result of biofuel production. Natural oil is also vital reason besides higher prices. It directly impacts on transportation charges. However, farmers have to pay off big amount of their earnings in taxes. This makes them to charge end user little more amount. Eventually, this particular phenomena leads market trends to settle... This essay investigates the significance of microeconomics fundamental principles, pertaining to biofuel production. This essay also analyzes the price influence of crops on a single person income level. This study discussed the sources of biofuel, which includes vegetable, animal fats, and short chain aliphatic alcohols. Biofuel generation often leads to produce byproduct along original products including soaps, alcohol, glycerin, and trace amount of water. Consumer behavior has significant orientation with changing fuel preferences and corps prices. Vehicle technology hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t improved yet. However, natural oil is on large scale made base point for fuel consumption in engines. Consumer behavior has significant association with price fundamental concept. Income is inversely proportional to food prices. Whenever, food prices go up then one has to pay off little more for same things. Biofuel consumption would make people uneasy as food prices would be increased in the result of biofuel production. Natural oil is also vital reason besides higher prices. It directly impacts on transportation charges. However, farmers have to pay off big amount of their earnings in taxes. This makes them to charge end user little more amount. Eventually, this particular phenomena leads market trends to settle equilibrium little away from convenient level. Biofuel is unconditionally helpful for such people, who donÃ¢â¬â¢t earn enough to support their daily expenditures. Food prices wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t increase with same proportionate of fuel prices.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Management Essay Our group feels that this question can be answered in 2 different ways namely, from the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective or from the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective for each aspect of AjzenÃ¢â¬â¢s theory. 1. Attitude toward the behaviourÃ In this case, the Ã¢â¬ËattitudeÃ¢â¬â¢ here refers to that of the recession. From employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ perspective Ã¢â¬â employees will be low in spirits and morale during a recession as they know that there is a high possibility that they will be retrenched by the company. From managerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective Ã¢â¬â The manager will have a positive attitude about improving the performance of the employees during a recession because if they do not do so, the company will take a long time or never recover from the recession. The manager can improve the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance by a. Communicating with the employees about the recession and the possible impacts it will have on the workplace. b. Provide continuous feedback which includes occasional recognition and rewards to boost their morale. c. Attribute the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ consistent performance and update them on the state of the economy. 2. Subjective norm From employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ perspective Ã¢â¬â employees feel that they should not give in their 100% at work in times of a recession as the likelihood of being retrenched is still prominent, so why work so hard? They are pressured by their peers to act in this manner. From managerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective Ã¢â¬â managers are pressured by the top management (CEOs, shareholders) to think of ways to improve the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance. Such methods are as mentioned earlier above. 3. Perceived Behavioural ControlÃ From employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ perspective Ã¢â¬â it is very easy to succumb to peer pressure and not give in their best in their work in times of a recession. From managerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective Ã¢â¬â managers are completely in charge on their intention to improve the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance during a recession as it is their job to do so.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
History of antivirus software Antivirus Software History of Antivirus Software There are competing claims for the innovator of the first antivirus product. Possibly the first publicly documented removal of a computer virus in the wild was performed by Brent Fix in 1987. An antivirus program to counter the Polish MKS virus was released in 1987. Dr. Solomons Anti-Virus Toolkit, AIDSTEST and AntiVir were released by in 1988. Dr. Ahn Chul Soo (Charles Ahn, founder of AhnLab Inc) in South Korea also released the Anti-Virus software called V1 in June 10, 1988. By late 1990, nineteen separate antivirus products were available including Norton AntiVirus and McAfee VirusScan. Early contributors to work on computer viruses and countermeasures included Fred Cohen, Peter Tippett, and John McAfee. Before Internet connectivity was widespread, viruses were typically spread by infected floppy disks. Antivirus software came into use, but was updated relatively infrequently. During this time, virus checkers essentially had to check executable files and the boot sectors of floppy and hard disks. However, as internet usage became common, initially through the use of modems, viruses spread throughout the Internet. Powerful macros used in word processor applications, such as Microsoft Word, presented a further risk. Virus writers started using the macros to write viruses embedded within documents. This meant that computers could now also be at risk from infection by documents with hidden attached macros as programs. Later email programs, in particular Microsoft Outlook Express and Outlook, were vulnerable to viruses embedded in the email body itself. Now, a users computer could be infected by just opening or previewing a message. This meant that virus checkers had to check many more types of files. As always-on broadband connections became the norm and more and more viruses were released, it became essential to update virus checkers more and more frequently. Even then, a new zero-day virus could become widespread before antivirus companies released an update to protect against it. What is an Antivirus program? An antivirus program is used as a security measure and protection tool against computer viruses. The job of an antivirus program is to scan, detect and prevent viruses. Not all antivirus programs can perform these basic tasks, but this will be discussed later on in this report. Antivirus programs are an essential tool you must have installed on your computer or network. Antivirus programs offer real-time, on-access and on-demand protection for your computer. The way the programs works is based on the version of the antivirus program you have. Antivirus programs can be a standalone or can be included in a protection suite and are distributed in 32 and 64-bit versions on multiple operating systems such as Windows, Linux and Mac, allowing all different types of computers to be protected from malicious software. Why is Antivirus Software Necessary? Security is a major concern when it comes to the safety of your personal information. If someone were to access your information and use it, the consequence would be drastic. Information security is concerned with three main areas; Confidentiality peoples information should only be available to someone who has the right to view it. Availability information should only be accessible when someone needs it. Integrity information should only be modified by people who are authorized to edit it. These concepts apply to home Internet users just as much as they would to any corporate or government network. You probably wouldnt let a stranger look through your important documents. In the same way, you may want to keep the tasks you perform on your computer confidential, whether its tracking your investments or sending email messages to family and friends. Also, you should have some assurance that the information you enter into your computer remains intact and is available when you need it. Some security risks arise from the possibility of intentional misuse of your computer by intruders via the Internet. Others are risks that you would face even if you werent connected to the Internet (e.g. hard disk failures, theft, power outages). The bad news is that you probably cannot plan for every possible risk. The good news is that you can take some simple steps to reduce the chance that youll be affected by the most common threats and some of those steps help with both the intentional and accidental risks youre likely to face. Virus? What is a Virus? Before we go on and tell you how an antivirus program scans, detects and prevents viruses and malware, lets discuss what exactly a virus is. Like its genetic equivalent, a computer virus is a program that spreads unwanted and unexpected actions through the insides of your PC. Not all viruses are malicious, but many are written to damage particular types of files, applications or even operating systems. Some examples of viruses are; Trojan horse viruses, worms, spyware, adware, rootkits, and many other types of malware. Viruses have been around since the early 1970s. Even though they never had an internet connection back in the 70s viruses still infected computers by floppy disks. Yes, FLOPPY DISKS, the old 5 14 disks. The first recorded virus was in 1971 and it was called the Creeper Virus, which was written by Bob Thomas. What the Creeper virus did was it infected a remote computer by the ARPNET and copied itself displaying the message Ã¢â¬Å"IM THE CREEPER: CATCH ME IF YOU CAN!. Ironically the Reaper was created to delete the Creeper. The Reaper program was not like the anti-virus programs we know today, but in fact was a virus itself in that it was self replicating and spread through a network. How an Antivirus Program Works The first and most important task of an antivirus program is to protect, prevent, or block any malicious activity in your computer or home and office network in real-time. The real-time protection should trigger an alert or provide automatic action whenever a suspected or positively identified malware activity is detected. Most antivirus programs will only monitor some critical areas in your computer. When an antivirus program is installed, it will start monitoring the activity of the system by searching files that are being accessed, transferred, or stored to or from the hard disks and external/removable drives. Files that are being downloaded from the Internet are scanned. If a suspicious activity is detected, the antivirus program will automatically remove the file or stop the processes that are posing risk to your system, your contacts, or other computers or devices in on your network, unless you trust the file that you are receiving. Antivirus programs offer several types of detection methods to identify malware, but the most common detection methods is heuristic analysis and by using traditional virus detection (signature-based). 1. Characteristics of a program This is called heuristics scanning. Heuristic scanning engines work on the principle that viruses will usually use certain tricks or methods of infecting, and therefore if a program looks like it might be using those tricks, there is a possibility that the program is a virus. Sound simple? No, not really, its actually incredibly hard to write a foolproof 100% effective heuristics engine. (Engine, simply put, is just a word we use to describe the bit that drives the virus detector and compares files to the database of known infection agents) The more aggressive heuristic scanner may well detect large numbers of so called False Positives i.e. files that are really totally innocent but look like they might alter other files, the less aggressive ones might miss files that really are viruses. A method of heuristic analysis is for the anti-virus program to decompile the suspicious program, and then analyze the source code contained within. In reality heuris tics work quite well for some types of viruses, such as Macro Viruses, but not so well for other types. However, they are a reasonable attempt at providing protection against currently unknown viruses. The advantage to this method is the fact that there is no time period when the computer is not protected after specific viruses are released. The disadvantages include the fact that false positives may occur and some viruses may not be identified during the length of a scan. The first heuristic engines were introduced to detect DOS viruses in 1989. However, there are now heuristic engines for nearly all classes of viruses. 2. Footprint or Signature-based detection of virus program A virus signature is a particular pattern of bits or information contained in a virus that appears in no other file or program in the world, except for that virus. This method is the most common method used to identify viruses and false positives are very rare. It compares the virus footprint against a library of known footprints which match viruses. A footprint is a pattern in the data included in a file. Using this method, viruses must be identified as viruses, and then added to the library of footprints. The advantage to this method lies in the fact that false positives are very rare. The disadvantage to this method is the fact that there is a time period between when the virus is released to when the library of known footprints is updated. During this time period, the virus will not be recognized and could infect a computer. How do antivirus programs rate possible risk? Antivirus programs use a threat level index to determine what type of action to take. If the program is adware only, most antivirus programs will display a dialog box to inform the user why a program or related file of an adware program was detected. If the detected object is posing security and privacy risks, the threat level is medium, high, or severe. The threat level ratings by antivirus programs are not all the same. Some antivirus programs may not detect or even scan for tracking cookies. Some of these are installed when legitimate software downloaded from third-party websites is bundled with another installer from a company that is known to have a spyware or adware business. Quarantine and False Positives in Antivirus Programs Antivirus programs work also by quarantining suspect and malware files. This process is to prevent the offending objects from doing any damage in the system and to allow the end-user to restore back a quarantined object to its original location if it is found to be a false positive. A false positive detection is when a malware signature detected an uninfected file or process. In some cases, a false positive can cause a system to not to boot or run properly. If another program is affected by the false detection, the system will run normally, but not the program that the Antivirus have falsely identified and removed. Types of Antivirus Programs That Are Available On the following page there is a list, in alphabetical order, of some the companies who provide Antivirus programs and the platforms on which they are supported. Company Windows Apple Linux Mobile Free? AntiVir Yes No Yes No Yes AVG Yes No No No Yes Avira Yes No Yes Yes Yes BitDefender Yes No Yes Yes No ClamWin Yes No No No Yes ESET NOD32 Yes No Yes Yes No F-Prot Yes No Yes No No Kaspersky Yes Yes Yes Yes No McAfee Yes Yes Yes Yes No MSE Yes No No No Yes Network Associates Yes Yes Yes Yes No Panda Software Yes No Yes No No RAV Yes Yes Yes No No Sophos Yes Yes Yes No No Symantec (Norton) Yes Yes Yes Yes No Trend Micro Yes No No Yes No Vipre Yes No No No No Webroot Yes No No No No Antivirus Software Now that you have a basic understanding of how an antivirus program works and why you need one, here are some examples of three of the main antivirus programs available today. The main three that this report is going to discuss is Norton, Bitdefender, and Kaspersky. There are different types of antivirus programs available for each manufacturer and the following information is going to discuss these types of programs. Norton by Symantec Norton offers 3 antivirus programs; Norton Antivirus Norton Internet Security Norton 360 Here is a full list of what Norton by Symantec offers for their product line. (Symantec) Core Protection Blocks viruses, spyware, Trojan horses, worms, bots, and rootkits Defends against hackers with quiet two-way firewall Pulse updates every 5 15 minutes for up-to-the minute protection Advanced Protection Norton Bootable Recovery Tool repairs, restores and boots severely infected, unbootable PCs Leverages cloud-based online intelligence for real-time detection of threats Download Insight proactively warns of potential dangers in newly downloaded files and applications before you install or run them Guards against Web attacks that exploit software vulnerabilities Stops threats unrecognized by traditional antivirus techniques Filters unwanted email with professional-strength antispam Helps keep your kids safe online with parental controls (Microsoft Windows only) Networking Helps secure and monitor your home network Automatically secures your PC when connecting to public wireless networks Identity Protection Block hackers from accessing your computer Blocks phishing websites and authenticates trusted sites Secures, stores, and manages login and personal information Prevents hackers from eavesdropping and stealing information as you type Identifies unsafe Web sites in your search results Backup and Restore Automatically saves important files locally or to secured online storage Restores lost files and folders PC Tuning Optimizes the hard drive to free up disk space Optimizes PC performance with disk cleanup Provides clear insight into recent PC activities to help prevent slowdowns Optimizes application performance with one-click Support Free email, chat, or phone support Automatically finds and fixes common PC problems The following is a table of what exactly the three antivirus programs from Norton offer. Norton Internet Security Norton 360 Norton Antivirus Blocks viruses, spyware, Trojan horses, worms, bots, and rootkits Yes Yes Yes Defends against hackers with a quiet two-way firewall Yes Yes No Pulse updates every 5-15 minutes for up-to-the minute protection Yes Yes Yes Intelligence-driven technology for faster, fewer, shorter scans Yes Yes Yes Norton Bootable Recovery Tool repairs, restores and boots severely infected, unbootable PCs Yes Yes Yes Leverages cloud-based online intelligence for real-time detection of threats Yes Yes Yes Download Insight proactively warns of potential dangers in newly downloaded files and applications before you install or run them Yes Yes Yes Guards against Web attacks that exploit software vulnerabilities Yes Yes Yes Stops threats unrecognized by traditional antivirus techniques Yes Yes Yes Filters unwanted email with professional-strength antispam Yes No No Helps keep your kids safe online with parental controls (Microsoft Windows only) Yes Yes No Helps secure and monitor your home network Yes Yes No Automatically secures your PC when connecting to public wireless networks Yes Yes No Block hackers from accessing your computer Yes Yes No Blocks phishing websites and authenticates trusted sites Yes Yes No Secures, stores, and manages login and personal information Yes Yes No Prevents hackers from eavesdropping and stealing information as you type Yes Yes No Identifies unsafe Web sites in your search results Yes Yes No Automatically saves important files locally or to secured online storage No Yes No Restores lost files and folders No Yes No Optimizes the hard drive to free up disk space No Yes No Optimizes PC performance with disk cleanup No Yes No Provides clear insight into recent PC activities to help prevent slowdowns Yes Yes Yes Optimizes application performance with one-click Yes Yes Yes Free email, chat, or phone support Yes Yes Yes Automatically finds and fixes common PC problems Yes Yes Yes Bitdefender Bitdefenders product line for antivirus software is; Bitdefender Antivirus Bitdefender Internet Security Bitdefender Total Security Here is a list of what Bitdefender offers for there product line. (Bitdefender) Protection Antivirus Protects against viruses and other malware with industry-leading technology Multi-layered proactive protection against new and unknown threats Antispyware Blocks concealed programs that track your online activities Antiphishing Blocks web pages that attempt to steal your credit card data Antispam Stops unwanted e-mails from reaching your Inbox Firewall Automatically secures your Internet connection wherever you are Helps prevent outsiders form accessing your Wi-Fi network Performance Special Operating Modes Game Mode reduces system load postpones scans Laptop Mode prolongs battery life Tune-up Removes unnecessary files registry entries, for optimized performance Privacy IM Encryption Keeps your conversations private on Yahoo! And MSN Messenger File Vault Locks up confidential files in an encrypted vault File Shredder Ensures that no traces of deleted sensitive files remain on your PC Control Parental Control Blocks access to inappropriate websites and e-mail Limits kids access to the Internet, games, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ to specific times Home Network Manages the security of your entire network from a single location Data Backup Automatically backs up files and folders The following is a table of what exactly the three antivirus programs from Bitdefender offer. Bitdefender Antivirus Bitdefender Internet Security Bitdefender Total Security Antivirus Yes Yes Yes Antispyware Yes Yes Yes Antiphishing Yes Yes Yes Antispam No Yes Yes Firewall No Yes Yes Special Operating Modes Yes Yes Yes Tune-up No Yes Yes IM Encryption No Yes Yes File Vault No Yes Yes File Shredder No No Yes Parental Controls No Yes Yes Home Network Yes Yes Yes Data Backup No No Yes Kaspersky Kasperskys product line for antivirus software is; Kaspersky Antivirus Kaspersky Internet Security Here is a list of what Kaspersky offers for there product line. (Kaspersky) Protection fromÃ¢â¬ ¦ Viruses and spyware Infected websites Hacker attacks Spam and phishing Identity theft Features Comparison Virus and vulnerability scanner Proactive protection against programs based on their behaviour Restriction of access to private data by suspicious programs Application control Safe run mode (sandbox) to test questionable programs Network Protection Two-way personal firewall Secure wireless connections in public areas Email Protection Real-time scanning of email Anti-spam, Anti-phishing Web Protection Virtual keyboard to safely enter sensitive data Removal of Internet activity (history, cookies, etc) Parental Control Kaspersky Antivirus Kaspersky Internet Security Viruses and spyware Yes Yes Infected Websites Yes Yes Hacker attacks No Yes Spam and phishing No Yes Identity theft No Yes Virus and vulnerability scanner Yes Yes Proactive protection against programs based on their behavior Yes Yes Restriction of access to private data by suspicious programs No Yes Application control No Yes Safe run mode (sandbox) to test questionable programs No Yes Two-way personal firewall No Yes Secure wireless connections in public areas No Yes Real-time scanning of email Yes Yes Anti-spam, Anti-phishing No Yes Virtual keyboard to safely enter sensitive data Yes Yes Removal of Internet activity (history, cookies, etc) Yes Yes Parental Control Yes Yes As you can see from the previous lists, there is a difference in what the manufacturers of these programs offer. They all offer virus and spyware on their basic applications. If you want more features/protection you are going to have to spend the extra money to obtain those features/protection. All of these versions of Antivirus software offer real-time protection and do regular scans. Kind of a behind the scenes scan. Which is a good feature to have, knowing that most users just want it there to do its own thing, kind of like knowing it is protecting you but dont want to have to deal with it. Norton and Kaspersky offer protection for one year. At the end of that year you have to spend more money before you can obtain more updates from them. The good thing about Bitdefender is that when you purchase a subscription from them you get it for 2 years. S
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Human Resources and Strategic Planning at KFC Introduction: In this assignment I select the KFC I am in view of myself as HR higher manager. KFC is the globally reputed fast food chain; it has the variety of branches in the world. The HR department is one of the greatest in the world. They not only give quality of products and services but also working on staff training and development programs. For success of companies, largely planned objectives and complete Human Resource plan play the very important role. We obvious illustrate that the purpose of HR possessions is entirely understand and chains the disturbing way of the company. The maintaining of complete human resource planning in additional definite planned goals linked the advertising, financial records, monetary, prepared and tools, in the human resource management common services branch. In main, the human resource strategy must desire to detain the public factor of what a company are the expectancy to reach in the average to extensive phrase. 1:Understand how the HR plan supports the strategic objectives: What is strategic planning? Strategic planning is an organization instrument, phase. While through any organization instrument, it is second-hand for one reason single: to assist an association does an improved job to center of attention its power, to make certain to facilitate member of the association are operational on the way to the similar achievements, to review and regulate the companies way in reply to a shifting atmosphere. In small, intended arrangement is a restricted attempt to generate elementary decision and events that form and direct what an association is, what it does, and why it does it, with a meeting point on the future. What is the difference between strategic planning and long-range planning? While a lot of use these conditions interchangeably, strategic planning and long-range planning be different in their importance on the unspecified atmosphere. Long-range planning is normally careful to suggest the growth of a plan for accomplish an objective or set of objective over a phase of more than a few days, with the supposition that present information about future circumstances is adequately dependable to make sure the plans dependability over the period of its completion. In the behind fifties and early on sixties, for instance, the US. Financial system was comparatively steady and not at all unsurprising, and, hence, long arrangement was together stylish and helpful. On the extra hand, tactical arrangements assume that an organisation must be quick to respond to a powerful, varying atmosphere (not the steadier atmosphere unspecified for long-range planning). What is a strategic plan? In tactical development it is dangerous to officially think how our business will achieve its aim. The reply to this problem is a planning. Here is a diversity of official meaning for policy, but each person basically has the same opinion that a planning is the reply to the problem, how? Strategy is only a set of events that allow an association to attain consequences. Planning is a method of compare our organisations strength with the varying atmosphere in arrange to obtain a thought of how most excellent to whole or provide customer desires. Basically, there are three dissimilar category of planning: governmental, programmatic, and purposeful. The differentiation between the groupings is the meeting point of the planning Strategic capability: In the company group of procedures, capabilities or ability they build a lengthy useful advantages. When a company workers understand faster that organisation is running effectively, as evaluate to contest employees their applying marketable information. The company are not competent to continuously developing, classifying, creating, place into performing, assess, and expand knowledge will not be competent to fight successfully. So the ability of the organisation to seems available ability and gets our hand on innovative ones forms its largely suitable to ready for action profit. These parts of writing bring in information to fast look into workout this potential. 1.2:analyses how the HR planning impact on the strategic plan: Peoples are most important asset of any organisation. Many organisations are using this phrase important role that employee plays in organisation success. In the organisation the hr manager active in various human resource management actions, and in big organisation that have a HRM department. Human resource management is the important strategic tool for any organisation. Forecasting demand: In the organisation the impotent factor of human resource planning is predicting the figure and types of people, compulsory to get collectively decision making aims. For the reason that it is an open structure that we stay in, a combination of administrative issues, as well as prepared for action plan, ability, arrangement, and production can force the demand for employees. For example, process of advanced machinery is commonly accompanied by fewer requirements for low-skilled workers and extra demand for information lobar force. Forecasting Supply: The organisation has forecast its upcoming needs for workers, it then goes on to the subsequently investigate that is from everywhere can it fulfilled its wants. It therefore requirements to decide if there are enough figures and types of workers and how many are qualified for the reasonable position. Supply examination thus, involves arrangement for procurement: who, from where, how and when of staffing. It scans the inside and outside surroundings for the best-fit applicant for the positions in enquiry. Job analysis : In the company the job analysis is the process to assembling the responsibility of each day situation which is known equally to single employees. Job specification: A work requirement condition, the smallest ability that an individual must go beyond to perform a certain work fruitfully. It classifies the information, ability, and feelings wanted to do the work successfully. Together the work explanation and requirement are vital documents when HR executive start staffing and selecting. 2: Understand the legal and organisational frame works for the employment of staff: Define recruitment: In the organisation the procedure of searching and arranging to apply for vacancy is called recruitment. The staffing of fresh worker is depends on company requirement. The employment procedures inform us how many workers will be need to satisfying the corporation require. Objectives of recruitment: The key purpose of staffing of the candidates is; Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ List of purpose of the company can be assessment.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ For exchange HR, it gives different chances.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ The recruitment improves the production. It gives the information workers or employees will be necessary in the organisation according to the requirements. Methods of recruitment/sources: For the searchings of talent workers and moving them to applying for the vacancy is a recruiting procedure. Following are the methods of organisation are use for recruitment for choosing the peoples in company. These procedures are 1: Internal sources 2: External sources Methods of recruitment: Now we can talk about inside staffing resources; Internal resources: 1. Promotion :-In the organisation workers are promote from one area to another area with many advantage 2. Departmental exam:-This process is use by government division to choose workforce for superior level of position. 3. Transfer :-. In the organisation workers are move from one sector to another sect according to their skill and practice. 4. Retirement :-Many company call back workers who have already retire from the company. 5. Internal advertisement :-In this process vacancies are announce in the notice board. Employees, who are concerned, are request to apply for the post. 6. Employee recommendation :-In this procedure workers are ask to suggest peoples for jobs. External resources: 1. Management consultant :-Management advisor helps the organisation by providing them with administrative personnel. 2. Employment agencies:-In the organisation they give a agreement to service organization. The HR administration will make all the arrangement. 3. News paper advertisement :-In the organisation announcement for the new vacancy in trade journals, national and local news papers; all requirement are mention. 4. Internet advertisement :- It is a rule of the company to use the internet for employment. 5. Walk in interview :-Another method of staffing is walk in interview method. Advantages of internal recruitment: An important benefit of inside staffing are follows; Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ The procedure gives easier to the company to keep the time. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Requirement for separate opening program is not necessary. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ This procedure enhances the worker skill. Disadvantages of internal recruitment In the organisation difficulty of inside staffing are follows; Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ In this procedure we are not possible to acquire fresh skill peoples. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ There is probability of authority and smooth spot. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Workers unsatisfied due to unfair staffing. Selection: In the organisation the process of select the right employees on the behalf of the accurate vacancy. Appointment analysis: The organisation human resource department cans analysis the vacancy. Advertisement: In the organisation the vacancy can be announce through different channel, for example electronic and print media. Application form: In the organisation a vacant request form are fix with the job vacancy. Written test: In the organisation useful peoples applying for the written test. Interview: In the organisation the peoples who select in the examination test, call for interview. Medical examination: If the candidates pass the interview the organisation calls for the medical examination. Initial job offer: If the candidates pass the examination, the company issues the call letter. Acceptance/rejection letter: It is a right of peoples who agree or not agree for this letter. Induction:- The worker is introducing to the organisation and other employees of the company. Kinds of choice test: The following are the choice tests are implementing by different association depending upon their necessities. Following are the selection test; 1. Aptitude test 2. Intelligence test 3. Personality test 4. Performance test Induction: Starting assembling with in a company for fresh hire candidate is called orientation. Induction is a process of brining in the employees who is newly chosen to the organisation for the job. The initial purpose is that what the organisation do, type of work and etc. fresh workers brining in the company and former worker are running at there, is renowned as brining the new peoples in the organisation. This program is arranged the main office or branch level for the whole fresh workers. Usually all the fresh candidates are called jointly to the workforce preparation place for the induction program. Motivation: In the organisation wishes, requirement and wants of the workers are simply motivated by unique wishes, desires and wants. 3:Understand the effect the organisational environment on staff: Culture: Organisation culture, a common perception held by the organisation members, a system of sharing meaning. Company culture is a method of mutual value held that differ the company from the different company. This arrangement is common with the importance on earlier of test, the key character of organisation values. The newly research suggest seven character tic of primary culture; Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ improvement and risk taking : Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ awareness to feature: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Outcome direction: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ workers arrangement: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ group direction: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ forcefulness: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ permanence: THE CHANGING WORKFORCE WORK LIFE BALANCE AND GROWING CORPORATE INTEREST: In the quantity of change in labor force demographics have bring work- life balance issue to the notice of company. The main revolutionize connected to require for family-friendly remuneration is the quantity of women in the U.S. workforce, which has additional than double since 1970. Furthermore, women are outstanding in the workforce after marriage and after having children, growing the quantity of dual-career households in America. The generously proportioned number of single women with children in the workforce in the past two decades and there is greater than before demand for family-friendly work policy. WORKING PRACTICES: Included method: a lot of institutions, normally those with a strong administrative culture, apply a down to top method to change management. It has lot of benefits, including apply for valid strategy and best co- ordination Understand the grievance, discipline and dismissal process: 4: understand the grievance, discipline and dismissal process: Grievance: Grievance process is characteristically planned to determine grievance as quickly as do and the low stage possibility in the company. The initial process nearly always workers try to decide the grievance with his or her direct administrator. If it cannot be decide at this level it is normally discuss with the union steward and the manager. Collapse at this level typically brings in the individual from the company business affairs section and determined the grievance pass to the services manager, who normally discuss it with the union complaint committee. Unsuccessful effects at this stage give way to the company senior supervision and physically a delegate from the national union. At the last, if those possessions are ineffective in determine the complaint; the last level is for the complaint go to negotiation called grievance negotiation. Discipline issue: The written verbal mildest form of discipline is warning. It is the primary level of disciplinary procedure. This notice is a temporary record of warning which is located in the supervisor file on the workers. The purpose data and outcomes interview with the workers are position in the written verbal warning. What distinguish infect the written verbal warning from the verbal warning. The verbal warning always is put in writing for this level of procedure. Suspension: After that the disciplinary level is suspension or lay off. Frequently it taken only if the previous step has been put into practice without the desire result. Exceptions where suspension is given without any earlier verbal or written waning. Frequently happen if the violation is of a serious nature. Dismissal: The disciplinary deed is called the layoff of a worker. The administration vital disciplinary punishment is dismissing the difficulty member of workforce. Dismissal is use only for the mainly serious fault. Yet it may be the only logical alternative when a worker attitude critically interferes with a division or the organisation procedure. A dismissal assessment should be given long and hard consideration, for almost all individuals being fire from the work is an affecting trauma. In adding administration should think the opportunity that a dismissed worker will take lawful action to struggle the decision. Employment Tribunal: Employment Tribunal, ACAS and Other Agencies position unusual agencies like employment tribunal and ACAS in UK play significant task concerning employment matter, these agency help workers to use their human rights concerning service, and gives employer some intelligence of way concerning employment rule. Employment tribunal is the lawful organization which attend to the case of both the parties and give their decision. Conclusion : HR Planning for KFC is quite efficient and impact on personal as well as working life of personnel, however as discussed above need some precious steps to resolve the above issues to enable effective with efficient strategy in human resource planning. Employees performance is merely based on policies and strategies implement by the HR department and approved by top management.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã I have infected 45 million Americans and will infect 1 million more Americans each year. Who am I? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Herpes, from the ancient Greek meaning to creep or crawl, is the name of a family of viruses of which herpes simplex virus 1 and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are the most serious human pathogens. HSV-1 is normally associated with orofacial infections and encephalitis, whereas HSV-2 usually causes genital infections and can be transmitted from infected mothers to neonates. Both viruses establish latent infections in sensory neurons and, upon reactivation, cause lesions at or near point of entry into the body. While HSV-1 and HSV-2 are different viruses, under a microscope, HSV-1 and 2 are virtually identical, sharing approximately 50% of their DNA and are treated similarly. HSV-1 and HSV-2 contain a large double-stranded DNA molecule. HSV is gram negative, consists of 162 capsomers and replication takes place within the nuclei of eukaryotic cells. The HSV virion has four parts: an electrondense core containing viral DNA; an icosapentahedral capsid; a tegument-an amorphous layer of proteins that surround the capsid; and an envelope. HSV-1 and HSV-2 encode at least 84 different polypeptides. Each protein does many things, hence HSV genes can encode several hundred different functions. To initiate infection, HSV attaches to at least three different classes of cell-surface receptor and fuses its envelope with the plasma membrane. The capsid, minus its envelope, is transported to the nuclear pore, through which it releases viral DNA into the nucleus. HSV replicates by three rounds of transcription that yield: alpha (immediate early) proteins that mainly regulate viral replication; beta (early) proteins that synthesise and package DNA; and gamma (late) protei ns, most of which are virion proteins. Of the 84 known polypeptides, at least 47 are not needed for viral replication in cultured cells. These 47 genes are not completely dispensable. Some complement cellular genes that are not expressed in terminally differentiated cells; others alter cellular metabolism to ensure high virus yields. Mutant viruses lacking these genes cannot survive in nature. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The symptoms of genital herpes vary widely form person to person. Some people have severe symptoms (such as many painfu... ...Unlike the culture method, this test does not require growing the virus but rather seeks to identify herpes by the presence of antigens, fragments of the virus that are know to stimulate the immune response. Herpes cannot be cured. Once someone is infected with either virus, it cannot be cleared from the human body. Genital herpes is usually treated with antiviral drugs such as Acyclovir (Zovirax), Famciclovir (Famvir), and Valacyclovir (Valtrex) to help keep the virus in an inactive state and prevent most outbreaks but again does not cure a person from the virus. During an active herpes episode people should follow a few key steps to speed healing and avoid spreading the infection to other places on the body or to other people: Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Keep the infected area clean and dry to prevent other infections from developing Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Try to avoid touching the sores Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Wash you hands after contact with the sores Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Avoid sexual contact from the time the first symptom is felt until the sores are completely healed, that is, the scab has fallen off and new skin has formed where the sore was.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Bioterrorism is the terrorist act of manipulating natural components to sabotage an enemy. It has been around for thousands of years, but in different forms. To take a case in point, the article, Ã¢â¬Å"History of Bioterrorism,Ã¢â¬ states that the Assyrians poisoned the well of their enemies with rye ergot in the 6th Century B.C. More recent examples of bioterrorism include the anthrax inhalation from received mail in 2001 (Office of The Surgeon General). Although these are only recorded acts, there is a whole other story to what should happen once a victim is diagnosed with any type of bioterrorism and what treatment they should undergo, if one exists. For example, the medical response and treatment are different for anthrax, smallpox and tularemia. The medical response and treatment depend on the severity of the case and the type of bioterrorism. There are many factors that play into how a situation should be handled. For a start, the initial approach to a bioterrorist scene determines the outcome of the fatality of the situation. Also, the technique used to spread an infection is vital because it determines what method would be the best as a counter attack. For example, Robert Bourke states in his book Counter-Terrorism for Emergency Responders that, Ã¢â¬Å"vapor release from nerve or blister agents will require greater isolation and downwind distances [versus] a liquid spill,Ã¢â¬ (338). Another important factor to better the situation is distance and detection devices. First emergency responders should keep their distance for their own safety; Ã¢â¬Å"detection devices . . . will help in determining presence of agents and assigning isolation and evacuation distances,Ã¢â¬ (338). Bourke notes that, Ã¢â¬Å"the best method of detection for fir... ...orks Cited Burke, Robert. Counter-Terrorism for Emergency Responders. 2nd ed. Florida: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, 2007. Print. "Communicating in the First Hours Bioterrorism Agents." Bioterrorism Agents. CDC Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB), Division of Emergency Operations (DEO), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR), 14 May 2007. Web. 22 July 2012. . "History of Bioterrorism." Chronological. Office of The Surgeon General, Department of the Army, 1997. Web. 22 July 2012. http://www.bio-terry.com/HistoryBioTerr.html .Khardori, Nancy., ed. Bioterrorism Preparedness. Fedral Republic of Germany: Wiley- VCH, 2006. Print. Schlossberg, David. Medical Interventions for Bioterrorism and Emerging Infections. Pennsylvania: Handbook in Healthcare Co., 2004. Print.
Trainspotting: A Novel By Irvine Welsh Trainspotting is a captivating story of the random events that occur during a critical time in a group of Scottish junkies' lives. Irvine Welsh illustrates the confusion, anger and turmoil many heroin addicts are subjected to and what happens once they try to quit. The story is centered around Mark Renton, an ordinary twenty-two year old who was raised by a loving mother and father. He has two brothers: one was catatonic and the other was an overachiever. Through court-mandated therapy he was told he envied his parents and resented his older brother. This was what contributed to Rents (what his friends call him) starting to use heroin. Bit by bit the reader is introduced to Rents' friends, cousins, friends' of friends, parents, friends' parents, the list goes on. Anyone with relevance to the life of Mark Renton, the reader meets sooner or later. Everyone in Rents' life is messed up or gets that way somehow. His friend Begbie, for example, is an unhappy little man. He feels he has to make himself seem tough by surrounding himself with "friends" who do nothing but boost his ego by letting Begbie put them down. Aside from being on and off heroin, his good friend Danny Murphy, or Spud (as everyone calls him) is a habitual thief. His friend Simone is nicknamed Sick Boy for good reasons. When he is high he hears voices in his head willing him to do evil things. He likes t...
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Originally it was called British Atlantic Airways, later changed to Virgin Atlantic Airways. The first flight was from Gatwick to Netwark on the 22nd of June 1984 (Virgin Atlantic, 2012). The company launched a ? 6 m advertising campaign in 2010, which was James Bond themed (Guardian, 2010). The new advertisement helped the company recover from the recession. Now I will examine how exactly it was achieved and what methods were used to obtain the best performance of the advertisement. 2) Target Market. Market segmentation is a way of separating the consumers into different sections by their shared needs and personalities (Leon. G, 2010, p. 28). The needs and values depend from person to person according to his culture (Leon. G, 2010, p. 366). The VALS (values and lifestyles) segmentation system clearly shows the type of audience this commercial is aiming at (Leon. G, pp. 84). This system divides consumers into eight distinctive subcategories, which consist of: thinkers, achievers, experiencers, believers, strivers and makers. The subcategories this advertisement will appeal to are: innovators because they are receptive to new technologies and who can experience the innovated technologies at a Virgin Atlantic flight; achievers because they are goal oriented consumers who like to display success to their piers, which they can display by flying Virgin Atlantic as it is high class airlines; experiencers because they like to spend their income on fashion, socializing and entertainment which Virgin Atlantic offers through great service, food, entertainment and their flights are considered as Ã¢â¬ËtrendyÃ¢â¬â¢. The social comparison theory states that the consumer with higher purchase ability tends to have a higher status; this is a proof why achievers like to spend on luxurious products and services (Leon. G, 2010, p. 338). This commercial appeals to all the five effective target-marketing segments (Leon. G, 2010, p. 73). It is identifiable as it clearly distinguishes the shared needs, age and gender of the consumer. The consumer is a businessman or career orientated workingwoman who prefers high-class service. The age would appeal to Generation Y that is born from 1980 and on wards (Leon. G, 2010, p. 410). The Generation Y spends 150 billion annually and is into innovation and luxury while Generation X is considered as Ã¢â¬ËsophisticatedÃ¢â¬â¢ group. Virgin Atlantic Airways allows children ages 5 and above to travel or should be accompanied by an adult (16+). Pets are accepted if they accompany a disabled person (Virgin Atlantic, 2012). 3) Service offered. The marketing mix shows what kind of service/product is offered by dividing the elements to: product, price, place and promotion (Leon. G, 2010, p. 58). The service being offered is not just a flight from one destination to another; it is an experience at a high-class level of the Virgin Atlantic flight where the costumer will be served at a high class, with security, entertainment and with maximum comfort. It is a high-involvement purchase, which requires considerate thought and cognitive process, as the price is high (Leon. G, 2010, p. 231). The flight can be purchased online or at a flight ticket office. The company offers promotion such as: flying club card, ticket sales and discount codes/vouchers (Virgin Atlantic, 2012). The price and quality relationship the company has is low- price tickets in comparison with their competitors and with a high-class service. 4) Seasonality. The time of placing the advertisement is very important, as there are competing companies to take into consideration. The order effect research has shown that the advertisements presented first (primacy effect) and last (regency effect) has a greater effect on the consumer (Leon. G, 2010, p. 302). The release date was 26 October 2010, which was a great push to recovery from recession. British Airways and American Airlines are the biggest competitors. American Airlines released their commercial in May 2010, which had a primacy effect where as Virgin Atlantic Airlines gained a regency effect. The James Bond 007 Blood Stone video game was released on 5th of November 2010(IMDB, 2010). This shows that the commercial was released 10 days before the release date of the game. This strategy used by Virgin Atlantic is a very clever marketing move, as their advertisement is James Bond themed and during that period of time all sorts of media (TV, newspapers, online, word of mouth and billboards) had James Bond game advertisements. Virgin Airlines got increased attention to their advertisement by publishing their advertisement at time coinciding with Blood StoneÃ¢â¬â¢s release. 5) Positioning the commercial. The advertisement is transmitting through mass media as well as through new (non traditional) media (Leon. G, 2010, pp. 294-296). The commercial is played on TV where it addresses wide range of consumers (i. e. via mass media) and through YouTube where it is addressable and interactive, while response Ã¢â¬â measurable. It was also played during the flights on the Virgin Atlantic TV channel where it exclusively targets its audience (i. e. via target media). 6) Reason for the commercial. The consumer behavior consists of searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating, disposing of products and services that in their belief will fulfill their wants (Leon. G, 2010, p. 23). The commercial was created in order to persuade and make aware the audience of the fact that the service being offered by the airlines is luxurious, entertaining and high-class, to convince that this kind of service will satisfy there needs. ) Perception. Ã¢â¬Å"Perception is defined as the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world. Ã¢â¬ (Leon. G, 2010, p. 175) This advertisement appeals to emotional motives, which are affection, status and pride in this case (Leon. G, 2010, p. 110). The advertisements mood is sexually charged and is putting the buyer into a state of excitement by: James Bond themed music and graphics, illustrations of high-class adventure and good-looking actors in the commercial. Abraham Maslow created the MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of Needs, which identifies the five basic levels of human needs (Maslow, 1987). The advert is aiming to satisfy all the five needs of the potential consumer. Egoistic needs will be satisfied during the flight on these airlines, as it is illustrated as a prestigious flight. Egoistic needs include the need of good reputation, status and recognition from others, which advert convinces that the consumer will have, if he/she chooses Virgin Atlantic Airways. Need of Self-Actualization will be satisfies as shown in the advert, by flying on this flight the customer will feel self-actualized by getting high-class service which he/she deserved or earned themselves. Social Needs are to be satisfied by communication with good-looking staff. The Virgin Atlantic cabin crew was voted as the most attractive staff in the whole world by the surveys of travelers (Daily mail, 2011). Richard Branson has always stated that the appearance of the flight crew must be important in order make the customers enjoy a memorable flight. Cabin staff of Virgin Atlantic Airlines are told that: Ã¢â¬ËYouÃ¢â¬â¢ll be the face of the airline. As such, your grooming should always be immaculate Ã¢â¬â even after a long, tiring flightÃ¢â¬â¢ (Daily mail, 2011). As flying on an airplane has a small risk of security, the advert is aiming to convince that their flight is safe and is a pleasant experience where there is nothing to worry about. Physiological needs will be satisfied by the high-class food and beverage service that would be offered during the flight by good-looking staff. Air and shelter will also be present, as the designed with up to date technology. This commercial is aimed at visual consumers that prefer and take information better through visual images or messages as sources of information (Leon. G, 2010, p. 147). While watching the Virgin Atlantic advertisement repetitively on TV or Online passive learning is occurring and it changes the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude regarding the product (Leon. G, 2010, p. 232). The theme message delivered through this advert is: Ã¢â¬ËYour airlineÃ¢â¬â¢s either got it or it hasnÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ¢â¬â¢. There is a message resonance in the wording, which adds a bit of humor to it and will make the viewer remember the commercial (Leon. G, 2010, p. 301). The theme message has comparative advertising technique to it where Virgin makes the viewer compare their airlines to Virgin Atlantic (Leon. G, 2010, p. 303). The sexiness in advertising is present in order to grab the attention of the viewer (Leon. G, 2010, p. 308). The hostesses are wearing short dresses in red color and the man who is passing the security check hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t got underwear on. Virgin is trying to show that their flights are Ã¢â¬ËsexyÃ¢â¬â¢. This technique tries to show the security the airlines provide (angel like). The flight team is very good looking and is walking with self-assurance, which adds confidence to the image of the company. The runway lines and the red carpet represents the luxurious service. | | Transition from the safety demonstration to the airplane saloon is done without editing cuts, which is very eye-catching. | | The shot of people sitting around of a pool of martini and playing with the olive, which represents entertainment, beverage and luxury the airlines offer to their customers. 9) Buying process. Ã¢â¬Å"The consumer decision making can be viewed as three distinct but interlocking stages: the input stage, the process stage and the output stageÃ¢â¬ (Leon. G, 2010, p. 36). This advertisement is designed in order to influence the input and process stage in order to make the consumer come to the output stage. This advert influences and increases the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s recognition of the service ne ed. The information is delivered to the consumers through the marketing efforts of the commercial, which will influence not only media but also word of mouth marketing. The Psychoanalytical Theory of Personality created by Sigmund Freud explains the drivers of the output stage (Leon. G, 2010, pp. 137-139). According to FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory this commercial will affect superego and id to make the purchase. The superego will be gratified when purchasing this service because he/she will become socially and fashionably acceptable, as Virgin Atlantic flight is Ã¢â¬ËtrendyÃ¢â¬â¢. Id will be gratified if the consumer will make the purchase because the airlines offer the basic requirements such as food, shelter and security. The consumer will make a trial or a repeat purchase when buying this service (Leon. G, 2010, p. 497). The consumer might be new to the company or be a frequent loyal customer. 10) Involvement levels and risk perception. Involvement is a very important factor in how much attention is paid to the message sent to the viewer and how it is understood. There are different ways to measure the involvement of the viewer. There are two ways of involvement, high-risk and low-risk purchases. The higher the risk, the higher the involvement and research will be. The flight purchase is a low-involvement product and consumers prefer congruent context of the message delivered (Leon. G, 2010, p. 293). The mood of the consumer is very important, if he/she is in a bad mood, the content of the commercial might cause a bad reaction of the viewer. Psychological noise may be distracting the viewer from the commercial and the advertisement has contrast in the imagery in order to keep the viewers attention. 11) Conclusion. The advertisement created by the Virgin Atlantic airlines in my opinion was successful . The James Bond theme imageries and soundtrack had a great impact on the effectiveness of the commercial. Every time the consumer will watch James Bond movie or play a James Bond game, the commercial will subconsciously come to their mind and the other way around. The time it was released was perfect, as they needed a push to get out from the recession. The commercial had a bit too much sex advertisement in it, which may led to worse effect tan could have achieved and made the competitors (American Airlines) stand out more, as they had a touching TV commercial that gave gratitude to the men in uniform, veterans and their families. Sexual advertising may distract the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention from the message content being sent. This technique may have a little influence on the buyers purchasing intentions and a risk of spoiling the image of the company. This advert is targeting businessman, but there is the family audience with children and generation X, which they are risking of loosing. The commercial is based mostly on emotions and only in one short scene the viewer can see the seats with the monitors. The saloons, seats and the exact food of Virgin Atlantic Airlines are not shown, but they are very important to be shown, as the consumer wants to see the comfort he/she will have during the flight. The fact that the advertisement shows a man being tucked into a cloud and not airplane seat could make an impression that the airlines are hiding something and their seats are not good enough to be shown in the advertisement. This advertisement could have been improved by focusing the viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention much more on the design of the saloon, comfortable seats and delicious food. Nonetheless, overall this was a very well executed and effective advertisement with successfully reached hearts and minds of customer.