Monday, September 30, 2019

Federalists Essay

Linda Kerber described the predicaments of the Federalists, a political party whose members feared that popular democracy might spin out of control. Although they both fostered economic development, the Federalists were aware that an urban grassroots would result. The believers of the Federalist Party believed that Jefferson’s approach to politics was naive. The early stages of industrialization and urban growth were providing the ingredients of a working class; already existing was an unpredictable class of permanently poor who might well be available for mob action. The God or the religious beliefs of the Federalists often appeared to behave like a fourth branch of Government. They believed that religious obligation would reinforce moral obligation and would make popular government orderly and stable. On the other hand the Jeffersonian supporters felt they should break down the barrier of habitual morality (religion), with the interruption of education, habit and superstitions they were confident they would have a more positive vice. Drew R. McCoy spoke of â€Å"The Fears of the Jeffersonian Republicans†. Jefferson and his supporters predicted the challenges for the future of the United States. They were fearful of creating a dependent class; he envisioned huge tracts of land being farmed by righteous residents of the young republic. In keeping their independence from the British they encouraged production â€Å"within our families†, but for the finer manufactures, they would continue to rely on importations from abroad. New forms of employment needed to be created in order to keep the moral and political advantages of America up. The largest fears were of an uprising of the working class people and independent revolutions. Ben Franklin recognized that corruption could result from both natural and artificial causes. Jefferson was always faced with the reality of his plan failing constantly reminded by the thought of the decline of the Roman Empire. I found this Chapter to be the hardest to read, I researched other sources to understand and get through the politics of this chapter. I found the internet website www. answers. com/topic/republicans-jeffersonian to be most helpful. The reading and rational was made for the freshman U.  S. History student. I was able to acknowledge the fact that the Federalists Convention was the process of breaking free from the British Empire. By the mid-eighteenth century a large proportion of adult white males in the colonies possessed the suffrage while also enjoying the privileges of a free press and some freedom of religious worship The colonies in other words, had grown apart from the mother country, their inhabitants had begun to think of themselves as Americans, and, not surprisingly, they proved unreceptive to attempts to bring them to strengthen.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Constructivist Approach

I think when a secondry student starts learning new language for the first time in school It is very useful and important that the feeling of freedom of action they were to thought and responds. Consructivist approach is a helpful way to get a new trainee interested in learning English as a second language. When a students begins to learn,they rest and concern whould are not just for remembering and memorizing. unfortunately, in most of our public schools, The teacher was alone as the center of attention And only he is eloquent and the rest of the learning is specific to the subject matter of the book and the examinations and questions include just book content. Even behaviourism has not been implemented, and lack of the build-up,beginners have begun teaching of the same lesson without making innovation and research and thought of students in relation to the culture that they are learning the language and have no participation, their interest It reduces the scope of research in that branch. The teacher is written not only as a guide but as an absolute spokesman who only reads the contents of the book and students have to memorize the word of their words and questions are written without any stimulation of the initiative and the action of students from the concrete content of the curriculum. Dont give them any experience and just impact their behaviour.In this condition reinforcement and punishment is become more important.Student just imitating teacher and learning is done through repititon.They have no volountry to control their reflex to stimulus and response. These students continue to maintain and provide repetitive lessons without learning to take initiative and collaborate with their other classmates, even in the curriculum.The lack of psychological knowledge and no image of the culture of the target language of the teacher leads to the development of students without initiative and interaction.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Mcdonald’s History

McDonald’s Bar-B-Que, was a â€Å"Drive-in Restaurant† in 1940 which was conceptualized by Richard (Dick) and Maurice (Mac) McDonald’s. Drive-in concept was a new and unique idea to adapt which caught everyone’s attention (Our Company, 2011). The initial mascot of the famous fast food restaurant was â€Å"Speedee. † â€Å"Speedee† was a hamburger-headed man wearing a chef’s hat (McDonald’s, 2011). However, running a restaurant is not a piece of cake, thus, by 1948 they made alterations in their menu by reducing the available food items and calls itself a â€Å"self-service drive-in restaurant. The new nine items presented in 1948 were: hamburger, cheeseburger, soft drinks, milk, coffee, potato chips and a slice of pie (Our Company, 2011). In the following year potato chips were replaced by French fries along with additional ‘triple thick milkshakes. ’ In 1954, enters a new significant character for McDonald’s, Ray Kroc. He was fascinated by the profitable new concept by the brothers whom produced best quality product, on the contrary to providing a small menu in a small restaurant. At the same time the Dick and Mac McDonald’s were in search of an agent to help them begin nationwide franchising (Our Company, 2011). Their vision turned into reality by the help of Ray Kroc. In 1955, Kroc opens a McDonald’s in Desplaines, Illinois which brought in a lot of cash for the corporation (History, 2011). And by the end of 1950s they managed to open 100 McDonald’s restaurant. Following decade started, the 60s, McDonald being itself, so successful, opened a Hamburger University in Illinois. During this year they created McDonald into a proper restaurant with indoor seating (Our Company, 2011). They received their first TV commercial hit via their new mascot Ronald in 1966. In the following year, 1967, McDonald’s goes international and today, 2011, it has restaurants in 118 countries all around the world. It is now known to be the world’s largest hamburger fast food restaurant serving more than 52 million customers daily (History, 2011). And Thailand ranked as number 28 by nation master manages to have approximately 88 McDonalds’ restaurants (Food Statistics, 2011). In 1985, the first McDonald’s restaurant opened in Amarin Plaza, Bangkok, Thailand. McDonald provides protein-full menus including: chicken, pork, beef and seafood. Throughout time McDonald’s in Thailand has embraced the early-morning working culture and started Big Breakfast. Moreover, they also present customer favorites such as McNuggets, burgers, fried chicken and ice cream (History, 2011). Although, McDonald’s in Thailand follow strict 5 operating principles or philosophy you may call it which includes QSC & V. These letters represent: Quality, Service, Cleanliness and Value. McDonald’s main focus is to produce 100% total customer satisfaction. However, focusing on the 5 figure formula to operate McDonald’s successfully; firstly, quality, is regarding the food presented to the customers. For example, McDonald’s consistently provides their customers with healthy, best standard and tasty products. Secondly, service embraces the efficient and friendly service available at McDonald’s. Their focus on service makes sure that McDonald’s can maximize customer satisfaction offering full help via provided techniques and training. Thirdly, cleanliness was first magnified by Ray Kroc back in 1955. From that day till today, McDonald’s makes sure they present themselves cleanly. Cleanliness in a fast food restaurant has to deal with a clean kitchen, dining area, rest rooms and the exterior. Lastly, value is all about the experience you pay for and prices of the products at McDonald’s. The experience they allow you to have is the environment, fine service and enjoyable food (QSC&V, 2011). Reference http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd/our_company/mcd_history.html?

Friday, September 27, 2019

Analyze a science news article on microbes Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Analyze a science news on microbes - Article Example It is also used in the evaluation process of different brands of food. The program is primarily based on excel sheet which makes it easier for the user to manage and maintain. It also helps an individual in the process of quick cost analysis and has tools in it to help evaluate the existing formulas of the items used in the food product. The program can communicate with other software and helps in creating the perfect formula for the food item. Major food companies are using the computer software TechWizard for the process of food analysis and making cost effective decisions. The labeling of food ingredients is easy and helps in identifying the quality of the product. The software has made the job of food labeling easier and helps maintain standard quality product. It is manageable and easy to use, making it one of the best food processing software in the market (Owl Software

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Corporations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Corporations - Essay Example This is particularly the reason behind the constant application of law within the systems accepted by the organization as per guided by the local governments seeing through the operations of the said business groups. In this side of the situation, the fact that corporation has the advantage of enjoying the limited liability guideline is one of the most important laws that had been created to at least assist in the process of incorporating legalities in the business operations of the organization within and even outside the territories of the said business group. However, to be able to understand the matter well, it is first important to know what limited liability actually stands for and how much it naturally affects the ventures of the business as an entity in the field of international commerce systems. Most people are not willing to risk everything to go into business. Yet for a business to grow and prosper as well as create abundance for the owners of the said entities, many people would have the need to be willing to invest money in it. The way to solve this particular issue among hopeful entrepreneurs was to create an artificial being, one particular entity that existed only in the eyes of the law- a business group, a corporation that is noted as an individual that has its personal rights and personal advantages and disadvantages of existence. In this phase of the writing, the advantages of corporal creations are to be discussed. Advantage to have more money for investment Limited liability Advantages to business size Advantages to having perpetual life Advantages to engage in the ease of ownership changes Advantages in easing the drawing of talented employees Advantages in creating separations of the corporation ownership from the management As observed, one of the most important advantages that the corporation has from the other forms of businesses is that of the limited liability advantage of the organization. Likely, this advantage involves the responsibility held up towards the owners that are only in balance with the amount of finances that they have invested in the business. It is considered that this particular advantage is natural gift to the formation of corporation. The safety of the monetary investment of the owners is well protected through the provision of the limited liability advantages of the creation of corporations. Having businesses like this is a huge advantage for many entrepreneurs at present especially during the existing economic turmoil. Corporation owners are the ones having the best possible advantages in this scenario. Since corporations are able to extend their business sizes, their profits could naturally increase without necessarily increasing the amount of investment that they have primari ly contributed to the establishment of the organization. Hence, as a result, if in any case the business fails, the amount of financing contribution that is lost by the owner could only amount to the investment that he or she has further used as a capital for the establishment

The Business Aspect of The Firm Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The Business Aspect of The Firm - Essay Example The struggle by Amalgamated Manufacturing to make profit shows that the business aspect of the firm is not doing well. Profit maximization depends on costs of operation and revenues generated (Moyer, et al. 2008). Costs of operation should be minimized and revenues maximized. The goals of the form therefore include: expound business aspect, minimize cost of operation and improve sales of electronic components in order to maximize revenues. In expounding the business aspect, the firm may need to conduct consumer research in a bid to identify the loopholes characteristic of its products in the market. Customer satisfaction is fundamental in pursuing profitability of the firm. This is because; they seek to maximize their utility at the minimum cost possible. On the same note, revenues and costs determine profitability. Revenues are generated from sales volume, and it is therefore essential to boost sales in the pursuit of profits. Agency problem depicts an aspect of conflict of interest between the principal and the agent. The principal requires that the agent pursues goals and objectives set by the principal. Sometimes an agent pursues other goals and objectives other than those set by the principal, resulting in an agency problem (Moyer, et al. 2008) In the case of Amalgamated Manufacturing, conflict of interest may arise between the owner(s) of the firm and the manager(s). Owner(s) may want to maximize profits, while the manager(s) may seek to pursue another set of activities before the profit motive. These differences therefore result in conflicting ideas of the right time to push for profitability. The firm therefore may continue to struggle for profitability as a result of the characteristic agency problem.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Parents Involvement in Childrens Education Essay

Parents Involvement in Childrens Education - Essay Example This essay stresses that a child’s first three years is the basis for his/her cognitive growth and this is why the family part in these years of development is crucial. The family setting in which a child grows influences his/her activities, observations, communication skills, conducts and motives, which are indeed the key elements in shaping the child’s literary experiences. On this perspective, it is evident that families are the main context of learning for the children and a supportive environment will make a positive difference, particularly in their educational success. This paper makes a conclusion that children who are nurtured well in their family environment tend to be better competent in their social and educational spheres even in the later stages of life. However, differences in these settings will contribute to variations in patterns of learning among the children. This is why children brought up at different levels of families tend to act differently, in accord to the way in which they were raised. Thus, family environment is the main context of learning for the children as it will boost up their educational attainment to a greater level, when nurtured in the right way. The relationship between the parental aspirations and the children’s educational outcomes is complex as it is interrelated with various other social, economic and psychological aspects. It is evident from various researches that the expectations of the parents tend to impact the achievement of the children to a considerable level. Parents who have higher expectations on their children tend to involve more in their learning activities, which would

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Hourly rounding Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Hourly rounding - Essay Example The theory argues that behavior is a vigorous balance of forces that function in contrasting directions (Kaminski, 2011, p.1). Through the unfreeze concept of the change theory, the staff will go through preparation for change; thus, accept the need for change (Kaminski, 2011, p.1). The author argues that unfreeze concept then leads to change among the stakeholders; hence, the refreeze stage (Kaminski, 2011, p.1). The execution of the hourly rounding plan is created in a way that sees to the implementation of the change theory through improving on the aspects that enhance patient contentment and also to transform the ideals and culture of the hospital. This theory will also be functional in forecasting on delivery of care and assessing the phases involved in the series of planning, the actions involved and an assessment of outcomes of the action by the staff (Kaminski, 2011, p.1). Lastly, it is palpable that patient falls is a calamity that has cost the health sector a great deal. It is also perceptible that a lot of resources have been shifted to a reduction of patient falls. In order to trim down the implications of this adverse event, it is evident that hourly rounding needs to be adopted. From the work, hourly rounding will undeniably lead to a turn down of these falls; thus, a cutback in the costs involved in managing the falls. It is recommended that the health institutions resolve the degree to which they apply hourly rounding as a remedy to patient falls in their workplace. This correlates to the verity that, it is the duty of the hospital managers to make sure that the health institutions take on hourly rounding as a tradition of the health facilities if patient falls have to decrease. With research authenticating the reliability of hourly rounding in decreasing patient falls drastically, it is the exclusive liability of the hospital managers, thus, to adopt the same in intervening on the concern of patient falls.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Law Of International Insurance contracts Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Law Of International Insurance contracts - Essay Example The Convention recognized the inherent risks of the aviation industry, thus, it seek to protect the airline companies by putting limitations on its liabilities towards it passengers and cargo. To strike a balance between protecting the interest of the airline companies and protecting the welfare of the passengers, the framers of the Warsaw Convention 1929 instituted provisions that define the certain terms. Section 17 of the Warsaw convention specifically said that, â€Å"The carrier is liable for damage sustained in the event of the death or wounding of a passenger or any other bodily injury suffered by a passenger, if the accident which caused the damage so sustained took place on board the aircraft or in the course of any of the operations of embarking or disembarking. â€Å" The definition of â€Å"accident† according to the Warsaw Convention has been the subject of many debates and arguments in and outside of the courts for several years. In settling arguments, the courts have defined the word â€Å"accident† in many decided cases both in the United States and the in the United Kingdom. To get a clearer picture of how the courts define the word â€Å"accident† and how this definition has affected the insurable interests of aircrafts and their passengers, let us take a closer look at the leading cases decided by the Courts. The definition of the word â€Å"accident† in the airline industry is the same in both the United States and the United Kingdom. Note that the Warsaw Convention was meant to establish a uniform liability of airline companies towards their passengers thus, the courts, in defining the word â€Å"accident† according to Article 17 of the convention, adopt a more or less interpretation. According to the provisions of the Warsaw Convention, it is not enough that the carrier failed to convince the court that it took all necessary

Sunday, September 22, 2019

What Music Can Teach Us About Unity Essay Example for Free

What Music Can Teach Us About Unity Essay Music teaches you how to live, it makes you feel emotions, and explains things and situations. Music can motivate, encourage, and energize. Music holds a powerful position. Music can travel across country borders, barbed wire, and conflict. Music cannot be beaten, stolen, jailed, insulted. Music is not one person’s claim; no one can own music. Music can be interpreted according to you; theres no right or wrong way. Music is a language that can be understood universally without translation. In times of need and sadness music has the ability to unite people across cultures. Musicians are given the power to use their music as a bridge to change and social advocacy. After World War II there was a period of time of unparalleled energy. African American soldiers had returned from war and demanded equal rights. Numerous ways of resisting racial segregation and discrimination included civil disobedience, protests, boycotts, and marches. The people who would fight for their American freedom did so without a weapon to kill or the urge to kill. They had one means of protection, however, music. With a strong mind, a song in their heart, a want to be free, they sang through the thickness. Music was a fundamental part of the Civil Rights Movement. Music had given them courage. When non-violent protestors came together they faced beatings, fire hoses, shootings, and jail. They didn’t have any source of protection other than the strength they gained from music. People that went through these trying times , â€Å"sang, in order to uplift their spirits and keep their minds focused on what they were trying to achieve.† (45, Hast) Not only can music cause unity to fight for a cause but it can also bring people together to help out others. On January 12, 2010 Haiti suffered a 7.0 magnitude earthquake. There were 316,000 lives lost (Archibold). Musicians came together in order to create â€Å"We Are the World 25 for Haiti† a remake the 1985 recording for Africa. Within three days of releasing the song had sold over 267,000 downloads. People came together to purchase a song that was created by over eighty musicians (Who). The money was put forward to help with the aid and restoration of a country that did not have enough  resources to care for all of it’s people. The creation of one song brought together the globe in order to raise awareness. In history, sometimes, two opposing sides have been known to come together in peace. Granted, not often in song, but it can happen. In 1914, World War I launched the first substantial European war of the 20th century. Soldiers were told they would have a victory by Christmas but it was a false hope as it lasted for four years.On Christmas Eve of 1914 the British saw the Germans lighting candles and holding small Christmas trees. The message was clear: the Germans, who celebrated Christmas on December 24, were giving holiday greetings to the opposing side. â€Å"And then they sang ‘Silent Night’ ‘Stille Nacht.’†(Vinciguerra) Both sides laid down their weapons and joined in the middle. There was an undeclared truce. Even though the war resumed on December 26th there was still a welcomed pause. One song, a holiday necessity, had shown unity between two opposing sides. Gifts were traded and hands were shaken. A song had stopped a war. Unity is a condition of harmony. When people unite they come together for a common purpose. Unity is friendship, family, alliances. It is being undivided; standing together in both positive times and harsh times. It is multiple parts working together to create one great system. Unity is when people work better together than divided. Every second period of junior year, I would walk to the far side of Oakcrest High School and enter band class. I would pull out my beaten case and construct my alto saxophone for the one-thousand-three-hundred-and-twenty-second time. Second row up in front of Mr. Schwartz is where you can find me hidden behind a music stand. On that stand would be a foreign language; just dots mottled on the pages. I know how to decode that language. I can play that language in three different dialects: saxophone, piano, and clarinet. But, that isn’t the impressive part. When everyone would calm down, when the drummers ceased banging on snare drums, when trumpets stopped running their scales we would start. We didn’t just play our instruments. The clarinets begin with melody playing soft runs and mallet percussion help them reach their goal of measure eight.  There, trumpets begin a fanfare that could be played at a royal procession. All of the instruments meet up at measure twenty-five with melodies and harmonies with the bass drum matching with our ecstatic heartbeats. Music can not be achieved without unity. Even soloists, just one body and one instrument, can create unity through phrasing and technique. But, with a band it is much greater than that. A band cannot succeed if every member plays at 95%. Everyone must play everything correct or the piece falls apart. It is easy to depend on one person, but when there is forty people is when trust really takes place. A band becomes a well oiled machine with numerous parts creating one large system of beauty, defiance, and majesty all in one composition. Music can teach us about unity. This is vital because unity is something that keeps the world functioning. Whether it is a school ensemble, a youth group, a sports team, a business, or a government unity needs to be practiced. Everyone must be able to be on the same path to reach the same goals. The question may be asked, why if unity is so important that it is absent in so many teams? We see teams of all sorts as being dysfunctional. This is because it isn’t simple to be unified. There are always going to be obstacles and negative forces getting in the way of perfect unity. That is why we must look at what music can teach us. It shows the hours of sitting at home with song recordings and sheet music trying to form that perfect sound. It shows the hours of rehearsals where the band director formulates how to make the trombones and the baritone saxaphone play together in perfect harmony. If we can look at the unity of Lynyrd Skynyrd in â€Å"Freebird† or Led Zeppelin in â€Å"Stairway to Heaven† or Metallica in â€Å"Nothing Else Matters† we can learn from them. Maybe we could fix some things. When it is noticed that musicians can realize that without practice and pacifism towards others in band can truly accomplish things. It is hard to relate music to government but if the government could see what musicians can accomplish maybe they could accomplish more. Government is vital and there needs to be compromises, however, so much time is put into just winning the election that they forget why they are really there. They are there to compose their own music (laws) and the only way they can do that is if they  can work together in unity. Music has certain powers that other things do not. Music can break down social boundaries, halt wars, and raise awareness. Unity can bring people together in order to create a purpose. Music can teach us about unity and the way we should be living our lives. We need to have courage, we need to stop conflict, and we need to notice other people than ourselves. Music has the ability to do all of this. Music has the ability to change the world one note at a time. Works Cited Archibold, Randal C. Haiti: Quakes Toll Rises to 316,000. The New York Times. 14 Jan. 2011. The New York Times. 20 Dec. 2012 . Hast, Dorothea E. Exploring the world of music. 2nd ed.: Kendall/Hunt Company, 1999. Vinciguerra, Thomas. The Truce of Christmas, 1914. The New York Times 25 Dec. 2005. 13 Dec. 2012 . Who Do You Think You Are? Season Two. NBC.com. 20 Dec. 2012 .

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Models of Information System Security

Models of Information System Security People who use the application will be made to install different levels of gateways and smart meters in their homes. The main security issue occurs at the authentication of these gateways and smart meters. Each smart device will be provided with an IP address. Attack can happen on these devices by reporting false readings on the smart meters, spoofing the IP address. There are some solution for the authentication problem. Public key infrastructure can be used in this case. Dieffie-Hellman key exchange proposes that smart meters can encrypt the data before it sends it to fog devices, Then the device are made to decrypt the data. Intrusions in smart grid can be detected by using a signature based method where any discrepancy in the pattern can be detected and raise a flag on possible misbehaviors. Biometric authentication is the most beneficial authentication method that could be used to provide accessibility. Biometric authentication like fingerprint authentication, facial recognition, eye retina recognition, etc. can be used in fog computing based authentication. There could be discrepancy in the authentication through man in the middle attack, mitigation of data theft, etc. Techniques based on infrastructure such as Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) could be made to solve the problem, trusted executed environment (TEE) can also be considered in fog cloud computing. Measurement based method can be used to filter fake or unqualified fog cloud that is not within the vicinity of the end users which in turn will reduce the authentication cost. 4.2 USER ACCESS AND INTRUSION DETECTION Providing a control to access smart devices and cloud has always been a reliable tool which ensure the security of the system. Access control on cloud is achieved by exploiting techniques of several encryption schemes to build a access control in cloud computing. Intrusion detection techniques have been applied to mitigate attacks on virtual machine or hypervisor. Those intrusion detection systems can be applied on host machine to detect intrusions. 4.3 PRIVACY Since storage and computation are sufficient for both sides in a fog cloud , privacy-preserving techniques can be proposed. Privacy preservation algorithms can be run in between the fog and cloud since computation and storage are sufficient for both sides. We need privacy preserving techniques because users these days are more concerned about the risk of privacy leakage. Fog node usually collects data generated by sensor and end devices. Techniques like homomorphic encryption can be used to allow privacy-preserving aggregation at the local gateways without decryption. For statistical queries differential privacy method can be applied to ensure privacy of an arbitrary single entry in the data set. 4.4 TRUST MODEL In services like eCommerce, peer-to-peer (P2P), user reviews and online social networks reputation based trust model can be successfully implemented. Reputation based trust model is a simple method where parties are made rate each other after parties give their ratings a trust or reputation score is derived from the rates. A robust reputation system was proposed for resource selection in P2P networks using a distributed polling algorithm to assess the reliability of a resource.   We will have to tackle issues like ,   how to achieve persistent , unique and distinct identity   , how to treat intentional and accidental misbehavior. Apart from the models discussed above there are also trusting models based on special hardware such as Secure Element (SE), trusted Execution Environment (TEE) , or Trusted Platform Module (TPM), which can provide trust utility in fog computing applications. 4.5 POLICY DRIVEN SECURITY Policy collaboration is an important component in the middle layer of a fog computing model. Policy collaboration is introduced to support secure sharing and communication in a distributed environment. Since fog computing also involves communication with a physical component interaction this requirement gives rise to a new set of security problems which involves identity management, resource access management, dynamic load balancing, quality of service etc. Policy driven framework consists if the following modules. Policy decision engine : This module is programmed to make aggregated decisions on data provided by all components. Based on service requested by the target user, this engine analyzes the rules defined in policy repository and generates a decision which is later on enforced. Application administrator : The multi-tenant nature of the fog computing paradigm raises the requirement for an administrator to define policies and rules that bind a user to applications and allow secure collaboration and migration of client data across multiple functions that are owned by the application. Policy repository : A secure repository consisting of rules and policies which are referred by the Policy Decision engine while policy decision is made is called policy repository. Policy enforcer : policy enforcer is the most active component of the policy management framework . It resides within a virtual instance or cloud computing data center or within physical device such as mobile device , GPS system and connected vehicles. 4.6 MAN IN THE MIDDLE ATTACK: This is the most typical attack in fog computing. In this type of attack gateways serving as fog devices may be compromised or replaced by fake ones. Environment settings of stealth test: Man in the middle attack can be very stealthy in fog computing paradigm. This type of attack will consume very less resource in fog devices like , negligible CPU utilization and negligible memory consumption. Therefore traditional methods cannot expose  man in the middle attack. Man in the middle attack is simple to be launched but difficult to be addressed. Many applications running in fog computing environment are vulnerable to man in the middle attack. In future work is needed to address man-in-the middle attack in fog computing 4.7 MITIGATION OF DATA THEFT: Cloud computing faces new data security challenges. Existing protection mechanisms like encryption havent reached their mark in preventing theft attacks. To overcome it , a new technique was proposed monitor data access in the cloud and detect abnormal data access patterns. When unauthorized access is suspected and then verified using challenge question , a disinformation attack by returning large amounts of tricky information to the attacker. This protects against the misuse of the users real data. User behavior profiling : owners or authorized users of a computer systems are usually familiar with the files on the system .So any search on the files is limited and will have a pattern. When the data is accessed illegitimately there might be a familiar structure in contents of file system. This abnormal search behaviors that exhibit variations are monitored. Decoy technology: Trap files are placed within the file system. The trap files are downloaded by user are placed in highly conspicuous locations that are not like to cause interference with normal activity of the system. User who is not familiar with the file system is most likely to access the decoy files ,if the user is in for sensitive documents. So they can be trapped by using bait files. In some cases both these techniques can be combined to safeguard the data from theft.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Behaviourist And Cognitive Approach To Learning Theories

Behaviourist And Cognitive Approach To Learning Theories The two main influential learning approaches are the behaviourist and the cognitive approach to learning theories. This report critically evaluates how learning theories are applied in the 14-19 Applied Science classroom. It examines how behaviourism, although an outdated theory, is still relevant in the modern classroom and is still used in developing the rewards and sanctions policies of the modern school. The impact of Piagets theory of cognitive development is evaluated and what possible difficulties might arise if they were applied exactly as Piaget dictated. The impact of adhering rigorously to Piaget maturational stages is criticised and how it might not be possible to adhere to set ages for progression in a school. Kolb, Vygotsky and Bruners constructivist approaches are compared and shown that, when applied to a motivated class they work as they were originally intended and yet when applied to a more disaffected class, they arent as easily applied. The science classroom is an inherently dangerous place for students to work in (Frost, Turner 2005, p.168). It is therefore necessary to instil a level of discipline in the students, to ensure they minimize the dangers to themselves and others in the science classroom. It is necessary to condition (Child 1997, pp.114-121)the students to behave when certain commands are issued. Behaviour theorists believed that the mind was a blank slate tabula rasa and that we could observe the response to stimulus that happened to an organism. Watson thought that a response is more likely to be connected to an environmental event (stimulus), if that stimulus-response is repeated regularly and with a short period of time between them (Child 1997, p.115). Thorndike showed that the student is less likely to repeat negative stimulus-responses, which therefore means that there will be an increase in the positive stimulus-responses, until a correct response is repeated regularly. The stimulus-response is then reinforced whenever a positive result is produced.(Child 1997, pp.114-121). Skinner made several conclusions from his findings in Operant Conditioning (Child 1997, pp.119-121). The steps taken in the conditioning process must be small. Regular rewards are required at the early stages, but once the conditioning is reflexive, rewards can be given less regularly. The rewards must come immediately or shortly after a positive response to ensure maximum effectiveness (feedback) (Child 1997, pp.114-121) When discussing learning theories, its necessary to mention Pavlov due to the importance held in his work, even if it doesnt really directly affect the classroom. Pavlov pioneered the idea of classical conditioning with his famous experiment where he taught dogs to salivate, when a stimulus was applied, just before food was given to them. The dogs eventually associated the ringing of the bell with the arrival of food and salivated in anticipation of the food arriving (Child 1997, pp.116-118). Pavlovs work does not directly link to teaching in the classroom, but it does apply, in that the students may be conditioned, to have a memory or a response to an event that happens within the classroom environment. During my lessons I tried to implement Watson, Thorndikes and Skinners theory of Operant Conditioning in the classroom to modify the behaviour of the class. The goal was to condition the students to reflexively stop talking when I moved to a certain area of the room; using the theory that the students would repeat behaviour that received a positive response, and not repeat behaviour that received a negative response. I initially started to modify their behaviour by moving to the left of the front desk, holding my hand up and waiting for silence in the same spot, every time I required them to stop talking and listen. Initially it was necessary to ask for silence and remind them that I was waiting to talk. In some cases it was necessary to issue a sanction as per the science departments rules of two warnings, then issuing a detention or keeping them in for part of their break if, if they didnt stop talking quickly enough. If the class stopped talking quickly, they would be rewarded wit h praise and if the lesson had gone well a class reward of a game or competition at the end, if it was appropriate. Positive feedback about performance is said to have a positive effect on future performance. Skinner called it reinforcement; Thorndike called it The Law of Effect.(Child 1997, pp.115-121) McAllister et al. (1969) found that praising students not only acted as a positive reinforcement of behaviour, but that the praise may have also worked by causing peer group pressure in the class to reduce inappropriate behaviour, because the negative behaviour reflected on the class as a whole (McAllister et al. 1969). Banduras Social Learning Theory would say that the students were not only being conditioned to respond to the teacher, but also learning from their peers actions as to what was appropriate behaviour in the classroom.(Atherton 2009) By the end of the six weeks, the students were starting to respond to the successive approximation as described by Skinner (Child 1997, p.121)positively and required reminding less that I was waiting to talk to them. It was evident that they much preferred the positive response of listening and being allowed to continue with whatever activity I had planned, to the negative response of not listening and receiving a sanction, before continuing with the activity I had planned. It could be said that they were suffering from Learned Helplessness (Atherton 2009a)and had given up on being able to change the lesson by negative behaviour. Due to the need to provide a safe working environment in the classroom, I also worked on the class responding to the command STOP when they were carrying out laboratory work. The idea being that if STOP was said loudly to the whole class, that they automatically stop what they are doing, stop talking, turn to where the teacher is in the classroom and prepare for instructions that are important or safety related. In the early stages of conditioning, continuous reinforcement is needed to establish the Stimulus-Response link.(Child 1997, p.119) The difficulties whilst trying to implement these theories was down to the amount of time involved in getting the students responding to the stimulus positively. The theory of being able to reward the students for responding positively and sanction them if they dont isnt appropriate in this situation, due to the serious nature of the command. If the students dont respond to it, it could ultimately end up with dire consequences in an emergency situation. The STOP command in particular was a difficult one to implement due to its infrequent use and the seriousness of its use that was implied to the students. If the command was overused, then it would lose its importance as something serious, but on the other hand if it wasnt practiced enough, the students would not respond appropriately when the command was issued. Another interesting situation that arose was from the attention-monopolising students, in that the more demanding students are prepared to put up with the minor inconvenience of the negative reinforcement if they get the attention time from the teacher. (McAllister et al. 1969) Seeing the students more frequently, I am sure that they could be conditioned quicker and show the innate response more readily than when I was only able to see them a few times a week. Behaviourism is evidently still relevant in the modern school (McQuillan 1998), even if it is a somewhat outdated theory. Schools still have their sanctions policies based around Operant Conditioning and negative reinforcement with various levels of warnings and detentions in place for negative behaviour. This will remain effective for as long as policy makers allow these sanctions to be used. However, Skinners belief that we are all blank slates and what goes on inside our black boxes (Child 1997, pp.119-121) when we learn is not important, is not relevant anymore.(Child 1997, pp.113-121) The students I have worked with and taught are all very unique in their personalities and show completely different ways of learning. To say that the learning processes they go through are only related to external stimulus and their response to that stimulus does not correlate with what has been observed in the classroom. Constructivist Theory has played a big part in the current educational environment in schools. Driver and Easley introduced constructivism as it is known now to the science community in 1978. (Solomon 1994, p.3)They stated what was previously an inaccessible theory for science, accessible to the scientific educational community. The 14-19 classroom allows us to look at how Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development is applied. Piaget observed that children go through four distinct stages of cognitive maturation (Burton 2001, pp.237-239) Stages of Cognitive Development (Atherton 2009b) In the 14-19 classroom, according to Piagets theory, all the students have reached the Formal Operational stage of cognitive development and are capable of developing hypothetical situations and understand abstract concepts. Students should be able to apply their understanding of a situation and in theory be able to hypothesise what would happen in a given event. (Child 1997, pp.191-207) From experience it is clear that not all students reach the Formal Operation stage at the same time and in fact the 11 year and up boundary is not as clear cut as that (Child 1997, p.202-203). Within my Year 9 KS3 classes the majority of the students were at the Formal Operation stage of development and were capable of taking an abstract idea, such as levers and moment of a force and applying their knowledge and understanding to derive the equation for calculating the moment of a force themselves. A complex operation that required the students to both assimilate and accommodate (Child 1997, p.192) the new information they were processing, a task which some found difficult, but all were able to eventually complete. With the Year 10 Applied Science class only a small portion of the class were at the point where they could process abstract information or make a hypothesis. Unlike the year nine class they had to be walked through every new concept step by step (Burton, 2001 p241). When they were given the task of hypothesising why something had happened, for example, where did the glowing light from heated calcium carbonate come from, they were unable to comprehend that the glowing was not related to the heating itself, but was actually an endothermic reaction. Even with a step by step explanation and clearly showing how the reaction was occurring, only a small portion of the class were able to assimilate and accommodate the schema. Teaching at middle and upper school level should begin from concrete considerations, building up, where applicable, to more abstract reasoning.'(Child 1997, p.203). Piagets theory of distinct maturational stages poses an interesting problem for teachers and educational authorities. Should a student be moved into a more advanced class or year because of their age, or should they move up a level when they reach a stage in their learning ability? From experience with the two different classes, its quite apparent that these boundaries are not as clear as Piaget was led to believe. If a school was to teach students based on their stage of cognitive development; how long could a student be held back for, before the age gap between their classmates was too much? Some students may after all never reach the Formal Operations stage. Vygotskys theory says that the childs higher mental processes are developed through the child working with other more knowledgeable persons than themselves.(Kozulin 2003, p.19). He theorised that there was a Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) that was the boundary between a childs Zone of Actual Performance and their potential level of understanding. The child can access their ZPD with the assistance of a more competent (Kozulin 2003, p.20) person guiding them.(Chaiklin 2003, p.43) Vygotskys Social Constructivist theory moved away from the didactic approach of teaching, which often led to students developing their own misconceptions and not being able to apply their scientific knowledge flexibly to new situations (Karpov 2003, pp.67-73), to a more socially guided, active approach to learning, where students learnt from their teacher, peers and themselves. Kolbs four stage experiential learning cycle, is similar to both Vygotskys theory of a ZPD and Bruners theory of scaffolding the learning. Kolbs cycle builds on the learners concrete experience and goes through three distinct stages, reflective observation, abstract conceptualisation and active experimentation, before returning to the now new concrete experience,.(Burton 2001, p.246) Similarly Bruner theorised that students built on their past experiences and that by applying a spiral curriculum, they would able to return to subject areas and build on them when they were more capable of dealing with the more complex areas of the curriculum. He saw the teacher as a guide, leading the student through the learning process by scaffolding their learning with appropriate material and as the student progressed less scaffolding is required.(Burton 2001, p.241) When applying these theories it is important to be aware that students are all at different stages of learning. Some students have a more advanced understanding, which puts them in a completely different ZPD, concrete experience or stage in their scaffolded learning, to students who have a lower level of understanding. With the KS3 class the students were all in the 5-7 range for target grades, therefore it was a lot easier to plan how they were going to progress in the lesson. A clear understanding of where they were in relation to their ZPD or their concrete knowledge was available and it was therefore a lot clearer, what was required to get them to a new Zone of Actual Performance or to the next stage in Kolbs cycle. They had all reached Piagets formal operation stage and were able to develop their knowledge independently. With the GCSE Applied Science class it wasnt as easy to apply the theories. The students target grades ranged from G-A., therefore ascertaining where their concrete knowledge lay or where they were in their Zone of Actual Performance was quite challenging. Such a large spread of stages meant it was often necessary to take a didactic approach to try and provide a basic foundation level of knowledge for the lower attaining students, so that they could access the lesson. In some cases students were never able to access the lesson due to their complete disaffection from the subject or school in general. Most of the class had not reached the formal operation stage and some struggled in the concrete operational stage at times. A good example being when one of the students struggled with the concept of limestone having nothing to do with the fruit. Finding the middle ground, where the higher attaining students wouldnt be bored waiting for the lower attaining students to get on task or understand what to do was extremely challenging, and at some points, felt completely pointless trying to apply social constructivist theory to the lesson planning with such a wide range of grades in the class was one of the key problems when trying to apply these theories to the lessons. It was however (in retrospect) interesting being able to see two different sides to how social constructivist theory is applied in the classroom. With the higher attaining, less disaffected KS3 students, it was a lot easier to see how the theories could be effectively applied to their lessons, how they benefitted from the teacher acting as a guide and their interest in the lesson meant that they were able to access it and move forward in their learning. It was always clear at which point in the learning process each students was at and what was required to move them onto the next level in the learning cycle. With the more disaffected, lower attaining students, in the GCSE Applied Science class it was so much harder to effectively apply these theories in the lesson. I tried on several occasions to teach lessons where I acted as the guide through their learning process; the students (in theory) would build on their experiential learning and move forward in their knowledge and understanding of the subject. In fact what happened was that the students panicked at the thought of not having the teacher dictating to them each step of the lesson and what they must do. The concrete experience for some was so limited that they were unable to apply it to the lesson and very quickly, if they were not given step by step instructions as to what to do next, they would be off task and cause other students to go off task as well. Therefore it seemed that the behaviourist theory, in particular Skinner, was being followed, as the positive reward was completing the step. Within the GCSE class there were several students who were classed as having Special Educational Needs (SEN), this ranged from Social Emotional Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD) to Dyslexia and Dyspraxia. Since the revised national curriculum was brought in to effect in September 2000, these students have had the right to a place in the classroom alongside students without any SEN.(Peacey 2001) Students with SEN are to be included in the lessons and not treated as separate entities to the non-SEN students. Effectively inclusion was brought in to ensure that all students had access to exactly the same educational opportunities as other students. Too see inclusion in practice is very different to reading about it on paper though. Within the class the students suffering from Dyslexia and Dyspraxia, worked fairly diligently, and although at times they found it a struggle organising themselves for course work or in taking notes, they caused little disruption to the other students. They had the extra help required and were catered for in examinations and course work; they were effectively being included. The students who were listed as having SEBD on the other hand, would have appeared to an outsider to relish in the opportunity to be able to disrupt learning; they spent more time being removed from the class than learning itself. Yet if their backgrounds were to be looked into, it would be apparent that it was an achievement being in school that day and it was quite understandable that science was not their top priority, when they might not have even had breakfast that morning. Their inclusion in the lesson was negatively impacting on other students who were not on the SEN register and did not need to be specially included into the class to due to disruptive behaviour. This leads to the question When should a student not be included in a classroom?, which at this point in my limited experience, I am unable to answer. In conclusion, behaviourism is still always going to be prominent in the modern school as a way of leading students towards becoming more disciplined and focused in their studies, via the rewards and sanctions policies on which they are based. When applying the cognitive learning theories, it is necessary to be aware that not all of the students are going to be starting at the same level, some may well be significantly below the level of other students and are only grouped together because of their age. Therefore the materials to be taught are not necessarily going to be accessible to all of the class all of the time unless they are developed to be inclusive for all the students, which is the current aim of the government.(Peacey 2001). The only viable option would be to group classes closely by attainment level as opposed to age, which is unlikely to happen. Word Count = 3,283

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Definition essay on computers :: essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Many people in general have enough problems to deal with. Why should organization add to them? Computers are known to be the key factor of saving people from falling off the edge of their chair every time they were to have to think really hard. If an individual were to purchase a computer he/she should take the following into consideration: â€Å"Will this make my job easier? Do I need extra multimedia capabilities? Will I be using the Internet?† Many people go out and buy a computer without acknowledging what should be included in the purchase.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Many businesses and organizations use computers for projects such as graphs, calendars, calculators, word processors, and even filing tax returns online. When calling the doctors office to make an appointment the receptionist will ask for the name. Why is this? By telling a name, the computer automatically searches and pulls up the medical history, address, age, etc. Without this technology, people would have to file space consuming papers manually, and, in addition, try to read doctors’ handwritings. Computers in today's businesses allow us to make clerical work easier.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Getting down to really utilizing the PC consists of using Microsoft Office, including Power Point Presentations, Word, Excel, Outlook, Works, Frontpage, etc.. Networking the computers gives selective access to certain individuals such as: the President of Microsoft, store manager, or a janitor. If a company grants its employees access to a computer they may expand with certain accessories that can be installed, or plugged into your computer. If one were to go camping and take pictures, but wanted to post the Kodak pictures on the family web site, it wouldn’t be a problem using the computer. There now are picture scanners that make fully digitalized photos on the computer screen from normal camera film. Making a webpage is not a hard task. The computer includes a modem that is plugged into the PCI slot. It is used to connect the computer through the phone line to millions of other users that are signed on to the internet at the same time. Both of these computer accessories help make life a little easier.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The internet holds a vast amount of different topics to look up in its huge library of knowledge. One could find anything from how to make a bomb to geneology. There are many different types of search engines to look up these topics. Basically, one word is typed, and many related topics are pulled up on the screen to choose from. It saves a trip to library and looking up call numbers, and

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Reaction to Beloved :: essays research papers

Reaction To Beloved   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The movie Beloved was a tale of a woman who is so devastated by the evil of slavery. Therefore she is willing to kill her toddler daughter rather than allow her to be taken back into the horror. This murderous act proves itself to be a choice, which only further enslaves her soul as her daughter’s ghost haunts her life. The movie was set in the 1800’s. Sethe is a pregnant slave on a Kentucky plantation named Sweet Home. She was under control by a violent slave master. To me there is no reason or excuse for this kind of evil. The enslavement and brutal treatment of our fellow human beings is a spiritual scar.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When Sethe gives birth to Beloved and is reunited with her children in Ohio. The happiness of this reunion is turn into a tragic event as she sees her former master riding up to the house with the local sheriff. Sethe knows that he is coming back to take her children back into slavery, she runs into the shed, cuts the throat of her two year old daughter, Beloved, and hits her sons’ heads with a shovel. Her sons didn’t die but beloved did. Soon after the tragic event the spirit of Beloved haunts Sethe’s house. The scene of seeing Sethe kill Beloved is very disturbing to witness. The ghostly tantrum of Beloved comes back over and over again to disrupt Sethe’s home. Her two sons become very scared by the haunts of Beloved. Sethe’s younger daughter, Denver becomes calm with her mother and the ghost, and she never leaves the house and yard. Sethe also becomes ok with the ghost presence in the house. She keeps denying that she did anything wrong by killing Beloved. So she feels that she doesn’t need any help.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This is often the way evil take over our lives. Rather than having the courage to face the evil we suffer , as Sethe did she affected her own children with this violence. Sethe became in denial with her responsibility. She accepted the pain of her guilt and shame with a lie towards her dignity. She felt everything was right and didn’t want to ask for forgiveness and victory over the evil. But soon a physical form of Beloved comes to Sethe’s house. The girl who act as Beloved is real and demanding like a spoiled child.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Kohler Terminal Value

Both approaches (used to come up with the value of the Kohler Company) are greatly impacted by the assumptions made by both the company and the dissenting shareholders. The use of the Market approach has shown that the value of the company varies greatly depending on the comparable companies. If Masco (which is the largest comparable company) is included, the value goes to nearly $3.7 B and excluding it causes the value to go down to $1.2 B. Moreover, depending of the discount for lack of liquidity and control, the value of the company could decrease considerably. Then, in the market approach there are two variables that affect the value of the company; comparable peers and the discount for lack of liquidity and control. In the Free Cash Flow (FCF) approach, the two variables that makes the value diverge is the Beta and the discount (liquidity and control) used. In this specific scenario the Beta impacts the WACC considerably due to the high weight of the cost of equity. For example, a difference of 4 points in the WACC raises the value of the company more than 150% [Table 7]. It is interesting to see that in order to arrive at Kohler’s initial valuation of $58K per share; a 65% discount is needed in both valuation approaches. Also, Masco’s exclusion is required under the Market approach while the high Beta is required under the FCC approach. The factor created by the division of standard deviations of industry peers and the deviations from different markets increases or decreases Beta considerably. (More details about this factor are discussed later in the paper.) Conversely, according to the dissenting shareholders, in order to arrive at $273K per share a 0 % discount and the inclusion of Masco and low Beta is needed. In the settlement, Kohler may use two simple methods to resolve the claim. The first would be a Weight Adjusted Value method, which consists of taking the weighted average of the proposed settlement values times the confidence level. The second method is to calculate the book value of the company using the formula (Assets- Liabilities)/ # of shares (Intangibles are not excluded). The results of these two methods indicate that The Kohler Company should be indifferent between going to trial and settling for $120K per share. Finally, the suggested settlement price should be adjusted to reflect the possibility of an increased tax liability Kohler may have with the IRS. Using a weighted average, the new settlement price is around $150K per share. Company Overview Kohler is a recognized international manufacturer of plumbing products, home furnishings, generators and engines. It also owns and operates hospitality and real estate Businesses. Kohler has been a private company, predominantly owned by the Kohler family since its founding in 1887. Market Approach Because Kohler is privately held the market value needs to be ascertained by the implied value determined by using a multiples approach based on the trading value of Kohler’s comparable industry peers. Table 1 shows the relevant multiples for Kohler’s peer group. Depending on what multiples are used to value Kohler the estimation varies considerably. Table 2 demonstrates the range of these values. If Masco, with it’s generally high multiples, is excluded from the analysis the valuation would be roughly $1.2B. On the other extreme if Kohler’s value is based on Masco’s benchmark, the value leaps to nearly $3.7B. A strict average of the peer group would yield a value of $1.6B. Our best guess of value is closer to $2B based on the peer average being averaged with Masco’s profitability multiples as we feel that the fundamentals of Kohler and Masco are closely matched. These estimates do not include any discounts for the lack of liquidity or control that the shares are characterized by. Table 3 shows the value per share given a $2B market value and various discounts applied. Â   Based on the market multiples approach it appears that Kohler takes a much more conservative approach to not only valuation but to the discounts that should be applied to the stock given his relative illiquidity and lack of controlling stake in the enterprise. From their prospective the value is the historically modest dividend and the long range growth of the business. Given their approximation of a share price of $54,000 that would suggest they excluded Masco as an outlier if they used a multiples approach and they used a discount of nearly 65% on the value of the shares to address their limitations noted previously. This would yield a value of roughly $58,000 per share. The dissenting Kohler shareholders, many of whom acquired shares for north of $100,000 each, have a vested interest in a much more generous approach to the value of Kohler’s shares. It appears they could be talking one of two approaches in arriving to their $273,000 value per share. The first is that they could also assume a market value of roughly $2B for Kohler, and not acknowledge any need to discount the shares. This would yield an estimate of $274,100 per share. The other approach could be that this estimate was derived from the multiples values using Masco as a fellow industry leader with higher margin products and strong differentiation and acknowledging the need to discount the share value for lack of liquidity and control. Based on the Masco benchmark and a 25% discount the value would be roughly $279,000 per share. Free Cash Flow Approach Kohler’s Free Cash Flow (FCF) model is developed using the Non-Cash Working Capital Approach, a correlated Beta and an EBITA that excludes both interest income and expense. The Non-Cash Working Capital is used because of the consistency each year in Kohler’s forecasted working capital. [Table 4] Secondly, in order to make the FCF model more accurate, a correlation between the company financials and its main competitors is used. Table 5 displays this correlation. The correlation is then multiplied by a factor which is defined by the division of the standard deviation of Kohler’s competitor and the standard deviation of the market (US Equity Market). Lastly, an average of each of these factors is performed and the Kohler’s Beta is found. [Table 5] The Beta in this case significantly affects the Weight Average Cost of Capital (WACC) since the weight of Kohler’s cost of equity is about 82% and the remaining 18 % tied to the cost of debt [Table 6]. The calculated WACC using this beta is 14.19%. If Beta is calculated using a different standard deviation, other than the US Equity Market, the results will vary drastically. For example, using a standard deviation of a highly correlated distribution of stocks that includes 3 kitchen & bath companies and 3 engine & generator companies, the Beta will decrease from 2.67 to 1.52. Then, the new WACC would be 10.40%[Table 5]. Just this difference in Beta would make the per share value of the stock go from $164K to $251K with 0 discount (due to the lack of control and liquidity), and from $ 57K to $ 88K with 65 % discount [Table 7]. Kohler is most likely using a relatively high WACC and high discount to come up with a $58K value per share. As it is shown in Table 8, using a WACC of 14.19% and a discount of 65% for liquidity and control of the stock arrives at $57K per share. On the other hand, the dissenting Kohler shareholders have probably used a much more generous approach to the value of Kohler’s shares. It appears they could be using a WACC close to 10% and not discount (liquidity and/or control) or a WACC of 8% and 30% discount to arrive at their $273,000 value per share.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Different Modes of Thought

Courses are different to turn from the up-to-the-minute to the post modern in the dominion of philosophy and other theoretical dissertations, having the representation of complex pedigree of various and often deviating shadows through diverse restraints and cultural territories. In The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity (Habermas 1987), in a way showed how a pathway moves through a practice of irrationalism from romanticism to existentialism to French postmodernism. French postmodern theory had proliferation on the said movements through the figures of Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Bataille.According to Lyotard, every utterance in the language games is thought of as a move in a game, and â€Å"to speak is to fight [†¦ ] speech acts fall within the domain of a general agonistics. † By linking each statement to one another, there can be an analysis with these terms in a game with specific rules as Lyotard refers speculative discourse as a language game. He gave the name diffe rend in a language game to the calming player. The differend exist when the procedures for what is different to be presented in the contemporary sphere of influence of discourse have no agreement.This can be a suggestion, criticism or aesthetic principle. The stillness of an impossibility of wording an injustice is marked by the differend. The measurement of a unique state of mind which distinguishes its inability to find an object sufficient to the inspirational feeling, the inspirational sensitivity does not come from the object. Powerlessness is a sign by the sublime wherein it becomes the untainted sign when it is understood by the indication of the differend.An event that is historical is an instance of the differend in which a philosopher is tasked to search out for these signs to be given expression by an existing variety of discourse (EGS 2008). There are three remarks about language games. First, legitimating does not carry rules with themselves however they are the object of an agreement, explicit or not, between players. This only means that the players somehow invent the rules. Secondly, there is no game without having such rules. It is a necessity to the games because it serves as a guide to distinguish how players will lose or win to make a fair judgment to both parties.And lastly, utterances are considered as â€Å"moves† in a game. Best example is in basketball. Players in this game do not only play physically but also ethically and morally. Once a player says obscene words against a player or any official during the game, it is somewhat a point against him. This final examination and inspection conveys us to the primary standards fundamental in our technique in one piece is, speaking is fighting, in the good judgment of taking part in, and verbal communication as in talking takes actions to drop within the sphere of influence of a universal anguishes.But does not directly suggests that winning is the primarily concern when playing. For the absolute satisfaction of its creation a particular move is made. The involvement of struggle of language aggravation carried out by trendy speech and by literature is that enormous ecstasy is had in the infinite creation of rotations of expresses, of statements and implications, the development following the advancement of language on the height of parole.But unquestionably even this gratification is dependent on a feeling of accomplishment succeeded at the price of a challenge – at least one adversary, and a redoubtable one: the acknowledged language, or suggestion. (Lyotard 1984) Losing the sight of the second principle which sets as a balance to it and presides over our examination that the discernible social bond is composed of language â€Å"moves† should not happen by the influence of the idea of agonistics of language.The core of everything at hand is at the end of the elucidation of this proposition. In the Modes of Discourse: The local structure of texts, book by Carlota Smith, she mentioned about the Discourse Mode which she broadened an argument for the position that there is an appropriately linguistic stage in discourse stated that the earlier unsuccessful linguistic approaches to discourse are over-reaction made by the pragmatic turn.The observation of linguistic regularities in adjacent sentences is made possible by text passages like the successions of at least two sentences which belong to different discourse approaches that are determined by the types if discourse units such as occasions, states, overviews, concepts which are being introduced in the course and the form of progression from one discourse entity to the next which is called simply as the â€Å"semantic progression†. In nature, it can be temporal or a temporal.Narrative, Description, Report, Information and Argument are the five discourse modes Smith recognizes. These modes speak about regular models of linguistic forms in texts to regular understandings t hereof which claimed to be linguistic units. Having an investigation on questions as how linguistic properties of passages can shed light on features made by Smith aside from making an argument for the existence of linguistic discourse modes and elucidating the characteristics of their features which are shared by all discourse modes.Expressions of subjectivity in the sense of point of views and the effects of â€Å"surface presentation† in the sense of commentary and focus-background modulations in discourse are of these features. As what had Lyotard stated, in relation to Smith’s ideology, linguistics is not just mere verbal or nonverbal concepts. It also deals with various considerations and factors. These can be culture, environment, traditions and customs, religion and others.Two people of different races, geographical locations can have a vague interpretation to a certain subject or topic or just to a plain word. Diversity is a major concern but can be arranged o r managed if appropriateness is dealt with. As a language game, rationalism comes with its own rules of engagement—objectivity, certainty, universality, instrumentality and predictability. However, the game is played within various â€Å"forms of life† (Lebensformen) and the latter provide the background and context against and in which the game plays out its sense and reference (Schrag, 1997, p.32).Discourse as a concept is introduced as a theoretical refinement of the concept of paradigm and applied to the sets of knowledge claims of the natural and social sciences. Horizontal differentiation defines particular modes of sociological discourse and vertical differentiation from everyday discourses defines general modes of scientific discourse. Science is the best medium for the concerns on diversity. Scientific names and such others are universally accepted that is why there would never be a problem on confusion, misconceptions and misunderstanding.It is another langua ge that unifies other language speakers used for scholarly studies and to communicate about indefinite species. Lyotard is claiming that the conventional idealistic measures and evaluation of knowledge and genuineness within the restraints are but interior legends, which efforts to disagree with the societal foundation of omnipotence or all-knowing. The postmodern point of view like an amount of other scholarly practices and traditions, announces that all human comprehension and understanding is integrated through a shared cultural leveling, and is a social edifice.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Culture in a Global Economy

Culture in a global economy is a critical factor in international business. While many business transactions make economic sense, the ability to successfully fulfill profitable relationships often depends on being able to reconcile international differences arising from separate cultures. Understanding cultural differences is an initial step, but managers also need to engage in learning processes to develop international cultural competence. Cross-cultural training enables managers to acquire both knowledge and skills to fulfill the role of cultural agents. Advancing cultural intelligence and international cultural competence is critical to the future success of managers and leaders working in a global context. Culture, as defined in Kroeber and Kluckhohn's classic, Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions, is the â€Å"patterned ways of thinking, feeling, and reacting, acquired and transmitted mainly by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional (i. e. , historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values† (1952). In international management research, Hofstede defined culture as â€Å"†¦the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from those of another† (1991). Many other definitions of culture are available. Common elements in the definitions are the shared and dynamic nature revolving around norms, values, and beliefs that are expressed in different behaviors, artifacts, and interactions. Within the context of international business, culture involves multiple levels that span from broad to narrow and different dimensions. On a broad level, supranational culture differences span multiple countries and include regional, ethnic, religious, and linguistic dimensions. On a national level, governments create sovereign boundaries to distinguish different nations with political and legal regulatory systems. In the business literature, most research on culture uses the nation-state as a proxy for culture. Other levels of analysis for culture include subcultures, as well as professional and organizational groups. In addition to various levels, culture also involves different dimensions. Four major classifications schemes provide frame-works for identifying international differences in culture. First, anthropologist Edward T. Hall (b. 1914) classified cultural differences along five different dimensions: time, space, things, friendships, and agreements. Second, Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck developed a cultural orientations framework that identified six issues, with variations in each one: relation to nature, relationships among people, mode of human activity, belief about basic human nature, orientation to time, and use of space. Third, Hofstede's framework is one of the most prominent one in international management. He identified four major dimensions of cultural values—individualism-collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity-femininity—along with a fifth dimension subsequently identified as Confucian Dynamism, or long-term orientation. Finally, Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner extended Hofstede's classification with seven dimensions that include universalism versus particularism, collectivism versus individualism, affective versus neutral relationships, specificity versus diffuseness, achievement versus ascription, orientation toward time, and internal versus external control. The four different classifications provide different and overlapping approaches to organize the many complex dimensions that make up culture. A major premise underlying the need for organizing different cultural dimensions is a means to avoid costly mistakes in conducting international business. The different classifications provide a map to make sense of the complex nature of culture. Important caveats to keep in mind are that each classification is not exhaustive and each one originates from a particular cultural perspective. Managers have to engage in learning processes with cross-cultural training to develop both cultural intelligence and international cultural competence. Cross-cultural training for international assignments encompasses a broad range of methods that may include area briefings, readings, lecture/discussions, language lessons, films, self-assessment exercises, role plays, field trips, sensitivity training, and cross-cultural simulations. Cross-cultural training also needs to be coordinated in multiple phases to maximize the learning effectiveness for individual managers and organizational performance. The three phases are predeparture orientation, in-country socialization, and country exit debriefing. The exit debriefing is important for organizational learning, and a knowledge management system can support the capture of the cultural lessons that are learned. Kim and Ofori-Dankwa described four major delivery methods for cross-cultural training: the intellectual model, the area simulation model, the self-awareness model, and the cultural awareness model. The intellectual model involves the traditional classroom approach of general readings and lecture. The area simulation model incorporates culture-specific activities (e. . , working in Japan or Mexico) with games and exercises. The self-awareness training method focuses on having participants identify their strengths and weaknesses in dealing with different cultures, especially taken-for-granted assumptions about intercultural situations. The cultural awareness model focuses on the theoretical foundation for behavioral differenc es across cultures. The key to effective cross-cultural training is the integration of multiple methods that allow a participant to move from simple to complex levels of learning with increasing levels of training rigor. The purpose of using multiple methods in cross-cultural training is to advance the learning process through the learning stages to develop cultural intelligence and international cultural competence. Cultural intelligence integrates the three interrelated elements of knowledge, mindfulness, and behavioral skills. International cultural competence goes a step further with a more complex skill set that integrates cognitive, affective, and behavioral learning to effectively engage in successful cross-cultural relationships. International cultural competence is very similar to intercultural communication competence, which integrates three components: culture-specific understanding of the other, culture-general understanding, and positive regard of the other. Increasing one's ability to work effectively across cultures also provides positive support to address a range of adjustment issues for expatriates who often face culture shock in the acculturation process. Overall, the most important key of cultural intelligence and intercultural competence is the integration of multiple spheres of cross-cultural learning to effectively engage in international business situations. Effectiveness in reconciling cross-cultural differences often leads to creativity, innovation, and synergy for productive workplace performances. Although cross-cultural training supports global managers' ability to be effective, the learning process often moves through different stages of development. The different development stages of cultural intelligence are: (1) reactivity to external stimuli, (2) recognition of other cultural norms and motivation to learn more about them, (3) accommodation of other cultural norms and rules, (4) assimilation of diverse cultural norms into alternative behaviors, and (5) proactiveness in cultural behavior based on recognition of change cues that others do not perceive. Global managers with high levels of cultural intelligence and competence play important strategic roles as cultural agents (c-agents), helping their organizations to span international boundaries. C-agents require both the ability to navigate different cultures and the legitimacy from different cultural perspectives, including organizational and within the local community. Organizations have increasing needs for global managers to fill the role of c-agents because demands of globalization increasingly depend on successful relationships with strategic alliance partners, international vendors, and global customers. Within the global arena, national borders often form the defining entity for a culture. However, analysis of cultural differences needs to account for a range of diversity within a national culture. On a continuum of cultural diversity that ranges from homogenous to heterogeneous, Japan, Norway, and Poland are relatively more homogeneous when compared to India, Papua New Guinea, Australia, Britain, and Canada. The more heterogeneous societies encompass more distinctions between subcultures within the national borders. However, it is important to account for the fact that â€Å"almost no country is entirely homogeneous. The world's nearly 200 countries contain some 5000 ethnic groups. Two-thirds have at least one substantial minority—an ethnic or religious group that makes up at least 10 percent of the population. † In many ways, how a society addresses issues of multiculturalism creates an orientation that enables its citizens to live and work together in a global community. Cultural norms shaped by national government policies will need to avoid and dismantle policies for separation (keeping different cultural identities but not integrated) or assimilation (forced rejection of traditional cultural identity to integrate into dominant identity) in order to adopt new approaches of multiculturalism. Important principles for multicultural policies center on promoting tolerance and cultural understanding to respect diversity, recognize multiple identities, and build common bonds of membership to the local community. In the future globalization will continue to increase the flow and interactions of people across cultures, which surfaces even more international differences. Understanding the different dimensions of culture provides an initial knowledge base to develop cultural intelligence and competence for effective international business relationships. However, global managers require cross-cultural training to advance their learning and growth in cultural intelligence and competence as they take on international assignments. More importantly, organizations will have an increasing need for global managers to become c-agents to develop effective international relationships. In addition, government leaders have opportunities to shape their national culture and support international competitiveness with new multiculturalism policies that promote both the inclusion of multiple cultural identities and the development of local communities in an era of globalization.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

American Parties Essay

The Republican secession affected the vote in some of the Western States but the Democratic â€Å"bolt† was more significant. It took two forms: one, the nomination of separate candidates for President and Vice President known as gold Democrats, and the other votes given directly to McKinley as the surest means of beating Bryan. There is no question that business was much depressed publicans had hoped to charge this condition to the Democratic administration and to the Tariff bill of 1894, and therefore McKinley, who represented protection more than any other man in the country, was the logical candidate. He was the â€Å"advance agent of prosperity† and promised the â€Å"full dinner pail†; prosperity was to be secured by a return to the protective tariff of the Republican party. A few Gold Democrats made a vigorous campaign, especially in the border states where the vote was likely to be close, but in general the party suffered from the closeness of the contest. A rumor on election eve that labor was swinging heavily to Bryan led many thousands of Democrats to shift their votes from Palmer to McKinley. Cleveland advised Gold Democrats to support Republican electors in doubtful states; and Palmer declared publicly that he did not consider it â€Å"any very great fault† if his hearers voted for McKinley. The result was a pitiful 131,000 votes for Palmer, less than 1 per cent of the total and 10,000 fewer than the Prohibition party polled. Even so, many Gold Democrats were well satisfied. Atkinson claimed it as an acknowledged fact that McKinley had been elected by the Gold Democrats. Wheeler insisted that they had polled enough votes in Indiana, Kentucky, and Maryland to give those states and a majority in the electoral college to McKinley, though others have doubted whether this was true in any state but Kentucky. Certainly a nucleus of â€Å"true† Democracy had been preserved for 1900. Leaders like Atkinson were sanguine. â€Å"Heretofore,† he wrote, â€Å"both the old political parties have truckled to the ilver states; hereafter, the National Democratic party will, like the old Free Soil party, hold the balance of power, and although small in number, they will in a forceful manner control events. † In the campaign of 1884, the Republicans again vigorously advocated the doctrine of Protection, protesting against indiscriminate horizontal reduction, but pledging themselves to correct the irregularities of the Tariff and reduce the surplus â€Å"without injuring the laborer or the great productive interests of the country. † The Democrats carefully avoided their blunder of 1880, when they flatly favored a tariff for revenue only. They devoted a long paragraph to the customary abuse of the opposing party and then explained that they meant to reduce taxation so that it â€Å"shall not exceed the needs of the Government economically administered,† and that this â€Å"can and must be effected without depriving American labor of the ability to compete successfully with foreign labor. † McKinley carried the New England States, New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania by large majorities. The Middle Western States gave him their electoral votes. He invaded the solid South, carrying Delaware, Kentucky, West Virginia and Maryland, Maryland by an imposing plurality. Bryan carried Kansas and Nebraska, all the mining States except California, and also Washington, while Oregon voted for McKinley. North Dakota did likewise, while South Dakota gave her electoral vote to Bryan by a small plurality. Ohio, the State of McKinley and Hanna, was a disappointment to the Republicans. While they never regarded seriously the boasts of the Bryanites that they would carry the State, yet her plurality, being less than that of Michigan and about one third that of Illinois, showed that Ohio was somewhat uncertain. For, in the August forecast, Michigan was set down as very doubtful and, while Illinois was considered less doubtful, she was not regarded, like Ohio, as safe beyond peradventure for McKinley. Bibliography Binning, William C. 1999. Encyclopedia of American Parties, Campaigns and Elections. Greenwood Press: Westport, CT. Boller, Paul. 1984. Presidential Campaigns. New York: Oxford University Press. Felt, Thomas E. 1960. â€Å"The Rise of Mark Hanna†, Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation, Michigan State University. Kelly, Patrick J. 2003. The Election of 1896 and the Restructuring of Civil War Memory. Civil War History 49 (3).

Friday, September 13, 2019

Geology Volcanoes&Earthquake Assignment10 Assignment

Geology Volcanoes&Earthquake Assignment10 - Assignment Example Animals are extremely useful especially in predicting an impending earthquake. Before destructive earthquake strikes animals, exhibit strange behaviors such as they abandon their homes and move to safer areas. In the japan and china, most scientists pursue this mystery to predict an earthquake. In regard to increased interest in the management of natural disasters and improved communications, the public can now learn more about the earthquake before it hits. Nevertheless, the fluctuating earthquake rates as seismicity shows can hardly be used to determine whether the imminent earthquake is significant. Theoretically, a mega quake can occur if the length of the fault is very large such that it generates an earthquakes magnitude of more than 10. However, realistically a mega quake cannot happen because scientists have never recorded an earthquake with such magnitude. The highest they have ever recorded is magnitude 9.5 in Chile. There are ideas in place about the best place to occupy during earthquake. The ideas are referred to as ‘triangle of life. According to scientists, these ideas are misguided. During an earthquake, the ground cannot open up but instead faults do form. If the ground opens up, there will be no friction cause earthquake. In this respect, California will never sink into the ocean because the North American plate and the great Pacific plate move past one another horizontally. Due to this movement, San Francisco and the Los Angeles will be adjacent one day. It is paramount to realise that a large earthquake cannot be prevented by making very many small ones. Also, lubricating faults can be a dangerous exercise because it makes the earthquake happen sooner than it would have if the water were not injected into the fault. Further, the weather conditions can cause an earthquake especially a windy weather which can trigger a tremor to occur. In conclusion, there has never been a relationship between the earthquake and the space

Thursday, September 12, 2019

West High School in Denver, Colorado Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

West High School in Denver, Colorado - Essay Example West High School or New Denver West High School Home of the Cowboys was pioneered by Owen J. Goldrick. His school opened in 1859 in a log cabin with 13 students. West High School was organized in 1883 and in January, 1884 moved to Colfax Ave.West High School in Denver, Colorado Abstract â€Å"We turn dreams into futures.† This is the motto of the Denver High School, the topic of my research. I went to Denver West High School and examined the school’s environment, teachers, students, and academic and extra-curricular flow of activities. I went to Mr. Jorge Loera, principal Denver West High School and asked permission to visit and observed at least three classes to feature in my essay. Mr. Loera gave me the class of Ms. Anderson, Mr. Clymo, and Ms. Headrick. West Denver High School was described in general and in three specific classes. The feature includes Denver West High School’s history, academic programs, the qualities of the teachers’ selected and clas s interaction, and the students’ viewpoint. The teacher-parent-students’ relationship were also discussed as West Denver High School includes parents in the child’s learning. Brief History West High School or New Denver West High School Home of the Cowboys was pioneered by Owen J. Goldrick. His school opened in 1859 in a log cabin with 13 students. West High School was organized in 1883 and in January, 1884 moved to a wonderful new building on Colfax Ave. and Mariposa St. called the Franklin School. For years, the name of Franklin School and West High School were synonymous. On June 13, 1884, at 2:00PM, Charles McDonough, Effie Hallam, Lelia Williams, Frances Brandt, Laura Duccy, and Morrison Stillwell became the first graduates of West High School. On a cold January morning in 1926, 1000 students and teachers said "goodbye" to their school of 33 years and marched from 5th and Fox to the new West High School at 9th and Elati. After 83 years, it is still the Home of the Cowboys. The Academic Program Denver’s West High School serves grades 9-12 in the Denver Country 1 School District. The school is dedicated to the academic success of the student. West High School creates partnership with parents in building the character and academic performance of the students. Math, Language Arts, Science, Social Studies, World Languages, Fine Arts, Music, Physical Education, and Career Technical Education are the subjects being taught in Denver West High School. The only teachers in Career Technical Education are Mr. Clayton, Ms. Pegues, and Mr. Mascarenas. Math subject focuses on Algebra, Geometry, Probability and Statistics, and Pre-calculus. English program entails American Hispanic, British, and World Literature, and College Preparation Reading and Writing. Science covers the topic related to Advance Placement Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics. Social studies include topics such as Advance Placement Government and United States Hi story, Civics, Psychology, Geography, Hispanic History and Student Council. World Languages that are being taught by teachers are German, French, and Spanish. Fine Arts offered activities related to Band, Computer Arts, Video/Film Production, Chorus, Dance, Photography, Ceramics/Sculpture, Drawing/Painting, and Theater/Drama. Academic Calendar Plan for Music, Physical Education, and Career Technical Education are not yet available so related subjects/topics under this academic program were not yet posted. The extra-curricular activity that this school is best known for is Radio/Video/Multimedia. Extra-curricular activities are heavily encouraged by the school and most of the students are involved in the activity. West High School also offers programs for children with learning differences or disabilities. The administration, as well as the teachers makes sure that every student are aware of the academic program and calendar to inform the students and the parents about the subjects b eing taught everyday in the class. Based on GreatSchool’s Rating Criteria, Denver High School has 1 out of 10 rating criteria. The GreatSchool rating criteria is based on the comparison of test results in different states. The school also has an average Community Rating of 3 out of 5 stars, based on reviews from 20 school community members. The Teachers There is 1

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Patient Privacy Policy Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Patient Privacy Policy - Research Paper Example Patient Privacy Policy Evaluation process of the policy involves using questionnaires to different departments in hospitals: workers, patient, and tests on the responsibilities that are played to observe the policy. The evaluation is in terms of the responsibility of each individual, the release of information, employee related information and enforcement of the policy (Danis, Clancy & Churchill, 2002). Evaluation on responsibilities tests the understanding on the importance of respecting the rights of patients by keeping the information on their health private and the need to be sensitive to the concerns when using or disclosing the health related information. The evaluation process also focuses on understanding the policy concerning the protection of confidential information in public areas. Evaluation also is on understanding the accountability for maintaining the privacy of its patient and the confidentiality that is in the information. There are situation that the policy to keep the information of the patients private as it is disclosed in some situations such as those for law information officials as part of an investigation when the patient is a victim of a crime. Once the information is disclosed, the information of the patient is not private as it is to the public and can be known to other people. This is a problem in implementing the policy, as there is no surety in using the information only for investigation purposes.