Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Choose a character from The Dressmaker of Khair Khana and explain how Essay

Choose a character from The Dressmaker of Khair Khana and explain how the character faces oppression and overcomes it to become - Essay Example The punishment meted out for going against these rules was unthinkable. Such women, who faltered, were arrested, stoned or beaten to death in public. Kamila Siddiqi, an average Afghan woman, confronts life with great hope and determination as she sets out to carve out a successful business in order to support her family, and in doing so, she successfully overcomes brutal oppression at the hands of the Talibans. ‘The Dressmaker of Khair Khana’ by Gayle Lemmon, gives us a bird’s eye view of Afghanistan that is quite different from what we know of it so far. According to archaeological evidence, Alexander the Great had defeated the Achaemenian Dynasty between 330 – 327 B.C. during the Pre-Islamic Period and, thus, ushered in an era of Greek culture. However, by 637 B.C. the Arab Muslims started conquering the tribes in Afghanistan in a long drawn out process and introduced them to the Islam religion. By the 10th century, the Arab Abbasid Dynasty and the Samani ds, who were the successors of the aforementioned dynasty in Central Asia, were torn down. Therefore, the Ghaznavid Dynasty, which was the offshoot of the Samanids, was established and became the first major Islamic dynasty to rule Afghanistan. Once again, Genghis Khan who was the leader of the Mongol forces, defeated them in Central Asia in 1220, and left Afghanistan fragmented, till Timur succeeded and took over the country during the 1380’s. The Mongol Empire that was already there was further expanded by Timur during his rule (Nations Online Project, n.p.). Till the early 16th century, the descendants of Timur ruled Afghanistan. In 1919, after the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi, that brought to a close the Third Anglo- Afghan War, Afghanistan got its independence and became an independent country. However, the Guerrilla Wars that occurred between 1979 and 1989, killed thousands of people, devastated the land and left about 5 to 6 million homeless. Once again in 1992, a Civil War broke out because the government could not settle their differences with the Mujahideen and this further served to drag down the economy and make it even worse. This resulted in a struggle between the various armed groups and finally, one of the Islamic fundamentalist groups, the Taliban emerged victorious and took control of the country in 1996 and it was the Taliban that gave permission to the Al Qaeda, an Arab terrorist Organization to make use of Afghanistan as their base. The Taliban made use of an extremist interpretation of Islam to suppress and control the country and hence terrorist activities were rampant. The Taliban ruled with an iron fist and the people were not free to do as they wished. Especially for women, the depth of female deprivation and torture knew no bounds because the Talibans treated women even worse than animals. Their rules put endless restriction on women and the foremost of them was the ban on women working outside the house. Women were als o not allowed to carry out outside the home activities without a male chaperon. They were not allowed education in any school or university and were forced to wear a burqa that covered them from head to toe. They were banned from dealing with male shopkeepers and were not to be treated by male doctors. Women were not allowed to use cosmetics or paint their nails. Women found going against the Taliban rules, were stoned, whipped and beaten in public. Sometimes they were shot in public at point blank range. In such a dangerous

Monday, October 28, 2019

Advantages and Disadvantages of Interviewing as Data Collection Tool Essay Example for Free

Advantages and Disadvantages of Interviewing as Data Collection Tool Essay Interviewing is a data collection tool that works best in many cases when the intent is to have an understanding of the â€Å"underlying reasons and motivations for people’s attitudes, preferences or behavior. † One of the good things about interviewing is that it can be done in person, through telephone, at work, at home, or at an agreed location. It also works best if the interviewer wants information straight out of the respondent. It is more appropriate to use as a supplement to other data collection tools such as observations and questionnaires. Furthermore, the interviewer can ask in-depth questions to further validate the provided information or to ask follow-up questions (Smith and Albaum, 2005, p. 187). Another advantage of this method is that it reduces the number of â€Å"no answer† and â€Å"do not know† responses, which is more likely to happen in data collection tools such as questionnaires and surveys. Furthermore, interviewing can accommodate clarity, which then leads to more relevant responses (â€Å"Data-Collection Tools,† n. d. , p. 119). Disadvantages Like other data collection tools, interviewing has its disadvantages as well, such as the bias of the interviewer. This is because the interviewer makes sense of the information based on his or her perception and experiences. Another disadvantage is the response bias, which occurs when the questions are too embarrassing or personal. Thus, inaccuracy in terms of the response of the interviewee tends to take place. Interviewing also costs high because there are instances when the person to conduct the interview needs to travel (â€Å"Data-Collection Tools,† n. d. ). Also, interview is oftentimes used as a substitute for other more effective data collection tools. Some variables may also affect the flow of the interview, such as facial expressions, appearance, and voice. Interviewing is also time-consuming and requires the interviewer to be more sensitive and psychologically insightful (Smith and Albaum, 2005, p. 187). References â€Å"Data-Collection Tools. † (n. d. ). Retrieved April 3, 2009, from http://www. iir. com/nygc/acgp/assessment/assessment_chapter9. pdf Smith, S. M. and Albaum, G. S. (2005). Fundamentals of marketing research. United States: SAGE.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Impetous Actions And Their Tragic Consequences :: essays research papers

Impetuous actions can dramatically alter the life of anybody in many ways. The lack of thinking things through and acting solely on one particular emotion can lead to unanticipated results. In William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare shows how impetuous actions combined with the need for lust can lead to a tragic end. It wasn't fate but rather Romeo and Juliet's hasty actions that brought their untimely deaths. Love at first sight ultimately led to the premature deaths of the two lovers. At the Capulet party was where Romeo first sees Juliet: O, she doth teach the torches to burn bright! It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night As a rich jewel in an Ethiop's ear- Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dear. So shows a snowy dove trooping with crows As yonder lady o'er her fellows shows. The measure done, I'll watch her place of stand And, touching hers, make blessed my rude hand. Did my heart love till now? Forswear is sight, For I ne'er saw true beauty till this night. (1.5.51-60) At the very first sight of Juliet, Romeo immediately falls in love with her. He doesn't begin to think about her character, age, or even about whether she is married. If Romeo had taken his time and gotten to know Juliet and thought about what might come of this attraction, the tragic ending to their story could have been avoided. Romeo is not all to blame for the tragedy. Juliet felt exactly the same way about Romeo when she first saw him: My only love sprung from my only hate! Too early seen unknown, and known too late! Prodigious birth of love it is to me That I must love a loathed enemy. (1.5.152-155) Like Romeo, if Juliet had just taken some time to think things through, this disaster might have never occurred. After the two lovers had met, they made many hasty decisions and actions that only made their circumstances worse. The night the two sweethearts met the decided to get married: Three words, dear Romeo, and good night indeed. If that thy bent of love be honorable, Thy purpose marriage, send me word tomorrow, By one that I'll procure to come to thee, Where and what tine thou wilt perform the rite, And all my fortunes at they foot I'll lay And follow thee my lord throughout the world. (2.2.149-155) The very next day the Romeo and Juliet were married in secret to prevent another fight erupting between the Capulet and Montague families.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Brain Busters: The History of Lobotomy and its Application to Neuroscience :: Biology Essays Research Papers

Brain Busters: The History of Lobotomy and its Application to Neuroscience "It seems possible that with additional experience and a minute study of the pathologic changes seen in the brain, the knife may be the means of restoring to reason many cases now considered incurable" --Emory Lamphear (1895) (5) In 1847 an Irish workman, Phineas Cage, shed new light on the field of neuroscience in a rock blasting accident which sent an iron rod through the frontal region of his brain. Miraculously enough, he survived the incident, but even more astonishing to the science community at the time were the marked changes in Cage’s personality after the rode punctured his brain. Where before Cage was characterized by his mild mannered nature, he had now become aggressive, rude and "indulging in the grossest profanity, which was not previously his custom, manifesting but little deference for his fellows, impatient of restraint or advice when it conflicts with his desires" (1) according to the Boston physician Harlow in 1868. However, Cage sustained no impairment with regards to his intelligence or memory (1). This incident provoked scientists to ask the question, "can alteration of the brain structure lead to differences in personality?" and if so, then "are there specialized reg ions of the brain responsible for the function of different elements of our personal character?" Thus, completely by chance, the foundational discoveries for the development of frontal lobotomy were laid. Beginning in the late 1800’s, experimental surgeries involving various incisions slicing or destroying parts of the frontal cortex were performed on a variety of subjects in an effort to produce a calming effect in their behavior. In 1935, Dr. John Fulton presented the results of his research on a pair of chimpanzees at a conference for neurology. Fulton had "removed completely the frontal lobes" (4) of the chimps and observed that after the surgery they appeared significantly calmer than before the operation as he was unable to "generate experimental forms of neurosis in the animals"(1). Attending this conference were two neuro-scientists, Egas Moniz and Walter Freeman, both of whom would become major figures in the practice of lobotomy. Egas Moniz was particularly fascinated by the idea of the behavioral changes in Fulton’s chimps and posed the shocking question, "If the frontal lobe removal prevents the development of experimental neurosis in animals and eliminates frustrational behavior, why would it not be possible to relieve anxiety states in man by surgical means?

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Customer Relationship Management and Support Related Cost

1. Discuss briefly the factors that drove Harrah’s customer relationship strategy. 2. Discuss briefly the integration between Harrah's patron database and the marketing workbench. 3. Discuss briefly whether Harrah’s business and IT strategies were aligned, and what factors contributed to or detracted from achieving alignment. 4. Does Harrah's have a sustainable competitive advantage? Can other companies duplicate what Harrah's has done? 5. What are the lessons you learn from the experiences at Harrah’s that can benefit other companies embarking on a customer relationship management initiative?In Old costing system , material realted overhead cost was divided into 3 categories1)Material related 2)Production related 3)Support relatedThe support related cost were allocated based on sum of direct material , direct labor costs , material overhead and production overhead. Compared to old costing system, in PROKASTA 2 additional cost pools (Order processing and special components related cost) to allocated support related costs. This strategy was in line with management belief that support cost was more driven by number of orders of motors and number of special components required to process the order instead of machine hours and labor hours required to process the orderWith PROKASTA , the cost of base motor and cost of custom component using old costing system but support related cost pool (pre-PROKASTA) unit cost . Then PROKASTA cost elements were then added. It allowed the firm to relate cost and product mix strategy With new costing system , firm was able to determine proper cost of each order and the profitability of the order it received. Based on the PROKASTA the manager were able to identify which orders were profitable and which were not . It also allowed to determine price at which motors were transferred from EMW toto the sales Division3.Do you agree with Siemens’s decision to set up both sales and EMW as profit Centre? What are the cost and benefits?Siemens was a decentralised organisation with 7 major groups and 5 corporate divisions. The firm is required to identify the profitability of each and every division to evaluate peromonce and make proper divsions. So in this regards it makes sense to set up both sales and EMW as profit centreBenefits : 1)Decisions are better and more timely because of the manager’s proximity to local conditions 2)Managers will have more control over resultsCosts: 1)Insufficient information available to top management; increased costs of obtaining detailed information. 2)Lack of coordination among managers in different parts of the organization.4.Do transfer pricing system make sense? Why do you think so? Yes , I think transfer pricing makes sense. †¢Transfer pricing will help Generate separate profit figures for each division and thereby evaluate the performance of each division separately. †¢Transfer prices make managers aware of the value that goods and servi ces have for other segments of the firm and will help in determining sales and pricing decisions †¢It will also affect the allocation of an organization’s resources

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Free Essays on Dionysus

Zeus’ divine child relishes the happy life He loves peace who sheds happiness Peace who nurses admirable youths And gave of the rich and poor He hates those who do not do their best day and wondrous night to live happily. (Euripides, Bacchai 416-426) Dionysus has been called the Father of Wine, the Bringer of Virility, and the Patron of the Theatrical Arts, of which he is most well known for. Dionysus, also known as Bacchus, Iacchus, Bassareus, Trietenicus, and Liber, is credited for the creation of wine and theatre, yet his origins and earthly powers are vague and convoluted (Apiryon, 1). His origin has long been suspected to be in a fusion of a rural, local Greek nature god and another more potent god imported from Phrygia (central Turkey) or Thrace later in Greek prehistory (Gross, 1). Contradictory, Dionysus was one of the most important deities to the Greeks, yet historically he was rarely mentioned in writing. He was the Thracian, and eventually Greek, god of ecstasy, terror, guilt and atonement, death and resurrection, vegetation, trees, wine, madness, and drama. He also represented Eleusis: ecstasy, personal delivery from the world through physical or spiritual intoxication, and initiation into secret rites (1).To compreh end the complicated worship of this (once)nature deity, one must understand his origins, his followers, his holidays, and the evolution of the entire religion into the current form of theatre today. There are countless versions to the origins of Dionysus, and most continue in a common thread while contradicting each other. In the most profuse and popular tale, Dionysus was born of Zeus and Semele, a mortal woman whom Zeus had fallen in love with and the romance continued for many years. To no ones surprise, Semele became pregnant and rumors flew around Mt. Olympus. Eventually Hera, Queen of the gods and Zeus’ wife, discovered her husband’s secret affair with this human woman and became gree... Free Essays on Dionysus Free Essays on Dionysus DIONYSUS Dionysus, also known as Bacchus, is the son of the god Zeus and Semele. He is known as the twice-born god because Zeus unintentionally burned Semele on the account of Hera’s trickery and Dionysus died inside Semele. There are a few stories that come to his rebirth but the one that is most remembered in mythology is that Hermes took the heart of Dionysus and sew it into Zeus’s leg. After much persecution by Hera, Zeus finally became fed up with it and turned Dionysus into a god. Dionysus was the god of many things and some think that he is the most important god out of all of them which I for one agree with. To start he was the first god of fertility associated with plants and animals. For this he was known as â€Å"he of the trees†. He is also the god of wine, he had discovered this when he was in Nysa, also known as god of blossoms. This is where things get confusing. Dionysus is associated with both the life force and with death. He brings death, madness, and destruction to every where he goes and everyone that follows. However, paradoxically resurrection and life as well. For example; Dionysus drove Ino, his nurse, insane and she boiled her child alive, however she jumped into the sea and became a sea goddess. His mother, Semele, was burned alive but she joins Dionysus and other gods at Mount Olympus. By creating destruction in a way he is also creating life. Dionysus played an important role in helping life go on. He is the god of wine which in those days was a major thing to the Greeks and stimulated not only self worth and peoples lives but also stimulated procreation. The people that followed him would go mad, they would have parties and drink and let themselves go free without the common day worries and let life live. He is a god of the people. He understands them and the people that were his followers had a piece of him inside of them. He understood death like no other god could because he is the only ... Free Essays on Dionysus Zeus’ divine child relishes the happy life He loves peace who sheds happiness Peace who nurses admirable youths And gave of the rich and poor He hates those who do not do their best day and wondrous night to live happily. (Euripides, Bacchai 416-426) Dionysus has been called the Father of Wine, the Bringer of Virility, and the Patron of the Theatrical Arts, of which he is most well known for. Dionysus, also known as Bacchus, Iacchus, Bassareus, Trietenicus, and Liber, is credited for the creation of wine and theatre, yet his origins and earthly powers are vague and convoluted (Apiryon, 1). His origin has long been suspected to be in a fusion of a rural, local Greek nature god and another more potent god imported from Phrygia (central Turkey) or Thrace later in Greek prehistory (Gross, 1). Contradictory, Dionysus was one of the most important deities to the Greeks, yet historically he was rarely mentioned in writing. He was the Thracian, and eventually Greek, god of ecstasy, terror, guilt and atonement, death and resurrection, vegetation, trees, wine, madness, and drama. He also represented Eleusis: ecstasy, personal delivery from the world through physical or spiritual intoxication, and initiation into secret rites (1).To compreh end the complicated worship of this (once)nature deity, one must understand his origins, his followers, his holidays, and the evolution of the entire religion into the current form of theatre today. There are countless versions to the origins of Dionysus, and most continue in a common thread while contradicting each other. In the most profuse and popular tale, Dionysus was born of Zeus and Semele, a mortal woman whom Zeus had fallen in love with and the romance continued for many years. To no ones surprise, Semele became pregnant and rumors flew around Mt. Olympus. Eventually Hera, Queen of the gods and Zeus’ wife, discovered her husband’s secret affair with this human woman and became gree... Free Essays on Dionysus Son of Zeus and Semele, also known in both Greek and Latin as Bacchus. According to Ovid, when his mother was killed Zeus snatched her unborn child and sewed him into his own thigh. The Homeric Hymn to Dionysos (1) gives variant versions of his birth. He is unusual in that he has a mortal mother, the story of Semele places his birth much later than those of the other gods. Several stories tell of the fate of mortals who refused to recognised or accept Dionysos, as in Euripides' Bacchae. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 3.5 and Homer, Iliad, 6 tell the story of Lykourgos, a Thracian king who tried to expel Dionysos and was driven mad. Homeric Hymn to Dionysos, 7 tells of the fate of mortals who failed to recognise him. He was captured by pirates but made a vine grow on the ship and transformed himself into a lion. The pirates ended up as dolphins. As these stories suggest, Dionysos is often depicted as travelling throughout Greece, often arriving from the east. As knowledge of the world to the east expanded with Alexander's campaigns as far as India, so did the regions from which Dionysos was thought to arrive in Greece. In the Hellenistic and Roman periods he was depicted as arriving in triumph from India, accompanied by exotic animals. Dionysos is the god of wine and song and is usually depicted in art and literature accompanied by maenads, satyrs and silens. The maenads often carry parts of animals they have torn apart in their frenzy. This is how he is described by Catullus and Ovid when he arrives on the island of Naxos to rescue Ariadne. At Athens tragedy was performed at the festival of Dionysos (Dionysia). The Anthesteria was a festival which commemorated the death of Ikarios the first man to introduce wine to Attica. His countrymen killed him when they felt the effects of the drink and thought he had poisoned them. Ikarios' daughter, Erigone, hanged herself (Apollodoros, 3.14.7). Dionysos was also associated wit...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Extended Metaphor in Literature

Extended Metaphor in Literature An extended metaphor is a common literary device used as a comparison between two, unlike things that are commonly used in descriptive prose or poetry. Sometimes, it is just a sentence or two, or sometimes it can be even longer, lasting a paragraph or more. This literary term is also known as a conceit or a mega-metaphor. An extended metaphor is sometimes confused with allegory. The various elements or  images  in an extended metaphor may fit together or complement one another in different ways. Allegory Versus Extended Metaphor Allegory is often described as an extended metaphor, but this description only works if extended refers to the linguistic expression while metaphor refers to the conceptual structure. For example, Peter Crisp, English professor for the Chinese University of Hong Kong, claims that Extended metaphor... is different from allegory because it contains language that relates directly to both the  source and target. Literary Construct Only Extended metaphors  are a literary construct as opposed to an ordinary-language  metaphor. Extended metaphors are used consciously and sustained throughout a text or discourse. Unlike ordinary-language metaphors, they are not a one-off use of a description usually made out of necessity to get a point across. According to some language experts, extended metaphors are the exclusive property of literary texts, although this is not conclusive because of the use of  sustained metaphors in advertising. Examples of Extended Metaphors The best way to understand the concept of an extended metaphor is to see it in use. Authors and poets from all over the world, from all genres, and many time periods, have used or likely will use an extended metaphor in one way or another. Dean Koontz, Seize the NightBobby Holloway says my imagination is a three-hundred-ring circus. Currently, I was in ring two hundred and ninety-nine, with elephants dancing and clowns cartwheeling and tigers leaping through rings of fire. The time had come to step back, leave the main tent, go buy some popcorn and a Coke, bliss out, cool down.Michael Chabon, The Yiddish Policemans UnionIt never takes longer than a few minutes, when they get together, for everyone to revert to the state of nature, like a party marooned by a shipwreck. That’s what a family is. Also the storm at sea, the ship, and the unknown shore. And the hats and the whiskey stills that you make out of bamboo and coconuts. And the fire that you light to keep away the beasts.Emily Dickinson, Hope Is the Thing With FeathersHope is the thing with feathersThat perches in the soul,And sings the tune- without the words,And never stops at all,And sweetest in the gale is heard;And sore must be the stormThat could abash the little birdThat kept so many warm.Ive heard it in the chillest land,And on the strangest sea;Yet, never, in extremity,It asked a crumb of me. Charles Dickens, The Mystery of Edwin DroodWhosoever has observed that sedate and clerical bird, the rook, may perhaps have noticed that when he wings his way homeward towards nightfall, in a sedate and clerical company, two rooks will suddenly detach themselves from the rest, will retrace their flight for some distance, and will there poise and linger; conveying to mere men the fancy that it is of some occult importance to the body politic, that this artful couple should pretend to have renounced connection with it.Similarly, service being over in the old Cathedral with the square tower, and the choir scuffling out again, and divers venerable persons of rook-like aspect dispersing, two of these latter retrace their steps, and walk together in the echoing Close.Henry James, The AmbassadorsUnless she hid herself altogether she could show but as one of these, an illustration of his domiciled and indeed of his confirmed condition. And the consciousness of all this in her charming eyes w as so clear and fine that as she thus publicly drew him into her boat she produced in him such a silent agitation as he was not to fail afterwards to denounce as pusillanimous. Ah dont be so charming to me!- for it makes us intimate, and after all what is between us when Ive been so tremendously on my guard and have seen you but half a dozen times? He recognized once more the perverse law that so inveterately governed his poor personal aspects: it would be exactly like the way things always turned out for him that he should affect Mrs. Pocock and Waymarsh as launched in a relation in which he had really never been launched at all. They were at this very moment- they could only be- attributing to him the full license of it, and all by the operation of her own tone with him; whereas his sole license had been to cling with intensity to the brink, not to dip so much as a toe into the flood. But the flicker of his fear on this occasion was not, as may be added, to repeat itself; it spran g up, for its moment, only to die down and then go out forever. To meet his fellow visitors invocation and, with Sarahs brilliant eyes on him, answer, was quite sufficiently to step into her boat. During the rest of the time her visit lasted he felt himself proceed to each of the proper offices, successively, for helping to keep the adventurous skiff afloat. It rocked beneath him, but he settled himself in his place. He took up an oar and, since he was to have the credit of pulling, pulled. Will Ferrell (Actor/Comedian), Commencement Address at Harvard University in 2003I graduated from the University of Life. All right? I received a degree from the School of Hard Knocks. And our colors were black and blue, baby. I had office hours with the Dean of Bloody Noses. All right? I borrowed my class notes from Professor Knuckle Sandwich and his teaching assistant, Ms. Fat Lip Thon Nyun. That’s the kind of school I went to for real, okay?

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Love in all its Forms in †Romeo and Juliet Essay

Love in all its Forms in – Romeo and Juliet Essay Free Online Research Papers Love in all its Forms in Romeo and Juliet Essay The theme of love is probably the most common theme in all literature and Romeo and Juliet is no exception. The theme of love is predominant throughout the entire of play of Romeo and Juliet. There are many different forms of love and Shakespeare incorporates many of them into his â€Å"Romeo and Juliet† play. In â€Å" Romeo and Juliet† Shakespeare brings out the cruel superficial love Romeo has for Rosaline, the bawdy, physical, and sexual love that Shakespeare expressed through Nurse and Mercutio, the contractual love Paris has for Juliet, the compassionate, paternal, and caring love Capulet has for Juliet , and finally the spiritual emotional and true love Romeo and Juliet have for each other. In the opening scene of Romeo and Juliet Romeo is lovesick. He is in love with a girl named Rosaline, a relative of Juliet. Rosaline does not love Romeo back, which causes Romeo to be love sick. Romeo states his love sick and sad feelings by saying â€Å"Why, such is love’s transgressions. Griefs of mine own lie heavy in my breast, which thou wilt propagate, to have it prest with more of thine. This love that thou hast shown Doth add more grief to too much of mine own (I:I, 33-39). This is an example of the immature and superficial love Romeo has for Rosaline and how he is grieving. Not only is this love for Rosaline superficial, it is also painful love. Romeo says â€Å"With Cupid’s arrow; she hath Dian’s wit; And, in strong proof of chastity well arm’d, from love’s weak childish bow she lives unharmed. She will not stay the siege of love† (I:I, 205-209). This quote wonderfully describes how Rosaline does not love Romeo in return, which results in the cruel love Romeo has for her. This type of love is also a form of unrequited love. Another form of love in Romeo and Juliet is the bawdy type of love. This type of love refers to the physical and sexual form of love. Shakespeare brings out this type of love with two superb and colorful characters. These characters are Mercutio and Nurse, who each in their own demonstrated this kind of love and mindset. Mercutio and Nurse make many bawdy comments throughout the play such as â€Å"An old hare hoar, And an old hare hoar, Is very good meat in lent; But a hare that is hoar, Is too much for a score, when it hoars ere to be spent† (II:IV, 127-132 ). This quote spoken by Mercutio shows how he has quite a bawdy sense of humor and how he tends to focus on the physical side of love. Nurse also brings out the physical side of love in act one, scene three by expressing â€Å"A man, young lady! Lady, such a man As all the world – why, he’s a man of wax†(I:III, 127-132). A â€Å"man of wax† refers to a man of striking beauty, or a man with no imperfections. Paris’ love for Juliet symbolizes another form of love that Shakes brought out in his play of â€Å"Romeo and Juliet†. The love Paris has for Juliet is a contractual love (Novel analysis Romeo and Juliet). Paris does not actually love Juliet for who she, but he loves her for what she is. Paris did not fall in love with Juliet, but he fell in love with her name and title. This kind of love is typical for arranged marriages, such as the marriage that is supposed to happen between Paris and Juliet. Paris does not really know Juliet, he just knows her family’s status in Verona .Arranged marriages were common during these times (LoveToKnow Weddings), so it is no surprise the contractual marriages were common during this time period. (Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet) In certain parts of the play, Lord Capulet comes across to the reader/viewer as a very compassionate man. He demonstrates his compassion mainly towards his daughter, Juliet. In act one, scene two of â€Å"Romeo and Juliet† The County Paris asked Capulet if he can have his daughter Juliet’s hand in marriage. Paris asked Capulet, â€Å"But now, my lord, what say you to my suit?† (I:II, 6). In this time period, a man in Capulet’s position would be very tempted to arrange for his daughter to be married to a man of such high status as Paris. The fact that Capulet thought about Juliet’s well-being and happiness first truly reflects his caring and compassionate paternal love for his daughter Juliet. Capulet shows his compassion for Juliet again in act three by saying In the play, â€Å"Thou counterfeits a bark, a sea, a wind: For still thy eyes, which I may call the sea, Do ebb and flow with tears; the bark thy body is, Sailing in this salt flood; the winds, thy sighs;’† †(I:V, 132-135). This admirable example of an extended metaphor truly expresses Lord Capulet’s paternal love for his daughter. He is concerned over his daughter’s well-being and goodwill. She is crying over Romeo’s exile, and Capulet does not know that this is the real reason. Capulet does not know the real reason why Juliet and assumes that she is mourning for Tybalt, her slain cousin. Finally, Shakespeare brings out the emotional, spiritual and true love Romeo and Juliet have for each other. In Romeo and Juliet this type of love is brought as the superior form of love. When Romeo and Juliet meet, it is love at first sight for both of them. In a very poetic verse at the Capulet, Romeo expresses his feeling for Juliet by saying â€Å"O, she doth teach the torches to burn bright! It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night Like a rich jewel on an Ethiop’s ear; Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dear! So shows a snowy dove trooping with crows, As yonder lady o’er her fellows shows.† (I:VI, 44-49). Romeo idolizes Juliet and truly loves her. Unlike Romeo immature obsession with Rosaline, Romeo has genuine feelings for Juliet. Juliet also returns this love to Romeo when she says â€Å"Or, if thou wilt, swear by thy gracious self, Which is the god of my idolatry, And I’ll believe in thee.† (II:II, 112-114). From then on in, Romeo and Juliet start what turns out to be a passionate relationship. Their love for each other is nothing short of a fairytale romantic love, both being deeply love with each other. Their love for each other symbolizes everything that love should be; romantic, passionate, unselfish, and doing anything to be together. Romeo and Juliet’s superior love for each other causes much strife, and in the end, they end up killing themselves due to Romeo thinking Juliet was dead, when she really wasn’t. When Romeo thinks Juliet is dead, he fell as if he cannot go on, he drinks a poison and dies. Juliet wakes up and finds the dead Romeo and takes his dagger and kills herself. Romeo and Juliet’s love for each other was so strong that neither could go on without the other in their life. Their love is so strong they make the ultimate sacrifices for each other, their own lives. Romeo and Juliet brought out many types of love throughout the play. There was the cruel superficial love Romeo had for Rosaline, the bawdy physical love Shakespeare expressed through Nurse and Mercutio, the contractual love Paris has for Juliet, the compassionate and paternal love Capulet had for Juliet, and last but certainly not least, the emotional, spiritual, and true love Romeo and Juliet shared. In the end, however, the love Romeo and Juliet had for each other comes out as the predominant form of love in the play. There love was tragic, but also so great that it has inspired many writers and dreamers for many generations after Shakespeare’s years. Work cited Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet, Toronto, Harcourt Brace Canada, 1987 Novel Guide, Theme analysis, no date or writer indicated novelguide.com/romeoandjuliet/themeanalysis.html lovetoknow Weddings, History of Weddings, 10 October 2005, no author indicated http://weddings.lovetoknow.com/wiki/History_of_Weddings#Political_Weddings Research Papers on Love in all its Forms in - Romeo and Juliet EssayHonest Iagos Truth through DeceptionComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoWhere Wild and West MeetPersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyAnalysis Of A Cosmetics AdvertisementThe Project Managment Office System19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraCapital PunishmentThe Spring and AutumnMind Travel

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Business Process Management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Business Process Management - Assignment Example Excellent performance is a key for business success and Companies that are highly competent, set themselves apart from other firms by focusing on constant performance improvement. Some frameworks that are proposed by business project management for performance measurement are (Kellen, 2003): The Balanced Scored Card: This is the most utilized framework and had greater adaption. Balanced scored card is used to measure the things that are related to the organization’s strategy and important for logistic company. It is broken in four sections that are as follow (DHL, 2008): Activity Based Costing: Through activity-based cost, the allocation of overhead is done according to an individual customer or product instead of the allocation of overhead on overall products. Activity based costing link the cost to the sources that are being used to provide a particular service within an organization. In such ways, the flow of expenses run from resources to activities and leads to the most demanded services. In this way organization, become able to have detailed analysis of activities that are profitable and providing excess revenue to the organization as compare to their cost. This strategy is the part of the company from 1988 (BJH, n.d.). Economic Value Added: Economic value added is a measure of financial performance. The EVA is linked with the formulation of overtime and the value of shareholders. The usage of this method is done as the motivation plane of managers because the purpose of this approach is to server management with the information that can motivate them to create maximum wealth for shareholders. In DHL, EVA model is deployed to maximize the wealth of shareholders (Camerinelli, 2009). Quality Management: Quality improvement programs just not improve the performance of the organization but also enhance the level of customer satisfaction and for the improvement of

Friday, October 18, 2019

Public Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Public Law - Essay Example Between the 19th and 21st centuries, various changes have taken place and have ended up reducing the powers and rights bestowed on the House of Commons for one reason or another. Their mandates and membership have in the past been disrupted, and rearranged to meet the changing needs of the government operations in the constitution, and for the benefit of the general society. So far, the trend in changes being campaigned for and implemented on the House of Lords seems to be very thorough, and with a driven motive, especially from the running government and House of commons, which could not only affect their powers, but injure the public affairs and general society, when the operations of the common house are left with minimal control. Roles of the House of Lords Legislative responsibilities: As a constituent body of the parliament, it plays a major role in the law making process. Actually, of all the roles the chamber is entitled to, law making that entails amending, revising, and eve n initiating legislatures remain a critical role, which the house spends most of its time in (Parliamentary Education Service, 2007). This is usually a shared responsibility with the House of Commons, allowing each house to bring in their opinion and contribute their ideologies in the development of the law. The end product of the proposed law after having been evaluated by both houses, stands a better chance of been effective once passed through for the crowns approval. This is because the potential problems and voids in the proposed law or bills would be exposed and catered for. Initially, the House of Lords exercised more powers in the legislature, but the passage of the Parliament Act of 1911limited its power, over the ordinary legislature (kkhsou.in, 2011). Like the House of Commons, it can also initiate bills, especially those concerned with the government operation and non money bills, though at a lower rate than the laws drafted from the other House. Similarly, it revises an d examines bills passed from the House of Commons, checking the proposals, making changes and improving bills through debates on amendments, which is not time limited, making them workable once approved. In its legislative function, the House of Lords power to veto a bill are not available, but they can reject it to cause delay, allow room for review by the Common House and government, or offer alternative amendments (The Great Britain Parliament et al, 2012). However, in the third time reject by the House of Lords, the Common House can push it ahead for the crowns approval, even without the consent of the House of Lords. Scrutinising government and its executives: It is a valuable role that helps keep the government executives and operations in the right track. Most of the government activities and decisions are challenged by the House of Lords, which probes into a wide range of policies and regulations. As an executive body, it has the powers to question ministers and elicit infor mation from the administration by submitting written questions, or asking them orally during the question time sessions in the House, raise issues of concern through debates about government activities and policies, and provide responses to the government statements (The Great Britain Parliament et al, s2012). The House has established committees that assist in scrutinising and monitoring the delegated powers to the executives and government. They

Transportation through the various parts of the Denver metropolitan Term Paper

Transportation through the various parts of the Denver metropolitan area - Term Paper Example After this point we were Pecos working our way onto West 56th towards Federal back onto Pecos via I-76 and followed this route all the way to West 106th where we turned around at North Glen marketplace and went back to where I started. In the interest of full disclosure I perhaps did not choose the best time to ride Denver’s Public Transit because my journey was largely during Rush hour and it was quite dark. At the beginning of my journey on 15th street one notces that the streets were eerily empty of pedestrians and some of the buildings are quite tall. Along this street the buildings are also separated by several paring lots above ground and traditional. All one sees for several blocks was empty streets and parking lots.The next major sight that we passed was Coors Field on 20th Street. Baseball season is over and the road is sided by two large concrete walls which gave a very unpleasant feeling. The next major transition was onto Navajo Street with its small house. Without question this region is distinctly residential but passes by the occasional tavern, Church or auto body shop. I remember seeing a small altercation by a bar I think was called the ‘Arabian Bar’. Aother sight that soood out in my mind was the ‘Bug Theatre’ Which had a large group of people outside of it although I could not tell of there was anything go on that evening. The bus eventually turning onto Pecos street where there were vast empty fields and huge houses or gigantic industrial park type buildings and mega parking lots with big box stores which then transitioned back into a largely empty residential area. It was a strange transition from tightly packed inner city to a more casual residential area and then finally into such an open area only to turn around and repeat the process. Although it was the case that I hardly saw any people outside of the inner city and the residential area for some reason being in the rural area on Pecos

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Tech Guide 2 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Tech Guide 2 - Assignment Example software verifies eligibility of patients for every medical procedure, besides helping in automatic posting of remittance of workers (Tang and Stratton 566). In addition, AccuMed has the ability to provide custom reports as well as reminding medical officers and nurses of the appointments and scheduling. Further, the software can support HIEs connections with RHIOs through the help of HL7. Praxis EMR is a unique software for medical records that applies minimal reliance on templates. It gives healthcare practitioners easy time to manage appointments. It has billing system integration within it and gives room for charting directly between patients and medical officers and nurses. Further, Praxis EMR enables medical specialists to carry out an electronic prescription of drugs to patients. The health facility is unique because it can recognize handwriting and voices of both patients and medical officers. It also has HIPAA Compliant, lab integration, patient portal, and ONC-ATCB Certified. The management of the healthcare clinic facility has chosen Praxis EMR software. The reason for Praxis the choice is that it has several applications compared to AccuMed. It enables chatting, lab integration and handwriting and voice recognition that are lacking in AccuMed

Recyclene Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Recyclene - Assignment Example Another visible aspect that reflects the values of the company is the animation used and the nature of art involved in the website. The use of screw-like artwork has an impression that the company is involved in processing mission. Consequently, the nature of the artwork combined with the color expresses the fact that the company is involved in recycling process and more so the purpose of this process is to preserve and conserve the environment (Karamanos, 2001). The statement made by the leaders of the company signifies that they are environment oriented rather than profit oriented in their businesses. Consequently, they play a big role in shaping the organizational culture by being dedicated to the environment rather than the returns or profits associated to the recycling process. The underlying propeller behind the company is to do good by creating conducive environment (Karamanos, 2001). 3. Could Recycline easily change its organizational culture if the green products market encounters a backlash? Explain your answer. How would management know if a permanent change in culture has occurred? Based on the scenario presented in the video, it is undisputable that the company is wholly dedicated towards conserving the environment. The company’s culture is inclined towards green environment. This means that no matter what the market behavior would be, the company may not change its organizational culture easily. The possible way through which the management can know if a permanent change in culture has occurred is when the amount of products being recycled are too much to be accommodated by the company. Alternatively, it can determine the existence of permanent change by determining the use and utilization of its products by the consumers (Karamanos,

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Tech Guide 2 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Tech Guide 2 - Assignment Example software verifies eligibility of patients for every medical procedure, besides helping in automatic posting of remittance of workers (Tang and Stratton 566). In addition, AccuMed has the ability to provide custom reports as well as reminding medical officers and nurses of the appointments and scheduling. Further, the software can support HIEs connections with RHIOs through the help of HL7. Praxis EMR is a unique software for medical records that applies minimal reliance on templates. It gives healthcare practitioners easy time to manage appointments. It has billing system integration within it and gives room for charting directly between patients and medical officers and nurses. Further, Praxis EMR enables medical specialists to carry out an electronic prescription of drugs to patients. The health facility is unique because it can recognize handwriting and voices of both patients and medical officers. It also has HIPAA Compliant, lab integration, patient portal, and ONC-ATCB Certified. The management of the healthcare clinic facility has chosen Praxis EMR software. The reason for Praxis the choice is that it has several applications compared to AccuMed. It enables chatting, lab integration and handwriting and voice recognition that are lacking in AccuMed

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

A critical evaluation of the role of Friends of the Earth in the Essay

A critical evaluation of the role of Friends of the Earth in the development of policy responses to climate change in the United Kingdom - Essay Example Thus, one can easily relate Climate Change to the Global Financial Crisis, as the latter seems to be the deterring point behind the ignorance on the former. However, this isn’t the point where it can be established that Climate Change is a lost cause. Instead, a few examples can still be narrated where government involvement led toward policy responses, and that too legally binding in context to the state legislation. The scholarship on climate change indicates that government involvement with the issue is very critical to resolving the crisis at hand. Also, the efforts that are already being done must be rocketed by taking the crucial stakeholders into confidence. In other words, theoretical paradigms in climate change studies indicate that the social interest groups or volunteer organizations can play a positive role in bringing the issue on agenda, and once the issue transforms into a political one legislations are bound to be designed. However, certain steps need to be fol lowed which includes; developing or identifying non-environmental leadership, initiating action in the community, changing lifestyles and lastly transforming it into a global effort. Policy responses on the issue of climate change will only result after the intermingling of three actors; normative rationale on part of government, citizen`s will to take action and accurate consultation designs by organizations/individuals having expertise. To prove the point, a critical analysis of the organization functioning actively in the UK, the Friends of the Earth can be quite insightful. The organization reached a huge breakthrough in 2008, when after many concerted efforts; they were able to incorporate the Climate Change Act of 2008 in the UK, with binding legislations aiming at controlling the environmental damages via limiting carbon emitting gases. The organization i.e. Friends of the Earth initiated their campaign by publishing

Saving Belizes Barrier Reefs Essay Example for Free

Saving Belizes Barrier Reefs Essay Earth’s resources are not limitless, they have breaking points and natural properties can be threatened by a multitude of factors that can leave the area in ruins. The Belize Barrier Reef is such an area. It is a breathtaking natural system, home to a diverse array of life forms, which is being threatened by mankind and environmental factors. Conservation efforts can be put into action to ensure the continued existence of this site, but those efforts require financial backing. With proper monetary support, the increased conservation efforts can reverse the destruction on the reef. The Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System is a rich and diverse ecosystem that can be preserved for the enjoyment of generations to come. * The coastal area of Belize is the location of The Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System. The reef is the largest of its kind within the northern hemisphere, stretching out over 200 miles along Belize’s coast. The reef contains many mangrove forests, large atolls, pristine lagoons, and approximately 450 sand cays. Additionally, the reef is home to a plethora of marine life which both directly and indirectly impacts this ecosystem and the diverse life contained within. The preservation of this site is crucial due to the abundant threatened species that make their home in the reef. Specifically, there are nearly a thousand species that inhabit the reef such as the loggerhead, green, and hawksbill sea turtles, the largest population of manatees in the world, and the American marine crocodile. Additionally, the reef system is home to numerous types of coral, sharks, barracuda, dolphins, angelfish, and several species of birds. The aquatic and plant life of the reef react and prosper through their connections; the reef and the vegetation within provide shelter and food for this array of life that live within (UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 1992-2012). * With the abundant life forms that exist within the reef, it is imperative that it be protected, yet the reef system is in danger as a result of huma n interference and climate issues. Because the world is a giant ecosystem, human mistreatment has led to imbalances on a dramatic level, such as fluctuating climate. This climate control issue is adversely affecting both  the water level in the reef and the organisms within. Tropical storms have been an issue as well as they threaten the coast with tidal waves and erosion, however the reef and mangrove cays do offer significant protection to the areas further inland (Young, 2008). According to World Resources Institute (2008), â€Å"Coral reefs and mangroves are highly interconnected habitats, physically supporting each other and providing habitat for many species. For example, mangroves filter sediment and pollutants from coastal runoff, supporting the clean water favored by corals. Many species important to fisheries and tourism rely upon mangrove habitat for part of their life-cycle† (p. 2). * With the delicate balance of this ecosystem and all it offers, it would stand to reason that locals would do everything possible to preserve the reef, yet that is not the case. In fact, locals and tourists are threatening this precious ecosystem and could cause its decline. Deforestation, oil drilling, and coastal development are all threats. In 2002 crude oil was discovered in Belize, igniting frenzy and attracting hundreds of prospectors. Additionally, the growing population and tourism industry has led to rapid development for both residential and commercial purposes (Young, 2008). â€Å"Over the last five decades, large-scale agriculture (citrus, bananas, sugar cane) and, more recently, large-scale aquaculture (shrimp and tilapia farming) have escalated at the expense of the forests. Coupled with rapid and increasing coastal development, illegal logging, and slash-and-burn agriculture, Belize is currently experiencing a deforestation rate that is twice that of Central America (2.3% vs. 1.2% annually)†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Young, 2008, para. 4). * Fortunately, others have realized the value of the reef system and have taken steps to protect it. â€Å"The preservation of the Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System is critical to both its marine inhabitants and the local communities that depend on the site for their livelihoods† (Terracurve, 2009, para. 3). In 2009, the United Nation Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) added the reef reserve system to their list of World Heritage in Danger sites. The UNESCO foundation hopes to spread the message that the Belize Reef System belongs to all people and its natural heritage and beauty should be protected (UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 1992-2012). Conservation efforts have also been put into play to ensure this world heritage sites continued existence. The department of fishery in Belize has recognized the need to reform the  national fisheries policy in an effort to control over fishing in the reefs, which is a substantial threat to the reef. Such reforms should help the over fished areas to rebuild, offer protection to the reefs and delicate coral, and add to the number of protected marine areas where fishing is not allowed (Wildlife Conservation Society, 2012). Conservation efforts for the Barrier Reef system still have a long way to go. Local Belize communities and their inhabitants are one group that can do much good towards the conservation of this national treasure. However, in order for this to happen the locals need to be educated on conservation and its benefits and become invested in the reefs. Although this is a challenge do to the extreme poverty that exists within Belize and the citizens’ access to educational information. Poverty greatly increases the instances of environmental misuse because those affected typically have greater worries than environmental conservation. In order to implement a conservation plan that includes involvement from local citizens, there must also be efforts made to boost the socio-economic standing of the citizens. Long term preservation of the reef could be financially beneficial to the Belize economy and better the citizen’s socio-economic standings. Additionally, allowing the citizens to work with the government officials towards making decisions concerning the reef will give them a sense of investment in the reef (Young, 2008). * Improving the socio-economic conditions in Belize and educating citizens is just a small step that can lead to more effective conservation efforts for the reef. That still leaves the issues of outside interference on the ecosystem such as oil drilling and deforestation. Although Belize has established a protection plan for certain land a sea areas, it is apparent that tighter restrictions are needed. In particular, oil drilling and deforestation are major issues that threaten the reef that should have increased restrictions placed on them. This will require increased monitoring and amendments to the protected area systems. Additionally, the three management teams which oversee the protected areas appear to all have different ideas concerning best conservation practices. For that reason it would make sense to unify the groups, leaving only one division to oversee the protected areas and enforce regulations (Meerman, 2004). Drastic measures to preserve the reef system need to be taken now, before it is too late. If conservation efforts are not increased, coral health and fish  populations will continue to decline and the mangrove cays will face extinction. As it stands, the shark population in the reef waters has already declined, which is an indicator as to the reefs health. The absence of sharks in the reefs allows the populations of barracudas and rays to increase and take control. These second rate predators can have damaging effects on the reefs if there numbers are not controlled, such as limiting the populations of parrot fish, conch, and lobster. Lobster is important in Belize as it is one of t he country’s major exports. Parrot fish play an integral role in the reef as well, they are plant eaters and there food source is algae. Without parrot fish and other plant eating fish eating the algae and keeping it in check, it will spread until the reef is consumed by it, which could be irreversible (Kryt Ward, 2008). The Barrier Reef Reserve System off of the coast of Belize is breathtaking example of nature’s beauty. Additionally, it is a precious natural system teaming with diverse life forms. Although climate and human interference have caused the reef to become an endangered site, it is not too late to reverse the effects of mistreatment. Education on conservation efforts and increased restrictions can greatly increase the reefs chances of survival for generations to come. Without these efforts, a precious natural resource will be lost, and the reef is most certainly worth preserving. References * Kryt, K. Ward, J. (2008). Trouble in paradise-the struggle to save Belize’s Glover’s atoll. Retrieved from http://www.earthisland.org/journal/index.php/eij/article/trouble_in_paradise/ Meerman, J.C. (2004). Protected Areas Policy and System Plan: Protected Area System Assessment Analysis. Retrieved from http://biological-diversity.info/NPAPSP.htm * Terracurve. (2009). Help protect the Belize Barrier Reef with the support of the United Nations. Retrieved from http://www.terracurve.com/2009/07/01/help-protect-the-belize-barrier-reef-with-the-support-of-the-united-nations/ * UNESCO World Heritage Centre. (1992-2012). Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System. Retrieved from http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/764 Wildlife Conservation Society. (2012).

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Issues Of PepsiCo International Strategy

The Issues Of PepsiCo International Strategy Coca-Cola, the major competitor of Pepsi has been exiled from the desert kingdom. Because of this, Pepsi expanded into Arab Countries has an 80% share of the $1 billion Saudi soft-drink market. Saudi Arabia is the third largest foreign market of Pepsi, after Mexico and Canada. In 1993, about 7% of Pepsi-Cola Internationals sales came from Saudi Arabia. The environment in Saudi Arabia makes the country very favorable to soft-drink sales because alcohol is banned climate is very hot and dry. Mode of Expansion: Pepsi uses franchise system for international expansion. Sources of Competitive Advantage: PepsiCo has competitive advantage in terms of worldwide distribution the company is able to produce all its products in the country where they are consumed. Pepsi has a competitive advantage over Coke because of its brand image good word of mouth. Pepsi promotes itself as the number one choice of the Next Generation. Government Policies: Currently a 50 percent rise in Pepsi prices in Saudi has angered customers and provoked the kingdoms government to call on more than 30 soft drink companies to hold off on further price hikes. Pepsi increased the price of a can to 1.50 riyals $0.40 from 1 riyal.it. Saudi Consumer Protection Association investigated the sudden unjustified price hike, the Saudi Gazette reported that official permission should be granted to soft drink firms before they are allowed to increase prices and price rise should not be more than 10 percent. PEST Analysis Political Influences: Many PepsiCo products are subject to different federal laws due to their manufacturing, distribution use, such as the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, the Occupational Safety and Health Act ad the Americans with Disabilities. The international ventures are subject to the Government stability and businesses are subjected to different taxation policies in each consumer country. Economic Influences: PepsiCo relies on trucks to move products so fuel is an important subject fuel prices matters. The economic impact of foreign exchange rates movements on them is complex because such changes are often linked to variability in real growth, inflation, interest rates, governmental actions, etc. PepsiCo is also subjected to other economical factors like money supply, energy availability, cost and business cycles. Socio-Cultural Influences: Pepsi is subject to the lifestyle changes, so it bases her advertising campaigns in people with special lifestyle. For that PepsiCo has to pay special attention on lifestyle changes. It has to be very careful with the possible problems with the governments and those which could rise from PepsiCo act with the people of KSA. Technological Influences: PepsiCo is exposed to new manufacturing techniques, for its three business units, snack food, juices and soft drinks. It has to pay attention while adopting flexible advanced distribution techniques. PORTER 5 FORCES Analysis 1. Threat of New Entrants: The threat of new entrants in the industry is small yet substantial. This is because there are already four players in the market other then Pepsi itself. 2. Threat of Substitute Products: Currently, the threat of new viable competitors in the carbonated soft drink industry is not very substantial. Possible substitutes that continuously put pressure on Pepsi include tea, coffee, juices, milk, and hot chocolate. 3. Bargaining Power of Suppliers: The bargaining power of the suppliers tends to be low according to the recent analysis. PepsiCo needs to manage its relationships carefully with the bottling units in order to make changes in its way to market the local retailers. 4. Bargaining Power of Buyers: Here the concern is how to increase market share and retain its current customer because customer always try to optimize benefit. The buying power of consumers also poses a key threat in the industry. Moreover consumers can simply switch to other beverages with little cost or importance. 5. Rivalry Among Competitors: Pepsi has 48.9% share of market it is situated in an environment that is ever changing and dynamic because coca cola is holding 30.9% share Cadbury Schweppes 8%. The local brands are also in the market to compete Pepsi. These brands are Mecca cola holding 0.5% market share and 0.6% Zamzam cola. SWOT Analysis 1.Internal Attributes(Strengths Weaknesses) Pepsi is inferior in its fountain drink division. The ownership in fast food restaurants has always been problematic for pepsi. Coca Cola has been in the top locations for fountain beverages because of their ownership in Taco Bell, Pizza Hut, KFC, and many others. 2.External Attributes(Opportunities Threats) In addition to its large consumer base, Saudi Arabia has some of the regions biggest athletic clubs, most passionate sports fans, and has a growing population of athletes and active people. When PepsiCo started its own Pepsi Bottling Company, it allowed them to cut costs, reduce overhead, and coordinate their distribution to create a better synergy. Critical Issues or Barriers: Pepsi can serve the 90% market but problem is the bottling of the drink. War crisis between Palestine and Israel is bringing hate against Pepsi that why USA is not interest in resolving the issue As Pepsi is US product and these days US and foreign products are campaigned not to be used to show rage against non-Muslim acts. Due to recent oil prices increase, there is international factor of inflation and on the other hand Pepsi is cheaper in KSA compared to other countries, so Pepsi is facing problem to maintain the profits. Since employers in KSA are required to give their employees time to pray toward Mecca five times per day, as set forth in the Koran, break times caused additional operating cost. Health and stomach diseases due to over use. Obesity problem which is becoming common in Saudis. Rumors of Haram ingredients. The tough competition is carried out through packaging as well as price. Recommendations: Pepsi is being forced to re-examine their strategic models, based on carbonated soft drinks and move to new beverage categories. Heavy investmentment in risky innovations may be suggested in order to transfer resources from other brands. Pepsi spends 15% of overall budget on advertising and marketing to be no.1 in the consumer sight. Pepsi should use all media vehicles to attract consumers. Conclusion: Consumers want to buy soft drinks delivered at convenient locations with the right package. Pepsi have to make sure that the market keeps growing annually, and that company products are available everywhere. Pepsi has won the International Quality Award and Bottlers of the year Award, so the company feels quite optimistic. Although difficult challenges lay ahead, yet to exploit opportunities through the implementation of an effective and comprehensive marketing plan 2009. Appendix:

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Western as Commentary about Decaying Values Essay -- Western Cultu

The Western as Commentary about Decaying Values The Western, as a genre, is subversive of the values that its Christian characters possess. Western films frequently depict social depravity in terms of the mythology that developed during westward expansion. The mythology was inspired by the threat of the frontier wilderness to Puritan culture. In order to preserve their society, some Puritans departed from their ideal Christian lives. Western films portray compromises that cultures make of the values that they define themselves by in order to protect the integrity of their other values. A contemporary Western, Open Range, which Kevin Costner stars in and directed, released in 1995, deals with a conflict between morality and justice and the genre mythology. In it, Boss Spearman and Charley Waite herd cattle across the Western frontier. When they allow the herd to free-graze in Fort Harmon country, they infuriate a prominent rancher, Baxter, who tells them â€Å"Free-grazers ain’t gonna take the feed off my cattle.† A confrontation with Baxter’s henchmen results in them killing one of Boss’ helpers and another, Button, is severely hurt. Boss and Charley are faced with the options either to run away, in which case Button would die, or to risk their lives by entering the town to find him a doctor. Boss and Charley both are generous to each other, their workers, and people they encounter. Charley is a former Civil War fighter who is trying to escape his past with the guidance of the old, collected cowboy, Boss. Both have clearly been in fights before; however, Charley’s past troubles him in a deeper way than his demeanor suggests. He explains that he first shot a man in the throat ... ...fe from the dangers of their enemies and feel that they have the freedom of pioneers. Even as the wilderness and the frontier become more distant, the mythology that arose in the American west keeps its people inexorably determined to maintain the democracy and the freedom that it provides. Works Cited Fiedler, Leslie A. The Return of the Vanishing American. Briarcliff Manor, NY: Stein and Day, 1968. Slotkin, R. Regeneration Through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier 1600-1860. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1973. Turner, Frederick J. â€Å"Contributions of the West to American Democracy.† The Turner Thesis: Concerning the Role of the Frontier in American History. Ed. George R. Taylor. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1972.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Dispensable Nigger in Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness :: Heart Darkness essays

The Dispensable African in Heart of Darkness    Three Works Cited  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The story is about a man named Marlow, who is hired by The Company, which is a shipping company located in England.   Although Marlow had sailed before, he had never sailed to Africa.   The people who operated The Company (those located in England) are so far removed from reality, that they have no concept of the devastation caused in order to ship vast loads of ivory.   The Company is a perfect example of how these profit driven industries obtain their wealth – through the blatant disregard of the environment and their fellow man. One can only imagine the death and destruction that was inflicted in order to ship mass quantities of ivory.   The Company’s disrespect for the Africans and their environment was the typical attitude had by many nineteenth century profiteers.   Their rationale was that no matter what degree of damage was inflicted, they felt it would never affect them. Their disdainful attittude towards the Africans is expressed in the following words: The conquest of the earth, which mostly means the taking it away from those who have a different complexion or slightly flatter noses than ourselves, is not a pretty thing when you look into it too much.  Ã‚   (Conrad 9) In order to be able to conquer a people, one must dehumanize them and believe they are insignificant/inferior.   This mode of thinking is used to justify any atrocities committed by the conquerors. In â€Å"Root of Racism,† the superior attitude is described as All groups, by their nature, imply to the members that they are somehow special in particular ways and in many ways better, than their fellow travelers on this earth.  Ã‚   (Ross) This superior attitude has been evidently pervasive throughout mankind’s history; some strong examples of these are the war in Bosnia, the slaughter of the Tutus in Rwanda and the white settlers near annihilation of the Native Americans. Conrad’s character Marlow describes the natives as having â€Å"a wild vitality† and their â€Å"faces like grotesque masks.†Ã‚   These remarks demonstrate his fear and reinforces the distinction between himself and the natives. Racial or ethnic hatred is a direct consequence of our Fear Response.   Hatred is really taking the fear response one step further.   We justify that fear by invoking certain attributes to others by assuming that they may be inferior, evil or harmful.

Friday, October 11, 2019

DHCP and DNS Essay

Assignment 1: DHCP Troubleshooting. Check the workstations using ipconfig /all and find out if the ip range is within the address range you assigned, if it is a different address then the workstation failed to contact the DHCP server and has gone into apipa mode. The Network Interface Card might be assigned an incorrect driver. Another possible cause of the problem is that the patch cable is not plugged into the Network Interface Card, or is not connected to a switch on the other end. However, it could be that the server has run out of IP addresses that it can assign to clients. You can easily tell if this is the problem by comparing the size of the DHCP address scope to the number of devices on your network that request IP addresses from the DHCP server. But since only some of the workstations have got addresses the problem might be the DHCP server. Start off by doing some ping tests to verify that the DHCP server is able to communicate across the network. If the DHCP server is able to communicate with other computers on the network, then I recommend verifying that the DHCP server has an IP address that is compatible with the scope that the server is configured to assign addresses from. The server itself has to be assigned a static address in the same subnet range, such as 192.168.0.199. If this still doesn’t solve the problem make sure that the DHCP server is still authorized by the Active Directory to lease IP addresses. You should also check to verify that the scope is active, and that the necessary services are running on the DHCP server. Exercise 1: DNS scenario. You will need to setup a primary DNS server in the larger branch office. Configure it as a primary forward lookup zone for the domain name of your company. Before you install DNS make sure your computer has a static ip address so it does not get one from the DHCP server. In the small branch setup a second DNS server. Configure it as a secondary forward lookup zone with the same domain name as the primary DNS server.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

African Americans in the U.S. Essay

African Americans (American Blacks or Black Americans), racial group in the United States whose dominant ancestry is from sub-Saharan West Africa. Many African Americans also claim European, Native American, or Asian ancestors. A variety of names have been used for African Americans at various points in history. African Americans have been referred to as Negroes, colored, blacks, and Afro-Americans, as well as lesser-known terms, such as the 19th-century designation Anglo-African. The terms Negro and colored are now rarely used. African American, black, and to a lesser extent Afro-American, are used interchangeably today. Recent black immigrants from Africa and the islands of the Caribbean are sometimes classified as African Americans. However, these groups, especially first- and second-generation immigrants, often have cultural practices, histories, and languages that are distinct from those of African Americans born in the United States. For example, Caribbean natives may speak French, British English, or Spanish as their first language. Emigrants from Africa may speak a European language other than English or any of a number of African languages as their first language. Caribbean and African immigrants often have little knowledge or experience of the distinctive history of race relations in the United States. Thus, Caribbean and African immigrants may or may not choose to identify with the African American community. According to 2000 U. S. census, some 34. 7 million African Americans live in the United States, making up 12. 3 percent of the total population. 2000 census shows that 54. 8 percent African Americans lived in the South. In that year, 17. 6 percent of African Americans lived in the Northeast and 18. 7 percent in the Midwest, while only 8. 9 percent lived in the Western states. Almost 88 percent of African Americans lived in metropolitan areas in 2000. With over 2 million African American residents, New York City had the largest black urban population in the United States in 2000. Washington, D. C. , had the highest proportion of black residents of any U. S. city in 2000, with African Americans making up almost 60 percent of the population. Microsoft  ® Encarta  ® 2009.  © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Atlantic Slave Trade, Atlantic Slave Trade, the forced transportation of at least 10 million enslaved Africans from their homelands in Africa to destinations in Europe and the Americas during the 15th through 19th centuries. European and North American slave traders transported most of these slaves to areas in tropical and subtropical America, where the vast majority worked as laborers on large agricultural plantations. See Slavery. Between 1440 and 1880 Europeans and North Americans exchanged merchandise for slaves along 5600 km (3500 miles) of Africa’s western and west central Atlantic coasts. These slaves were then transported to other locations around the Atlantic Ocean. The vast majority went to Brazil, the Caribbean, and Spanish-speaking regions of South America and Central America. Smaller numbers were taken to Atlantic islands, continental Europe, and English-speaking areas of the North American mainland. Approximately 12 million slaves left Africa via the Atlantic trade, and more than 10 million arrived. The Atlantic slave trade involved the largest intercontinental migration of people in world history prior to the 20th century. This transfer of so many people, over such a long time, had enormous consequences for every continent bordering the Atlantic. It profoundly changed the racial, social, economic, and cultural makeup in many of the American nations that imported slaves. It also left a legacy of racism that many of those nations are still struggling to overcome. Microsoft  ® Encarta  ® 2009.  © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Civil Rights Movement in the United States, political, legal, and social struggle by black Americans to gain full citizenship rights and to achieve racial equality. The civil rights movement was first and foremost a challenge to segregation, the system of laws and customs separating blacks and whites that whites used to control blacks after slavery was abolished in the 1860s. During the civil rights movement, individuals and civil rights organizations challenged segregation and discrimination with a variety of activities, including protest marches, boycotts, and refusal to abide by segregation laws. Many believe that the movement began with the Montgomery bus boycott in 1955 and ended with the Voting Rights Act of 1965, though there is debate about when it began and whether it has ended yet. The civil rights movement has also been called the Black Freedom Movement, the Negro Revolution, and the Second Reconstruction. Microsoft  ® Encarta  ® 2009.  © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. AAVE Distinctive patterns of language use among African Americans arose as creative responses to the hardships imposed on the African American community. Slave-owners often intentionally mixed people who spoke many different African languages to discourage communication in any language other than English on their plantations. Moreover, many whites were unwilling to allow blacks to learn proper English. One response to these conditions was the development of pidgins, simplified mixtures of two or more languages that speakers of different languages could use to communicate with each other. Some of these pidgins eventually became fully developed Creole languages spoken by certain groups as a native language. Significant numbers of people still speak some of these Creole languages, notably Gullah on the Sea Islands of South Carolina and Georgia. African American Vernacular English (AAVE), also called black English or Ebonics, is a dialect of English spoken by many African Americans that shares some features with Creole languages. Microsoft  ® Encarta  ® 2009.  © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Discrimination in Marketing Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Discrimination in Marketing - Assignment Example Therefore, Reynolds’ implementation of a cigarette marketing campaign for the African-American population is adversely a discriminatory approach in marketing since the other races in the country may have intended to use menthol cigarettes over the non-menthol ones. The following is an analytical approach to establish the controversy of discrimination in marketing cigarettes in the uptown market segment. Critically, it is indicated that the African-American cigarette smoking population contains a relevantly higher ratio of menthol cigarette smokers compared to the other races in the country. Emphasizing on Reynolds’ information concerning the demographic variability of menthol cigarette smokers in the uptown market edge, the norm is that there exists discrimination in the established marketing approach despite the fact that the cigarettes sell for 70% of the black population. Researches assert that the white population together with other American races, influences 30% of the total market sales outcomes. This is a clear indication of the existence of marketing discrimination in the uptown market segment (p. 1). Arguably, Reynolds set an ideal platform to reveal the existence of discrimination in the uptown market segment. Based on the fact that most of the advertising, pricing, and promotion approaches of menthol cigarettes is redirected to the African-American population, it is evident that marketers in the segment often engage in discrimination. The intentions of precise marketing approaches are born to yielding profitable market segments over competitors. Further, it is knowledgeable to marketers that users of a certain commodity perceive belongingness after being associated with the marketing and promotion practices. Therefore, Reynolds concern in marketing cigarettes for the uptown market cigarette smokers and precisely the black population is a critical approach

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

Health Care Provider and Faith Diversity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 4

Health Care Provider and Faith Diversity - Essay Example In their lines of duty, health care providers encounter patients from diverse faiths every day. While faith (religion) is mostly held constant when providing health services, it may act as a barrier to the provision of the same in some instances. As such, it is important that a health care provider in certain demanding or all working settings to have some basic knowledge about some faiths. It is, however impossible to learn something about all the faiths on earth and as such, sometimes the health care provider may seek some help from the patients or other related persons. To elaborate on how faith and health care can relate, the following study text analyzes three faiths; Judaism, Buddhism, and Sikh. The paper will compare the three faiths to Christianity, and in it explain how understanding a patient’s faith can be advantageous in disseminating health care services. Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. They value human life and are against any form of taking it away such as suicide, murder, or euthanasia. Judaism allows for medical intervention when one is sick, and supports that every community should have a physician. Additionally, the Judaists do not allow for surgeries or any treatment during the Sabbath, not unless it is very necessary as in saving a life. The sick are visited by relatives, but again, this should not interfere with the recovery of the patient. The issue of conducting autopsies is controversial in Judaism, and is only allowed under special cases. This is because they value the human body even in death. Abortion is also controversial because it is not allowed not unless it is for strict medical emergencies. Abortion and autopsy may have to be allowed by a teacher or Rabbi before they are conducted. Finally, they circumcise male children, eight days after they are born. It is done by a trained specialist with both me dical and religious backing (Spitzer, 2003). Sikhs usually turn to their God,

Monday, October 7, 2019

CIPD Course-Employee Relations - UK based system Essay

CIPD Course-Employee Relations - UK based system - Essay Example It is important that the organizational policies relating to aspects such as recruitment, selection, training, advancement, and disciplinary action, be in line with the relevant legislation such as the Equality Act 2010, the Employment Rights Act 1996, the Disability Discrimination Act 1995, and the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. Economic factors such as inflation, unemployment, economic growth and taxation affect employment relationship (Aswathappa, 2005). When the economy experiences growth, there are better prospects for business and employment. As a result, employers are eager to attract qualified and skilled employees by offering them attractive remuneration and benefits (Aswathappa, 2005). On the other hand, during a recession, organizations consider redundancies and layoffs more frequently in order to reduce their costs and remain competitive. This may also result in downward revision of employees’ pay packages. Social factors such as unemployment, immigration and changing societal trends also affect the employment relationship (CIPD, 2013). High levels of unemployment result in low wages offered and few benefits, if any, as the unemployed have no other alternative. Rising immigration levels result in low-skilled jobs being taken by foreign workers, who can be paid lower wages than British workers. Trends such as dual-income households and even single-parent households mean that employers have to accommodate concern for the personal obligations of employees in the workplace. Worker, employee, and self-employed are three different types of employment status in the UK. According to the legal definition, an employee is an individual who has entered into or works under (or, where the employment has ceased, worked under) a contract of employment. A worker is defined as â€Å"an individual who works under (a) a contract of employment or (b) any other contract whereby the individual undertakes to do or perform

Sunday, October 6, 2019

Love - Theory and Practice in Court Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Love - Theory and Practice in Court - Assignment Example Judges employ definite guidelines and philosophies when formulating their verdicts. They are; retribution, test of proportionality, rehabilitation, deterrence and restoration. The drive towards court unification can not ultimately lead to a monolithic system because this will grant the federal court system excessive power. The dual court system is a two tier judiciary system comprising of the State and Federal court structures. The dual-court system is the product of a universal agreement amongst the country's founders concerning the requirement for individual states to maintain considerable legislative power and judicial independence separate from federal control. Unification onto a monolithic court structure appears improbable to occur anytime to combine the state and federal structures, and if it did would likely not be extremely effective. In sentencing, judges are restricted by statutory requirements; guided by existing philosophical rationales, executive considerations, and pre sentence inquiry reports; and subjective to their own individual characteristics. Q1. According to Neubauer and Fradella (2010), the dual court system of the United States comprises federal and state courts, which is a product of federalism. The U.S. Constitution institutes the judicial division of the federal administration and stipulates the power of the federal courts. Federal courts have restricted authority only over definite types of cases, for instance, cases concerning arguments between states, federal laws and cases concerning foreign governments. In other areas, federal courts share authority with state courts. For instance, both federal and state courts might make decisions on cases regarding parties who reside in dissimilar states. State courts cover exclusive authority above a majority of cases. While State courts developed from early colonial arrangements, federal courts where established by the United States constitution. Dual court system has been affected by its acc ount since the model of two court structures still remains. There have been modifications to the individual courts to create them run smoother akin to the three tier homogeneous structure taken up by the state courts. The administration of state courts is by their own constitution and statutes, US Constitution and statutes, rulings and model from superior courts in the state, judgments of the federal courts in their jurisdiction, and by example from the US Supreme Court and federal petition courts in their area of jurisdiction. According to Reid (2011), US Constitution and Statutes, the US Supreme Court, and judgments from the petition courts in their jurisdiction guide the federal courts. The association between federal and state courts is viewed as judicial federalism. Judicial federalism is a hierarchical structure that is commonly understood and has a legal establishment. The federal Constitution institutes a national court structure and specifies that discrepancies between fede ral and state law. These are to be determined in preference of the former, and the judges of the state courts are compiled by this principle. Thus, state courts should give priority to federal over state law, and infer with the federal law in line with existing judgments of the Supreme Court. The Court's fundamental justice and appropriate process guidelines, enunciated to give state courts with the flexibility to extend satisfactory protections of the accused, were regarded as indistinct and subjective. Several state judges made

Saturday, October 5, 2019

Poetry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 7

Poetry - Essay Example Despite his mother’s protestations and desire to spend their insurance cheque on a house which would greatly benefit the family as a whole, Walter is adamant that he invest the money, and does so despite these familial objections. His sister wants to spend money on tuition for medical school as it is her dream to become a doctor, but he even mocks this as she is a woman and he cannot see the merits of spending the money in this way. Walter reflects the view in the 1950s that women should stay at home and only men should be educated, an obstacle his sister must constantly fight against. Though he does dream of his son going to college, this is still a selfish dream as he appears to think that this will reflect favourably on himself. The conflict the family experience due to their different dreams, is a major theme. The character of Walter as the protagonist of the play is also the most interesting in my opinion as he also serves as a form of antagonist. Many of the plays themes and plot developments centre on Walter while it is also as a result of Walters weaknesses and actions which cause the family further adversity and problems. Walters character goes through a significant transformation through the play. At the beginning he is portrayed as weak, selfish, materialistic and belligerent, while by the end of the play his selfishness seems to have waned as he puts the needs of his family ahead of his own. In doing so, he gives the play its structure and reflects the conflict and tensions which were relevant at the time. The character of Walter is introduced to the audience as a man of weakness and selfishness and several of the social and economic obstacles faced by the Younger family are manifested in Walters attitude. Though Walter admits that he wants the best for his family, his version of having the best is utterly materialistic and

Friday, October 4, 2019

Impressionist’s Gender Roles Essay Example for Free

Impressionist’s Gender Roles Essay Manet’s Olympia (circa 1863) is a classic example of the reclining nude. This appears to be a private space as there is an attending woman included in the painting. In contrast to this Berthe Morisot’s landscape painting is a public piece, depicting people on a promenade. For Manet’s painting, the viewer relates in a blatant voyeuristic way, gazing upon the nude just as the nude gazes back at the viewer in a poised repose. Morisot’s painting is striking because she depicts women out and about, not confined to a garden persey, but out in the open (two women and a small female child). In both paintings, the women depicted appear to be of high class, since the woman in Manet’s painting has a servant and the two women in Morisot’s painting have parasols indicating that they have enough money for accoutrements. Manet’s painting is a classic gaze painting, meaning there are tones of voyeurism but that the subject gazes back at the viewer with her head held high as though she were not indeed naked. In Morisot’s painting, there is a marked distance between the subjects and the viewer allowing the viewer more freedom to gaze upon these women and their stares do not penetrate the canvas back toward the viewer. It is interesting to note that Manet’s painting depicts a nude woman who stares blatantly back at the viewer while Morisot’s painting depicts clothed women who do note even recognize the viewer’s presence into their world. Thus, the difference between and male and female painters is taken note of in this instance: The female painter does not allow her subjects to look back while the male painter has a fully nude woman strongly gaze upon the viewer.

Thursday, October 3, 2019

The World Is Flat Flattener Information Technology Essay

The World Is Flat Flattener Information Technology Essay The World Is Flat is an international bestselling book by Thomas Friedman that analyzes globalization, primarily in the early 21st century. The title is a metaphor for viewing the world as a level playing field in terms of commerce, where all competitors have an equal opportunity. Globalization became more prominent during the last decades. Friedman argues that globalization made the world smaller and flatter, allowing all countries to take chance of the available opportunities equally. As Friedman describes in The World is Flat there are three eras of globalization and ten flatteners which made the world smaller, making it easier to communicate and share our knowledge. This paper deals with the flattener number 2 i.e.; When the NetScape went Public and associated developments after 2003 till date. Background Thomas Lauren Friedman is an American journalist, columnist and author and has won the Pulitzer Prize three times. In his famous book The World is Flat he identifies three eras of globalization. The first era, called Globalization 1.0,between the years 1492, when Columbus set out to discover a new trade route to the New World, and 1800, made the world fall in size from large to medium. During this period, the strength of a country was based on the number of horsepower or the number of steam engines owned, compared with other countries. The second period Globalization 2.0, between the years 1800 and 2000, decreased the size of the world, from medium to low. Multinational companies were the integration force, and the power was given to a company by the level of innovation in the field of machinery and equipment. Last era Globalization 3.0 began around the year 2000. If the first two periods led to globalization at the country level and, later, at the company level, this new period favorized reduction to a very small world, flattening the playing field and putting the individual in the centre(Friedman, 2007, pp 25-26). Globalization has been maintained by the action of some flattening factors that favoured the levelling of the World and the emergence of some opportunities that could increase welfare if successfully exploited. One of these factors is the event on 09/08/1995, the Netscape Company was to give life the Internet by creating the first commercially and well known web browser, facilitating web browsing culture definition to general public. Objectives The main objective of this paper is to investigate the contribution and after effects of flattener number 2 in make the world flatten during the period 2003 to 2012. Methodology Data for this report were gathered from 3rd December 2012 to 18th January 2013. The data was collected by research online and in college library. Procedure The procedure involved in analysis of the facts and authentication of information given in each report and article available in online and in college library. The main agenda is to capture all the contribution and after effects of Netscape internet explorer in making the world flatten from 2003 to till date. Findings Flattener #2 is shifting us from a PC-based platform to an Internet-based platform. The concept of World Wide Web was developed by British computer scientist Berners-Lee. Berners-Lee is someone who certainly helped to flatten the world. Berners-Lee explains that the web is an imaginary space of information. On the Net, we will find computers and the connections are cables between computers. On the Web, we will find documents, videos, sounds etc like information and the connections are hypertext links. The Web exists because of programs which communicate between computers on the Net. People are really interested in information; they dont really want to have to know about computers and cables. In the early 1990s, Berners-Lee created the programming language for writing WebPages called HTML. The 1st website by Berners-Lee was at http://info.cern.ch and was 1st put up on August 6, 1991. It was the 1st website ever. It explained how the WWW worked, how one could own a browser, and how setting up a Web server. 1st widely popular commercial browser was created by a tiny start-up company in Mountain View, California, called Netscape. Netscape went public on August 9, 1995 at the price of $28. Netscape and the Web broadened the audience for the Internet from its roots as a communications medium used primarily by early adopters and geeks to something that made the Internet accessible to everyone from five-year-olds to ninety-five-year-olds. The digitization that took place meant that everyday occurrences such as words, files, films, music, and pictures could be accessed and manipulated on a computer screen by all people across the world. The more alive the Internet became, the more different people wanted to do different things on the Web. So people demanded computers, s/w and telecommunications networks. This demand was satisfied by the rollout of Windows 95. Windows 95 become the operating system used by most people worldwide. Friedman recognizes the publication of Netscape and Windows 95 as a huge flattening force. What Netscape did was bring a new killer app -the browser to this installed base of PCs, making the computer and its connectivity inherently more useful for millions of people. This in turn set off an explosion in demand for all things digital and sparked the Internet boom. This development, in turn, wired the whole world together, and without, anyone really planning it, made Bangalore a suburb of Boston. Now Netscape is known as Firefox. The second flattener gave people a way to cheaply distribute and retrieve content digitally. Basically, the second flattener consisted of 3 events: (1) The Internet emerged (low-cost connectivity among PC users); (2) The World Wide Web emerged (PC users can post their digital content for anyone to access); and (3) The commercial Web Browser emerged (PC users can retrieve documents or Web pages stored in Web sites). Everyone could use the Internet, thus consumers wanted more to do on the Internet. One of the benefits of Netscape was it was available to everyone and people didnt have to continually pay for it (after they bought the browser). The Internet boom leads to over-investments. For instance, the fiber-optic cable companies invested in making mass amounts of fiber-optic systems. The companies didnt realize that almost everyone was using the Internet and they didnt need to make anymore fiber-optic systems. Netscape was the first highly successful browser, and it could work on an IBM PC, an Apple MacIntosh, or a Unix computer, insuring that people could communicate with each other no matter what computer they were on. Netscapes browser made millions of existing computers and connectivity much more useful, and reinforced the free flow of information. Freidman concludes that browser technology was one of the most important inventions in modern history. Together with the Internet and Web, Netscape allowed more people to communicate and interact with each other than had ever happened in the world before. There is an interesting quote when you give people a new way to connect with other people, they will punch through any technical barrierà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦people are wired to want to connect with other people and they find it objectionable not to be able to. (Marc Andreessen : The World is Flat : 65) Lets look at each one of these developments. Marc Andreessen, a brilliant young computer scientist, developed the 1st really effective, easy-to-use Web browser, called Mosaic. His company called Mosaic Communications later renamed to Netscape communications. Marc Andreessen did not invent the Internet or the World Wide Web, but he certainly played a historic role in helping to bring them alive. Netscapes 1st commercial browser was released in December 1994, and within a year it completely dominated the market. People were downloading it for 3-month trials. Thus Netscape played important flattening role. In addition to the Netscape browser, other standardizations further simplified communications among computers. Berners Lee and other scientists had developed a series of open protocols mainly FTP, HTTP,HTML,SSL,SMTP,POP, and TCP/IP. Together they form a system for transporting data around the Internet and World Wide Web in a relatively secure manner, no matter what network your company or household has or what computer or cell phone or handheld device you are using. Each protocol had a different function. TCP/IP was the basic plumbing of the Internet, or the basic railroad tracks, on which everything else above it was built and moved around. FTP moved files. SMTP and POP moved e-mail messages, so that they could be written and read on different e-mail systems. HTML allowed ordinary people to author Web pages. HTTP enabled people to connect to HTML documents on Web. SSL provide security for Web-based transactions. By the late 1990s the Internet computing platform became integrated. Soon anyone was able to connect with anyone else anywhere on any machine. This integration was a huge flattener. Generally, people take long time to change their habits and learn new technology. But in the case of Internet, they did it quickly and ten years later there were 800 million people on the internet, because people always want to connect with other people. People will change their habits quickly when they have a strong reason to do so, and people have an innate urge to connect with other people. (Marc Andreessen : The World is Flat : 65) Flattener 2 is responsible for the birth of AOL (Netscape was sold to AOL), newer versions of PC-Windows, Google, Yahoo and dot.com boom. Netscape going public stimulated a lot of things. one is, degree of overinvestment. Every sillier and sillier idea got funded. Digitization made investors to believe that demand for internet usage and internet-related products would be infinite. Digitization is a magic process by which words, music, data, films, files and pictures are turn into bits and bytes- combinations of 1s and 0s- that can be manipulated on a computer screen, stored on a microprocessor, or transmitted over satellites and fiber-optic lines. Thus mail digitized as e-mail, camera to digital camera, buy and browse books digitally on amazon.com, digital library, digitized music.. In a news conference at 1999 World Economic Forum, Microsoft chairman Bill Gates told that these Internet stocks going to drive innovation faster and faster. Gates compared Internet to the gold rush. The Internet stock boom causes overinvestment in fiber-optic cable companies. They laid massive amounts of fiber-optic cable on land and under the oceans, which reduced cost of making a phone call or transmitting data anywhere in the world. The 1st installation of a fiber-optic system was in 1977.Optcal cables can carry digitized packets of information over long distances. Fiber-optic cable is used for secure communications, because it is very difficult to tap. The capacity of all the already installed fiber cables just keeps growing, making it cheaper and easier to transmit voices and data to any part of the world. The first transoceanic fiber-optic cables were laid between the United States, United Kingdom and France in 1988. The first transpacific cables were laid down in 1989 and connected the U.S., Hawaii, Guam and Japan. Fiber optic cables made it possible for Web users to connect and communicate with people at long distances. The installation of under-water cables was the first step to uniting all corners of the world. The perception of distance became much smaller. Now anyone could get on the Internet and communicate with someone half way around the world in less than seconds. Not only could you just talk to oth er countries, but with advancements in computer capabilities, you could also have a face to face conversation with them. The world became much smaller and flatter. *Smith, D. R. (2004). Digital Transmission Systems. Norwell, Ma: Kluwer Academic Publishing. The dot-com bubble was created by over-estimated values of Internet companies. Everyone jumped on the band wagon when the expected profits seemed to just keep growing. People were investing with the faith that one day those companies would reach their quota and so much more. In 2000 to 2001, the bubble burst, which resulted in a drop in investments and economic growth (Becker, 2008).* One of the biggest fall-outs was in the business of fiber optic cables. Everyone underestimated the efficiency and capabilities of fiber optic cables. When they turned out to have a much larger capacity than companies needed it became practically free to use them. This created opportunities for countries who couldnt afford to buy the cables outright. India was one such country that used the access of the Internet to globalize very fast in order to catch up with the rest of the world, and catch up they did. *Becker, A. (2008). Electronic commerce: concepts, methodologies, tools and applications (Vol. I). Hershey, Pa: Information Science Reference. It also allowed the telecommunications giants such as the Baby Bells and ATT to provide both phone service and infrastructure for internet. Global crossing was founded in 1977 by Gary Winnick and went public the next year. The telecom deregulation of 1996 allowed local exchange carriers to build their own data transmission capacities. The Internet-e-mail-browser phase flattened the earth a little bit more. In short, the Apple-PC-Windows phase and Netscape browsing-e-mail phase together enabled communication and interaction with people anywhere on the planet. Now thanks to the internet, we dont have to travel distances to meet face to face since we are interconnected with everyone everywhere. The day Netscape went public opened up the World Wide Web so that almost anyone could navigate the Internet without problems. This user-friendly browser made accessing the plethora of information on the Internet open to everyone. There existed browsers for searching the web prior to Netscape, but they were not as simple and easy to use. Now anyone who could read had access to the internet. Knowledge is power, and people got addicted to this easy learning tool. It gave individuals the power to take their lives into their own hands. The dot-com boom created a new and very different world. A world runs more by innovative individuals than by corporations. The birth of Mozilla On February 23, 1998, Netscape Communications Corporation created a project called Mozilla to co-ordinate the development of the Mozilla Application Suite, the open source version of Netscapes internet software, Netscape Communicator. Mozilla is a free software community best known for producing the Firefox web browser. The Mozilla community uses, develops, spreads and supports Mozilla products and works to advance the goals of the Open Web described in the Mozilla Manifesto. In addition to the Firefox browser, Mozilla also produces Firefox Mobile, the Firefox OS mobile operating system, the bug tracking system Bugzilla and a number of other projects. Originally, Mozilla aimed to be a technology provider for companies, such as Netscape, who would commercialize their open source code. When Netscapes parent company AOL drastically scaled back its involvement with Mozilla in July 2003, the Mozilla Foundation was launched as the legal steward of the project. Soon after, Mozilla deprecated the Mozilla Suite in favour of creating independent applications for each function, primarily the Firefox web browser and the Thunderbird email client, and moved to supply them direct to the public. Recently, Mozillas activities have expanded to include Firefox on mobile platforms, primarily Android, a mobile OS called Firefox OS, a web-based identity system called Mozilla Persona and a marketplace for HTML5 applications. In a report released in November of 2012, Mozilla reported that their total revenue for 2011 was $163 million, which was up 33% from $123 million in 2010. Mozilla noted that roughly 85% of their revenue comes from their contract with Google. Introduction of new free web browser Firefox Mozilla Firefox is a free and open source web browser developed for Microsoft Windows, OS X, Linux and Android coordinated by Mozilla Corporation and Mozilla Foundation. Firefox uses the Gecko layout engine to render web pages, which implements current and anticipated web standards. Gecko is a free and open source layout engine used in many applications developed by Mozilla. It is designed to support open Internet standards, and is used by different applications to display web pages and, in some cases, an applications user interface itself. Gecko offers a rich programming API that makes it suitable for a wide variety of roles in Internet-enabled applications, such as web browsers, content presentation, and client/server. Gecko is written in C++ and is cross-platform, and runs on various operating systems including BSDs, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, OS/2, AIX, OpenVMS, and Microsoft Windows. Its development is now overseen by the Mozilla Foundation and is licensed under version 2 of the Mozilla Public License. Gecko is the third most-common layout engine on the World Wide Web, As of October 2012, Firefox has approximately 20% to 24% of worldwide usage share of web browsers, making it the second or third most widely used web browser, according to different sources. According to Mozilla, Firefox counts with over 450 million users around the world. The browser has had particular success in Indonesia, Germany, and Poland, where it is the most popular browser with 65%, 47% and 47% of the market share, respectively. The Firefox project began as an experimental branch of the Mozilla project by Dave Hyatt, Joe Hewitt and Blake Ross. They believed the commercial requirements of Netscapes sponsorship and developer-driven feature creep compromised the utility of the Mozilla browser. To combat what they saw as the Mozilla Suites software bloat, they created a stand-alone browser, with which they intended to replace the Mozilla Suite. On April 3, 2003, the Mozilla Organization announced that they planned to change their focus from the Mozilla Suite to Firefox and Thunderbird. The Firefox project has undergone several name changes. Originally titled Phoenix, it was renamed because of trademark problems with Phoenix Technologies. The replacement name, Firebird, provoked an intense response from the Firebird free database software project. In response, the Mozilla Foundation stated that the browser should always bear the name Mozilla Firebird to avoid confusion with the database software. After further pressure from the database servers development community, on February 9, 2004, Mozilla Firebird became Mozilla Firefox, often referred to as simply Firefox. Mozilla prefers that Firefox be abbreviated as Fx or fx, though it is often abbreviated as FF. The Firefox project went through many versions before version 1.0 was released on November 9, 2004.On October 5, 2012, Mozilla released the Metro interface version of Firefox, included in the Nightly 18 build, to be used in Windows 8. In a flat world, the importance of comparative advantage disappears. Bhagwati (2010) argued that, although global capital markets led to decreasing interest rate differences between different countries and even multinational companies have facilitated technology transfer between countries, the differences remain due to culture and politics. An example is the political regime from China, which has undermined software development. PC (Communist Party) in China is irreconcilable with the PC (personal computer) of U.S. origin. But unlike China, which occupies a leading position in hardware production, India is better at programming and not at the hardware, thanks to the recently opened Indian autarchic regime following the 1991 reforms (Guha and Ray 2004, pp 301-302). The other obstacle in the flattening process, but an obstacle which can both accelerate or decelerate the global integration, is the national culture. The more resistant to globalization the local culture is, the higher the chances of isolation are and the probability that the community will crush because of the internal conflicts. Rà ©gis Debray (in Matthew, 2007) lists two reasons behind the crisis of the world culture: rapid population growth and the local retreat which the technological globalization is fuelling as the world begins to resemble more, the people are trying to distinguish between them more through local cultures, leading to an increased nationalistic feeling. The fierce criticism of the flattening earth theory is related to increased income disparities, both in developing and developed countries. For example, the poor countries, where the financial markets restrict access to capital for people with low incomes, the investments are extremely low and growth is inhibited. Thus, globalization tends to favour increased income disparities, since the main beneficiaries of globalization are those that have already wealthy capital and higher education or, at the country level, citizens of developed countries, where are healthy and stable institutions. Birdsall (2005, p. 33-36) proposes reforming global institutions like the World Bank or International Monetary Fund, so they can truly represent the interests of poor countries. They are the ones that have mechanisms to manage the implementation of a social contract model to increase access to educational opportunities for the poor and creating sound and stable institutions in developing countries. F or now, the votes are non-democratically allocated in these institutions. Europeans always choose the IMF president and Americans the WB president. In addition, most of the time, people in their management have no experience in solving the problems they face, since the holding of such functions are not related to previous work experience (Stiglitz, 2006, September 10). The Birdsalls second recommendation proposes the creation of global rules that correct market failures, environmental protection (eg Kyoto Protocol), support markets from poor countries to overcome financial risks (IMF) and deter corruption and other anticompetitive practices. The same argument the disparities of income growth was brought by Stiglitz (2006, September 10) to contradict Friedmans vision. He said that globalization can be felt only in terms of transport and communications costs decrease. Regarding economic development, he gave the example of the Republic of Moldova that although it experiences a transition period from communist regime, its GDP has decreased by 70% in 2005 and has spent about three quarters of GDP for foreign debt. Internet Abuse The internet has become a fundamental part of many peoples day-to-day working lives. As with the introduction of other mass communication technologies, issues surrounding use, abuse and addiction in the workplace have surfaced (Griffiths, 2002; Weatherbee, 2009). It is not uncommon for office workers to spend workplace time on various non-work activities (e.g. booking holidays, shopping online, bidding in online auctions, e-mailing friends/romantic partners, etc.). According to a survey by the International Data Corporation (Snapshot Spy, 2008), up to 40 per cent of internet access in the workplace is spent on non-work related browsing, and 60 per cent of all online purchases are made during working hours. The same survey also reported that 90 per cent of employees felt the internet can be addictive, and 41 per cent admitted to personal internet surfing at work for more than three hours per week. Internet abuse at work can lead to a decrease in productivity, network clogging, and an increase in the incidents of security breaches at an organization (Pee et al., 2008; Clayburgh and Nazareth, 2009; Weatherbee, 2009). Activities and consequences such as these highlight that internet abuse is a potentially serious cause of concern for employers. It has been claimed that excessive internet use can be pathological and addictive (Widyanto and Griffiths, 2006) and that such behaviour comes under the more generic label of technological addiction (Griffiths, 1995, 1998). It has been argued that behavioural addictions are no different from chemical addictions (e.g. alcoholism, and heroin addiction) in terms of the core components of addiction such as salience, tolerance, withdrawal, mood modification, conflict, and relapse. Research into internet addiction suggests that it does indeed exist but that it affects only a very small minority of users (Widyanto and Griffiths, 2006, 2009). These are usually people who use internet chat rooms or play fantasy role playing games activities that they would not engage in except on the internet itself. To some extent, these internet users are engaged in text-based virtual realities and take on other social personas and social identities as a way of making them feel good about themselves. In such cases, the medium of the internet may provide an alternative reality to the user and allow them feelings of immersion and anonymity, feelings that may lead to an altered state of consciousness for the user. This in itself may be highly psychologically and/or physiologically rewarding. There appear to be many people who use the internet excessively but are not addicted as measured by addiction criteria. Most people researching in the field have failed to use stringent criter ia for measuring addiction (Widyanto and Griffiths, 2006). Internet as an advertising medium Internet penetration rate in the U.S. reached 67.8% in 2005 (Internet World Stats, 2005), which translated to $133.3 billion in e-commerce revenues (Kumar Shah, 2004). In April 2006 the penetration rate hit new high and reached 73% (Madden, 2006). Broadband penetration in the U.S. rose to 63.8% in October 2005 and is expected to reach 70% in 2006 (U.S. Passes Singapore to 15th, 2005). The growing availability and usage of Internet, particularly broadband Internet, has created a large audience for Internet advertising. More people are spending more time online. The Internet has reached well beyond the critical mass to be considered a medium economically viable for advertisers. The uncertainty that once hung over online commerce has given way to steady, or even robust, growth (Hyland, 2004). Internet companies, as well as traditional firms selling online, are making real revenue. A research study in 2004 showed that 79% of online retailers were making money, with a 21% average margin (Ramsey, 2004). It is expected total online sales in 2006 will increase 20% to $211 billion (Online sales expected to rise, 2006). With the rise of Internet audiences and online e-commerce activities, the Internet is prospering as an advertising medium. Internet advertising revenues in the United States totaled more than $1.5 billion in 2005, a 30% increase over 2004 (Interactive Advertising Bureau [IAB], 2006). Internet advertising accounted for about 5% of total U.S. advertising revenues in 2005 and nearly matched total consumer magazine advertising. Web Accessibility Few people are aware of the term web accessibility. In the short-life time of the web visual aesthetics has been the design goal, rather than equal access. Web accessibility is the practice of making web sites accessible to people who require more than just traditional web browsers to access the internet. For example, a visually impaired user can use a screen reader to translate text and graphics on the computer screen to an audio format so the user hears the screen content via a speech synthesizer or sound card. An accessible web site is designed to accommodate a wider set of ways users can access the site. However, designing a web site with accessibility not only serves people with disabilities, but also results in a wider set of benefits for everyone. Twitter New media for information sharing Twitter is a micro blogging service commands more than 41 million users as of July 2009 and is growing fast. Twitter users tweet about any topic within the 140-character limit and follow others to receive their tweets. Twitter has emerged as a new medium in spotlight through recent happenings, such as an American student jailed in Egypt and the US Airways plane crash on the Hudson river. Twitter users follow others or are followed. Unlike on most online social networking sites, such as Facebook or MySpace, the relationship of following and being followed requires no reciprocation. A user can follow any other user, and the user being followed need not follow back. Being a follower on Twitter means that the user receives all the messages (called tweets) from those the user follows. Common practice of responding to a tweet has evolved into well-defined mark-up culture: RT stands for retweet, @ followed by a user identifier address the user, and # followed by a word represents a hashtag. This well-defined mark-up vocabulary combined with a strict limit of 140 characters per posting conveniences users with brevity in expression. The retweet mechanism empowers users to spread information of their choice beyond the reach of the original tweets followers. Social Network A social network is a social structure made up of a set of actors such as individuals or organizations and the dyadic ties between these actors. The social network perspective provides a clear way of analyzing the structure of whole social entities. The study of these structures uses social network analysis to identify local and global patterns, locate influential entities, and examine network dynamics. In 2002, social networking hit really its stride with the launch of Friendster. Friendster used a degree of separation concept similar to that of the now-defunct SixDegrees.com, refined it into a routine dubbed the Circle of Friends wherein the pathways connecting two people are displayed, and promoted the idea that a rich online community can exist only between people who truly have common bonds. And it ensured there were plenty of ways to discover those bonds. An interface that shared many of the same traits one would find at an online dating site certainly didnt seem to hurt. (CEO Jonathan Abrams actually refers to his creation as a dating site that isnt about dating.) And, just a year after its launch, Friendster boasted more than three million registered users and a ton of investment interest. Though the service has since seen more than its fair share of technical difficulties, questionable management decisions, and a resulting drop in its North American fortunes, it remains a force in Asia and, curiously, a near-necessity in the Philippines. Introduced just a year later in 2003, LinkedIn took a decidedly more serious, sober approach to the social networking phenomenon. Rather than being a mere playground for former classmates, teenagers, and cyberspace Don Juans, LinkedIn was, and still is, a networking resource for businesspeople who want to connect with other professionals. In fact, LinkedIn contacts are referred to as connections. Today, LinkedIn boasts more than 175 million members. More than tripling that number, according to recent estimates, is MySpace, also launched in 2003. Though it no longer resides upon the social networking throne in many English-speaking countries that honour now belongs to Facebook just about everywhere MySpace remains the perennial favourite in the USA. It does so by tempting the key young adult demographic with music, music videos, and a funky, feature-filled enviro